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电子化学习(e-Learning)术语表

2005-10-12  duane1982
电子化学习(e-Learning)术语表

E-LEARNING新技术术语定义
E-LEARNING NEW TECHNOLOGY DEFINITIONS
资料来源:BRANDONHALL.COM 翻译邹永强

  • AICC
    These standards apply to the development, delivery, and evaluation of training courses that are delivered via technology. The Aviation Industry CBT [Computer-Based Training] Committee (AICC) is an international association of technology-based training professionals that develops training guidelines for the aviation industry.

    AICC [Aviation Industry CBT [Computer-Based Training] Committee]
    这套标准适用于对通过技术手段进行的培训进行开发、传播和评估。航空工业计算机培训委员会(AICC)是一个航空工业领域的计算机培训专家们组成的国际协会。

  • API
    An Application Program Interface (API) is a language and message format built into an application that allows it to communicate with operating systems or other computer programs such as database management programs, ERP applications, etc. APIs provide a way for computer applications to speak to each other and work together, sharing data and functionalities

    API [An Application Program Interface]
    应用程序界面是一种语言及信息格式,能让一种计算机应用和操作系统或其他计算机程序,如数据管理程序、ERP应用等进行沟通交流。应用程序界面提供了一种让不同的计算机互相交流、协同工作并共享数据和函数的方式。

  • ARCS
    Keller‘s theory of motivation, which includes attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction.

    ARCS [attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction.]
    Keller的激励理论,包括:引起注意、提供相关性、建立自信和获得满足。

  • ASP
    An Application Service Provider (ASP) is a company that offers access, over the Internet, to software applications that would otherwise need to be located on a client‘s own computer. Using ASP applications frees a company from the cost and effort of software installation and upgrades since the application resides on the ASP‘s servers. (for more information on ASPs, see
    Learning Management Systems 2001)

    ASP [Application Service Provider]
    应用服务提供商(ASP)是提供通过互联网接入软件应用的公司,否则那些应用软件就要安装在客户自己的计算机里。由于该应用位于应用服务提供商服务器上,使用该应用的公司得以免除软件安装和升级的成本和辛苦。

  • Asynchronous
    Asynchronous e-Learning happens when communication between people does not occur simultaneously. Some examples of asynchronous e-Learning include taking a self-paced course, exchanging e-mail messages with a mentor, and posting messages to a discussion group.
    The advantages of asynchronous learning are convenience, accessibility, and the fact that it is self-paced.
    The disadvantages of asynchronous learning are that the student may feel isolated or be less motivated without any real-time human interaction. In addition, asynchronous e-Learning does not provide immediate feedback on a student’s performance, leaving adjustments to training until after an evaluation is completed.
    See also Synchronous .

    异步学习 [Asynchronous]
    人们不能进行同步交流时的学习就称为异步学习。异步学习的例子包括自定步骤学习课程、和导师交换电子邮件信息、在讨论组上张贴信息。
    异步学习的优势是方便、易接近,同时它也确实由个人自定学习步骤。
    异步学习的劣势是:学生们会感到被孤立或由于缺乏人际实时互动而不那么积极。另外,异步电子学习不能提供对学生的表现的及时反馈,对培训的调整在评估完成之后。

  • Authoring Tool
    A software application, used by non-programmers, that utilizes a metaphor (book, or flow chart) to create on-line courses. (for more information on authoring tools, see Authoring Tools Buyer‘s Guide; and Authoring Tools Strategy Report)

    编辑工具 [Authoring Tool]
    一种软件应用,主要由被非程序员应用,它利用比喻(书或者流程图)来创建在线课程。

  • Behavior
    An action that is an overt, observable, measurable performance.

    行为 [Behavior]
    行为是一种公开的、可观察的、能衡量的表现。

  • Business Requirements
    Business requirements define conditions that any acceptable solution should meet. Business requirements identify the needs of the learner, manager and training administrator regarding what the system can do for them. (for more information on this topic, see How to Identify and Document Business Requirements for LMS Selection)
    See also System Requirements.

    商业需求 [Business Requirements]
    商业需求确定了任何可接受的解决方案必须满足的条件。它根据系统能为学习者、管理者和培训主管做什么而确认了他们的需求。

  • CBT
    Computer-based training, typically delivered on CD-ROM, or from a mainframe.

    CBT [Computer-based training]
    基于计算机的培训,典型应用是通过CD-ROM或主机来进行的。

  • Collaborative Tools
    Collaborative Tools allow learners to work with others via e-mail, threaded discussions, or chat. In some cases, collaboration is used on team-based projects. Collaborative tools can sometimes provide the ability to host moderated discussion groups where students and instructors can collaborate on course-related materials or assignments in an asynchronous environment. In addition, real-time synchronous chat allows learners to communicate with their peers and instructors, emulating a physical classroom setting. (for more information on collaborative tools, see Collaboration Tools for E-Learning)

    协作工具 [Collaborative Tools]
    协同工具允许学习者通过电子邮件、专题讨论组或聊天的形式来与他人协作。在有些案例里,协作被用于基于团队的项目。协同工具有时候能帮助做到主持中等规模的讨论小组,在讨论中学生们和教师能在一种异步的环境里对与课程有关的资料和作业进行探讨。另外,实时的同步聊天允许学习者们和他们的同伴和教师沟通,其效果可以与坐在教室里相匹敌。

  • Competency Management
    Competency Management is used to identify skills, knowledge and performance within an organization. Such a system lets an organization spot gaps and introduce appropriate training, compensation and recruiting programs based on current or future needs. (for more information on competency management systems, see Learning Management Systems 2001)
    能力管理 [Competency Management]
    能力管理是用于确定组织中的技巧、知识和表现。这个系统能让组织发现差距,根据当前或将来的需求开展适当的培训,进行补充或招募计划。
    Content gathering
    The process of gathering all of the content required to teach instruction. The designer will work closely with the SME during this process and will independently identify “dead wood.”
    内容搜集 [Content gathering]
    搜集所有教学中需要的内容的过程。设计者在该过程中将与学科问题专家密切合作,并且将独立地确定内容有用与否。

  • Content Management System
    Content Management Systems (CMS) are used to store and subsequently find and retrieve large amounts of data. Content Management Systems work by indexing text, audio clips, images, etc., within a database. In addition, CMS often provide version control and check in/check out capabilities. Using robust built-in search capabilities, users can quickly find a piece of content from within a database by typing in keywords, the date the element was created, the name of the author, or other search criteria.Content Management Systems are often used to create information portals for organizations and can serve as the foundation for the practice of knowledge management. They can also be used to organize documents and media assets. For example, a newspaper agency may use a content management system to provide an archive of every story ever written for the paper. Likewise, they might use the CMS to provide an extensive library of photographs that are reusable for future stories. (for more information on this topic, see Learning Content Management Systems)

    内容管理系统 [Content Management System]
    内容管理系统(CMS)用于存储大量的数据,并进而发现和重新找回它们。内容管理系统通过一个数据库里的索引文献、音频剪辑、图像等工作。另外,它常常提供版本控制和登录及检验功能。通过强大的内置搜索功能,只需键入关键词、元素创建的时间、作者的姓名或其他搜索标准,用户可以很快的在数据库里找到微不足道的内容。
    内容管理系统常常用于创造企业组织的信息入口,可以作为知识管理应用的基础。它们可以用于组织文档和媒体资产。例如,一个报纸的代理商也许会用内容管理系统来形成每一条新闻的档案。同样的,他们可以用其来提供一个为未来新闻服务的可复用的大型图片库。
    Criterion-reference test
    Items designed to measure performance for one objective.
    标准参考测试 [Criterion-reference test]
    被设计用来衡量某种表现是否符合目标。

  • Discussion Forums
    Not to be confused with a chat application where people exchange typed messages in real time, discussion forums allow people to communicate about various topics by posting messages and replies to messages under the heading of a particular topic.
    A collection of messages and replies about a topic is often referred to as a thread. (join our discussion groups on LMS, AT, Evaluation, and International Training at www.brandon-hall.com/disgroup.html)

    论坛讨论组 [Discussion Forums]
    不要将之与人们敲击键盘即时交流的聊天室相混淆,论坛讨论组允许人们粘贴不同主题的文章并且在某个特殊的标题后面跟贴。这些文章和回贴的集合常被认为是一束信息。

  • Distance Learning
    Instruction provided by a human separated by place.

    远程学习 [Distance Learning]
    由地理上分隔的人提供的教学

  • Entry behavior
    Specific competencies a learner must possess in order to master new content.

    入门活动 [Entry behavior]
    学习者必须拥有这种特定的能力以掌握更新的内容。

  • EPSS
    Electronic performance support system (typically used for software applications).

    EPSS [Electronic performance support system]
    电子绩效支持系统(尤其是应用于软件应用)

  • ERP/HRIS
    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is an industry term for large, often multi-module software applications that manage many facets of a company‘s operations including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service, tracking orders, and managing resources and financials. SAP, PeopleSoft, and J.D. Edwards are some well-known ERP providers.Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) are similar to ERP applications but are aimed specifically at the management of a company‘s human resources.

    ERP/HRIS [Enterprise Resource Planning/ Human Resource Information Systems]
    企业资源计划(ERP)是一个关于大型的、常常是多模块软件应用的行业术语,这些软件管理了公司运作的很多方面,包括产品计划、零件交易、存货管理、与供应商联系、提供客户服务、跟踪记录以及管理资源和财务。SAP, PeopleSoft, and J.D. Edwards是一些较有名的提供商。
    人力资源信息系统(HRIS)和ERP应用很相似,但它尤其针对公司的人力资源管理。

  • Feedback
    Information provided to learners about the correctness of their response (different from remediation).

    反馈 [Feedback]
    向学习者提供它们的回答正确与否的信息(不同于补习辅导)。

  • Formative evaluation
    Evaluation designed to improve a program while the program is being developed (quality assurance).

    形成性评价 [Formative evaluation]
    在课程开发的同时(有质量保证),被设计用来促进课程的评价。

  • Goal
    A broad general statement of course or instruction intent (higher than an objective).

    目标 [Goal]
    是一种对课程或教学意图广泛的一般意义上的介绍(比目标更高一个层次)

  • ILT
    Instructor-led training. Provides instruction in classroom or virtual classroom under the direction of an instructor or facilitator.

    ILT [Instructor-led training]
    教师指导下的培训。在课堂或虚拟课堂里,在教师或助教的引导下提供教学指导。

  • IMS
    The Instructional Management Systems (IMS) is a set of technical specifications defining how learning materials will be exchanged over the Internet and how organizations and individual learners will use these materials. Initiated by Educom and developed through a partnership of academic, commercial and government organizations, the goal of these specifications is the adoption of a set of open standards for Internet-based education.

    IMS [The Instructional Management Systems]
    教学管理系统(IMS)是一系列技术规范,定义了学习资料通过因特网的交换方式和公司及个人学员对这些资料的使用方式。该规范由Educom创始,通过一个包括学术、商业和政府组织在内的合作机构进行开发,这套规范的目的是促使人们采用一系列网络教育的开放标准。

  • Instructor-led Training vs. Classroom Training
    For a few years, most of us have referred to the traditional training that takes place in a classroom or workshop as Instructor-led training. However, with more and more collaboration, several organizations are providing an academic structure to their courses. They are now offering their tools in the corporate training space that are both online and instructor-led. Therefore, I think we should update our term to “classroom based” as the term for traditional training that takes place in a classroom without the benefit of technology.
    教师指导的培训VS 课堂培训 [Instructor-led Training vs. Classroom Training]
    很多年来,大多数人把在教室里或工作间里进行的培训称做教师指导的培训。然而,在越来越多的协作下,一些组织为他们的课程提供了一种学术框架。他们现在在公司的培训场所(包括在线的和教师指导下的)里加入了一些协作工具。所以,我觉得,我们应该及时更新“基于教室的”这个术语的含义,改为在教室里进行不采用技术辅助的传统培训。
  • Integrated Learning Management System See
    Learning Management System
    /Integrated Learning Management System

  • Instructional analysis
    Procedures to determine what type of skills or knowledge is required for a learner to achieve a goal.
    教学分析 [Instructional analysis]
    是一个决定学习者为了达到一定教学目的需要哪些知识和技能的过程。

  • Instructional strategy
    Plan of activities (with or without an instructor) to teach content and sequence learning experience.

    教学策略 [Instructional strategy]
    对教学内容和学习顺序等教学活动的计划安排(有或没有教师)。

  • Instructor guide
    A set of materials that provide direction, answers to tests, helpful hints, or any supplement information.
    教学指导 [Instructor guide]
    它是一套资料,提供学习指导、试卷答案、帮助性提示或任何补充信息。

  • ISD Model
    Instructional Systematic Design Model, developed in the 1960‘s provides a methodical process for the design and development of instruction.

    ISD模型 [Instructional Systematic Design Model]
    兴起于1960年代的教学系统设计模型(Instructional Systematic Design Model)为教学设计和促进教学提供了一种方法。

  • JDBC
    Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is an application program interface to connect programs written in Java to the data in popular databases. Whereas programs written for Microsoft, Windows, UNIX, OS/2, and Macintosh platforms often use the Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) standard, programs written in Java use JDBC. (for more information on this topic, see Learning Management Systems 2001)
    JDBC [Java Database Connectivity]

    Java数据库互联(Java Database Connectivity)是将用Java语言编写的程序连接至在公众数据库数据的应用程序界面。就像Microsoft, Windows, UNIX, OS/2, 和 Macintosh平台所支持的程序常常使用开放数据连接(ODBC)标准,用Java语言编写的程序则使用JDBC。

  • Job aid
    Often generated in paper or electronic format, used to relieve learner to rely on memory to remember a skill (typically procedure).
    工作帮助 [Job aid]
    通常采用书面或电子形式,用来减轻学习者对工作技能(尤其是过程之类)的记忆负担。

  • Kirkpatrick Training Evaluation
    Many years ago, Donald Kirkpatrick created four levels of evaluation for training. The first level answers the question: did the trainees like the training? The second level assesses whether they understood the material and could pass a test on it. The third level, usually involving a follow-up to the training six months down the road, examines whether the training changed the behavior of the trained. Level four evaluation tries to determine whether the training had a bottom-line impact on the company, i.e., did trainees sell more or waste less or somehow affect the financials of the company in a positive way as a result of the training.

    Kirkpatrick培训评估 [Kirkpatrick Training Evaluation]
    很多年以前,Donald Kirkpatrick创造了培训评估的四个层次。第一个层次回答了一下问题:被培训者喜欢培训吗?第二层次确定他们是否能够理解资料并通过测试。第三层次,通常是涉及到培训6个月之后的事,考察培训是否改变了被培训者的行为。第四层次决定了培训是否对公司有一个最低层次的影响,即被培训者在培训之后是否销售更多、浪费减少或在某种程度上通过积极的方式影响公司的财务状况。

  • Knowledge Management System
    A Knowledge Management System is an application that collects, stores, and makes information available among individuals in an organization. This system‘s primary purpose is to capture a company‘s collective knowledge and then make it simple to retrieve and re-use. A knowledge management system can help companies to avoid reinventing the wheel. It can also enhance the exchange and dissemination of understandings within an enterprise and can increase the level of collaboration between employees. (for a free white paper on the convergence of KM/ LM, see http://www.brandonhall.com/public/whitepapers/)

    知识管理系统 [Knowledge Management System]
    一套知识管理系统可以用于搜集、存储信息,使之能够被企业组织中的员工所使用。该系统的最初目的是搜集一个公司中的公共信息,使之更容易被重新找到并重复使用。一套知识管理系统能够帮助公司避免重蹈覆辙。它还可以提高信息的交换,传播企业内部的各种协议并促进企业员工之间的合作。

  • Learning Content Management System
    A learning content management system is an environment where developers can create, store, reuse, manage and deliver learning content from a central object repository, usually a database. LCMS generally work with content that is based on a learning object model. These systems usually have good search capabilities, allowing developers to find quickly the text or media needed to build training content.Learning Content Management Systems often strive to achieve a separation of content, which is often tagged in XML, from presentation. This allows many LCMS to publish to a wide range of formats, platforms, or devices such as print, Web, and even Wireless Information Devices (WID) such as Palm and windows CE handhelds, all from the same source material. (for more information on this topic, see Learning Content Management Systems)

    学习内容管理系统 [Learning Content Management System]
    借助一套学习内容管理系统,开发人员可以通过一个中央知识仓库,通常是数据库来创建、存储、重复使用、管理和传播学习内容。学习内容管理系统通常是在学习对象模式下处理内容。这些系统通常具有良好的搜索功能,让开发人员可以迅速地找到开发培训课程所需的内容和媒介。
    通常学习内容管理系统所要达到的目标是拆分内容,这些内容通常在介绍中用XML语言做了标记。这使得学习内容管理系统可以对同一学习源材料通过一系列广泛的格式来发布到各种平台、设备(例如打印设备)、网络甚至无线信息设备(掌上电脑和WINDOWS CE等)上去。

  • Learning Environment
    A Learning Environment is software designed as an all-in-one solution that can facilitate online learning for an organization. It includes the functions of a learning management system for those courses within the learning environment, but it may not be able to track online courses that were not created within this particular learning environment.
    A learning environment is characterized by an interface that allows students to register and take courses, staying within that environment for the duration of the course. The program will usually include some self-instructional portions, along with an academic model of a multi-week course. This model is often facilitated by an instructor, where a group can proceed on a week-to-week basis with seminar assignments. Most learning environments also include an authoring capability for creation of additional courses for the instructor.

    学习环境 [Learning Environment]
    学习环境是一种一揽子解决方案的软件,设计用来促进企业的在线学习。它包括了本学习环境中课程的学习管理系统应有的功能,但是不能跟踪非本学习环境中的课程。
    一套学习环境具有如下特征,有一个允许学生注册并选课的界面,在课程教学期间可以在该环境中停留。该程序通常包括一个持续数周的课程的学术模型和一些自学部分。该学术模型通常由一个教师推动,在该教学环境中学生可以通过小组举行讨论研习会。许多学习环境通常包括为教师创建课程方便而提供的编辑功能。
  • Learning Management System (LMS)
    A Learning Management System (LMS) is software that automates the administration of training events. All Learning Management Systems manage the log-in of registers users, manage course catalogs, record data from learners, and provide reports to management.
    There used to be a distinction between Learning Management Systems and more powerful Integrated Learning Management Systems. That distinction has now disappeared. The term Learning Management System is now used to describe a wide range of applications that track student training and may or may not include functions such as:
    Authoring
    Classroom management
    Competency management
    Knowledge management
    Certification or compliance training
    Personalization
    Mentoring
    Chat
    Discussion boards
    (for more information on this topic, see Learning Management Systems 2001)

    学习管理系统 [Learning Management System (LMS)]
    学习管理系统是一套自动管理各种培训活动的软件。所有的学习管理系统都管理注册用户登录信息,课程目录,记录各种来自学习者的数据,并向管理人员提供报告。
    学习管理系统和更加强大的综合性学习管理系统是有区别的。这些区别现在开始显现出来。学习管理系统这个术语现在用来描述跟踪学员的培训信息等一系列的应用,也可能包括下列功能:
    编辑
    课堂管理
    资格能力管理
    知识管理
    认证或者一致性培训
    个人标记
    指导
    聊天
    讨论板

  • Learning Object
    Learning objects (LO), also called Reusable Learning Objects, are not really a set technology, but rather a philosophy for how content can be created and deployed. Learning Objects refer to self-contained chunks of training content that can be assembled with other Learning Objects to create courses and curricula, much the same way a child‘s Lego blocks are assembled to create all types of structures.Learning Objects are designed to be used in multiple training contexts, aim to increase the flexibility of training, and make updating courses much easier to manage. Update a part of a learning object and the change should appear in any course using that Learning Object.
    The size of a Learning Object differs based on the instructional designer, from as small as a single page of content to as large as is required to contain an objective, presentation material, a practice section, and an assessment. (for more information on the use of learning objects, see Learning Content Management Systems)

    学习对象 [Learning Object][LO]
    学习对象(Learning Object)也称为“可复用学习对象“(Reusable Learning Object)与其说是一套技术,不如说是一套学习如何创建和配置内容的思想体系。学习对象指的是那些包含了培训内容的模块,这些模块能够和其他学习对象组合起来创建各种课程,很象小孩子用乐高积木搭起各种结构。
    学习对象可以用于多种培训场合,其目的是为了增加培训的灵活性,使课程更加易于维护管理。采用学习对象的课程在更新时只需要更新一个学习对象的某一部分,整个课程就会发生改变。
    学习对象的大小取决于教学设计者,小到只有一页纸的内容,大到包含一个目标、演讲材料,一个实验小节和一个测试。

  • Media
    Text, graphics, audio, video, or human element used to teach.

    媒体 [Media]
    用于教学的文本、图片、音品、视频或者人力要素

  • Module
    An integrated “theme” of content — typically one component of a course or a curriculum
    模块 [Module]
    一个完整的内容主题——经常是一堂课或者一门课程的一个部分。

  • Modality
    Delivery medium determined for the delivery of instruction. Ranges from ILT, CBT, WBT, and Distance Learning to paper-based, read-ahead packages, journals and peer modeling.
    形态 [Modality]
    教学传播的媒介,从ILT、CBT、WBT以及远程学习到纸质媒介、前期阅读材料、期刊杂志到学习者配对模型。

  • Needs assessment
    Formal process of identifying discrepancies between a learner‘s current performance vs. an organization‘s desired performance for that employee. Identify whether training is the solution.
    Pre-test and Post-test — tests that are given to learners prior to learning or post learning experience. Pre-test judges whether learners need to take training, or can “prescribe” what pieces of a course a learner must take. Post-test will provide remediation for reinforcement and sometimes reports back to management with scores.
    需求评估 [Needs assessment]
    一个确定学习者现有水平与企业期望的员工水平之间的矛盾的过程,以决定培训是否是解决问题的办法。
    前测(Pre-test)以及后测(Post-test)——分别在学习者学习之前和学完之后进行。前测用来判断学习者是否需要参加培训或者“指定”哪些课程学习者必须参加。后测将提供补充性的辅导,有些时候是返回给管理人员的学习成绩和报告。

  • ODBC
    Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is an application program interface to access information from numerous different types of databases including Access, dBase, DB2, etc. Although Microsoft Windows was the first to provide an ODBC product, versions now exist for UNIX, OS/2, and Macintosh platforms as well.

    ODBC [Open Database Connectivity]
    开放式数据库互连(Open Database Connectivity)提供一个应用程序界面,它可以通过各种不同类型的数据库访问信息,包括Access, dBase, DB2等。微软的WINDOWS是第一个提供ODBC的产品,现在UNIX,OS/2和Macintosh等操作平台都有其ODBC版本。


    QA
    Quality Assurance (QA) is a widely-used term to describe the techniques, processes, and workflows used to ensure that a company‘s products and services meet standards for excellence.

    QA [Quality Assuranc]
    质量保证(Quality Assuranc)是一个被广泛应用的术语,用于描述用来确保企业的产品和服务符合某种优质标准的技术、过程和工作流程。

  • Remediation
    Provides direction to students to review specific content in training program based on some performance criteria.

    辅导 [Remediation]
    用在一些有成绩标准的培训项目中,为学生复习特定的内容提供指导。

  • RFP
    A Request for Proposal (RFP) is a document produced by a company seeking goods and/or services and distributed to prospective vendors. Vendors then provide proposals based on the criteria specified within the RFP. A request for proposal forces the company seeking goods or services to identify its business and technical requirements. It also forces the vendor to state in writing to what extent they can meet the company‘s requirements. (for information on RFPs, see How to Develop a Request for Proposal for LMS Selection)

    RFP [Request for Proposal]
    需求方案说明书(Request for Proposal)由那些需要某种商品或服务的公司提出并分发给那些预期中可能的供应商。供应商随即提供针对该需求方案标准说明的提案。撰写需求方案说明书要求那些需要某种商品或者服务的公司确定他们在商业上和技术上的需求,同时要求供应商在文件中阐明他们能在多大程度上满足这些需求。

  • SCORM
    The Sharable Courseware Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a set of specifications that, when applied to course content, produces small, reusable learning objects. A result of the Department of Defense‘s Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative, SCORM-compliant courseware elements can be easily merged with other compliant elements to produce a highly modular repository of training materials. (for more information on this topic, see Learning Management Systems 2001)

    SCORM [The Sharable Courseware Object Reference Model]
    可共享课件对象参考模型(The Sharable Courseware Object Reference Model)是一套标准规范,应用于课程内容,小型产品以及可复用的学习对象。该标准来自美国国防部高级分布式学习(ADL)计划,与SCORM标准相容的课件单元能够轻松地和其他相容的单元结合起来制作出高度模块化的培训资料知识仓库。
    译者注:ADL网站上,SCORM指Sharable Content Object Reference Model——可分享内容对象参考模型,应以ADL为准。

  • Skill Gap Analysis
    A Skill Gap Analysis compares a person‘s skills to the skills required for the job to which they have been, or will be, assigned. The purpose is to identify clearly the skills employees need in order to succeed in their current or planned positions and to compare employee skills against those requirements. The result is an improved understanding of exactly which skills employees need to develop further. A simple Skill Gap Analysis consists of the list of skills required for a specific job along with a rating of the employee‘s level for each skill. Ratings below a certain predetermined level identify a skill gap.

    技能差距分析 [Skill Gap Analysis]
    技能差距分析比较个人技能与其从事或想要从事的工作所需技能之间的差距。目的是清楚地确定员工所需要的技能,使其能够在现在或将来的岗位上成功工作。分析结果是正确地理解哪些技能是员工在将来急需提升的。一个简单的技能差距分析包括一份从事特定工作所需技能的清单以及掌握每个技能所代表的员工水平级别。这些预先确定的水平层级确定了技能差距。

  • SME
    Subject Matter Expert who is an expert in the domain of the course. Critical component in the success of task analysis and content gathering.

    SME [Subject Matter Expert]
    学科问题专家(Subject Matter Expert)是该课程领域的专家,在内容搜集和任务分析时起关键作用。

  • Summative evaluation
    Used after an instructional program to determine worth of program and usefulness to learner.

    累积性评定 [Summative evaluation]
    在一个教学计划完成之后,采用该评定评估该教学计划的价值以及对学习者的有效性。

  • Synchronous
    Synchronous, or live e-Learning, means that communication occurs at the same time between individuals and information is accessed instantly. Examples of synchronous e-Learning include real-time chat, and video/audio conferencing.Synchronous e-Learning can provide instant feedback on a student‘s performance and allows the training to be adjusted immediately if needed. The disadvantages of synchronous e-Learning are that the training is not self-paced and the logistics of scheduling, time zones, and student availability need to be managed. (for more information on this topic, see How to Determine Readiness for Live E-Learning; and How to Choose a Live E-Learning Tool for Your Organization)
    See also Asynchronous.

    同步教学 [Synchronous]
    同步教学,或者称为实时E-learning,意味着个人之间的沟通是实时的,信息能够即时传达。典型的同步教学包括实时聊天和视频/音频会议等。
    同步教学可以针对学生的表现提供及时的反馈,可以根据需要迅速调整培训安排。同步教学E-learning的缺点在于培训不是学生自定步骤(self-paced)进行的,时区、后勤安排以及学生安排都需要进行管理。

  • System Requirements
    System requirements focus on the technological conditions including the operating system, programming language, database, hardware configuration, bandwidth, processing power, etc., required to run a software application correctly. Business requirements focus on the needs of people; system requirements focus on the needs of machines.
    See also Business Requirements.

    系统需求 [System Requirements]
    系统需求关注的是一个软件能够正确运行所需要的技术方面的各种要求,包括操作系统、程序语言、数据库、硬件配置、带宽、处理能力等。商业需求关注的是人的需要,系统需求关注的是机器的需要。

  • Task analysis
    Process by which an instructional designer (through observation, questionnaires, focus group sessions, or one-on-one Q&A with an SME) extrapolates the steps necessary to perform a skill or to build knowledge. Identifies learning objectives and sequence of instruction.

    任务分析 [Task analysis]
    教学设计者(通过观察、调查、召开专题会议、或者与学科问题专家进行一对一的答疑)推断学习某个知识或者技能必须经过的步骤,确定学习目的和教学顺序。
    译者注:相当于教学设计理论中的“教学目标分析”。

  • TBT
    Technology-based training. An all encompassing term that can include anything from online learning, CD-ROM, and use technology for learning, usually outside the classroom.

    TBT [Technology-based training]
    采用技术手段进行的培训。这个术语包含了在线学习、光盘学习和采用技术进行学习的所有内容。这种培训通常在课堂以外进行。

  • WBT
    Web-based training. This is “self-paced” training that is delivered using an Internet browser.

    WBT [Web-based training]
    基于网络的培训。这是一种基于网络浏览器呈现的“学习者自定步骤”的培训。
    http://www.brandonhall.com/public/glossary/index.htm

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