duane1982 / 网络学习 / 电子化学习(e-Learning)术语表




2005-10-12  duane1982


  • AICC
    These standards apply to the development, delivery, and evaluation of training courses that are delivered via technology. The Aviation Industry CBT [Computer-Based Training] Committee (AICC) is an international association of technology-based training professionals that develops training guidelines for the aviation industry.

    AICC [Aviation Industry CBT [Computer-Based Training] Committee]

  • API
    An Application Program Interface (API) is a language and message format built into an application that allows it to communicate with operating systems or other computer programs such as database management programs, ERP applications, etc. APIs provide a way for computer applications to speak to each other and work together, sharing data and functionalities

    API [An Application Program Interface]

  • ARCS
    Keller‘s theory of motivation, which includes attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction.

    ARCS [attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction.]

  • ASP
    An Application Service Provider (ASP) is a company that offers access, over the Internet, to software applications that would otherwise need to be located on a client‘s own computer. Using ASP applications frees a company from the cost and effort of software installation and upgrades since the application resides on the ASP‘s servers. (for more information on ASPs, see
    Learning Management Systems 2001)

    ASP [Application Service Provider]

  • Asynchronous
    Asynchronous e-Learning happens when communication between people does not occur simultaneously. Some examples of asynchronous e-Learning include taking a self-paced course, exchanging e-mail messages with a mentor, and posting messages to a discussion group.
    The advantages of asynchronous learning are convenience, accessibility, and the fact that it is self-paced.
    The disadvantages of asynchronous learning are that the student may feel isolated or be less motivated without any real-time human interaction. In addition, asynchronous e-Learning does not provide immediate feedback on a student’s performance, leaving adjustments to training until after an evaluation is completed.
    See also Synchronous .

    异步学习 [Asynchronous]

  • Authoring Tool
    A software application, used by non-programmers, that utilizes a metaphor (book, or flow chart) to create on-line courses. (for more information on authoring tools, see Authoring Tools Buyer‘s Guide; and Authoring Tools Strategy Report)

    编辑工具 [Authoring Tool]

  • Behavior
    An action that is an overt, observable, measurable performance.

    行为 [Behavior]

  • Business Requirements
    Business requirements define conditions that any acceptable solution should meet. Business requirements identify the needs of the learner, manager and training administrator regarding what the system can do for them. (for more information on this topic, see How to Identify and Document Business Requirements for LMS Selection)
    See also System Requirements.

    商业需求 [Business Requirements]

  • CBT
    Computer-based training, typically delivered on CD-ROM, or from a mainframe.

    CBT [Computer-based training]

  • Collaborative Tools
    Collaborative Tools allow learners to work with others via e-mail, threaded discussions, or chat. In some cases, collaboration is used on team-based projects. Collaborative tools can sometimes provide the ability to host moderated discussion groups where students and instructors can collaborate on course-related materials or assignments in an asynchronous environment. In addition, real-time synchronous chat allows learners to communicate with their peers and instructors, emulating a physical classroom setting. (for more information on collaborative tools, see Collaboration Tools for E-Learning)

    协作工具 [Collaborative Tools]

  • Competency Management
    Competency Management is used to identify skills, knowledge and performance within an organization. Such a system lets an organization spot gaps and introduce appropriate training, compensation and recruiting programs based on current or future needs. (for more information on competency management systems, see Learning Management Systems 2001)
    能力管理 [Competency Management]
    Content gathering
    The process of gathering all of the content required to teach instruction. The designer will work closely with the SME during this process and will independently identify “dead wood.”
    内容搜集 [Content gathering]

  • Content Management System
    Content Management Systems (CMS) are used to store and subsequently find and retrieve large amounts of data. Content Management Systems work by indexing text, audio clips, images, etc., within a database. In addition, CMS often provide version control and check in/check out capabilities. Using robust built-in search capabilities, users can quickly find a piece of content from within a database by typing in keywords, the date the element was created, the name of the author, or other search criteria.Content Management Systems are often used to create information portals for organizations and can serve as the foundation for the practice of knowledge management. They can also be used to organize documents and media assets. For example, a newspaper agency may use a content management system to provide an archive of every story ever written for the paper. Likewise, they might use the CMS to provide an extensive library of photographs that are reusable for future stories. (for more information on this topic, see Learning Content Management Systems)

    内容管理系统 [Content Management System]
    Criterion-reference test
    Items designed to measure performance for one objective.
    标准参考测试 [Criterion-reference test]

  • Discussion Forums
    Not to be confused with a chat application where people exchange typed messages in real time, discussion forums allow people to communicate about various topics by posting messages and replies to messages under the heading of a particular topic.
    A collection of messages and replies about a topic is often referred to as a thread. (join our discussion groups on LMS, AT, Evaluation, and International Training at www.brandon-hall.com/disgroup.html)

    论坛讨论组 [Discussion Forums]

  • Distance Learning
    Instruction provided by a human separated by place.

    远程学习 [Distance Learning]

  • Entry behavior
    Specific competencies a learner must possess in order to master new content.

    入门活动 [Entry behavior]

  • EPSS
    Electronic performance support system (typically used for software applications).

    EPSS [Electronic performance support system]

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is an industry term for large, often multi-module software applications that manage many facets of a company‘s operations including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service, tracking orders, and managing resources and financials. SAP, PeopleSoft, and J.D. Edwards are some well-known ERP providers.Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) are similar to ERP applications but are aimed specifically at the management of a company‘s human resources.

    ERP/HRIS [Enterprise Resource Planning/ Human Resource Information Systems]
    企业资源计划(ERP)是一个关于大型的、常常是多模块软件应用的行业术语,这些软件管理了公司运作的很多方面,包括产品计划、零件交易、存货管理、与供应商联系、提供客户服务、跟踪记录以及管理资源和财务。SAP, PeopleSoft, and J.D. Edwards是一些较有名的提供商。

  • Feedback
    Information provided to learners about the correctness of their response (different from remediation).

    反馈 [Feedback]

  • Formative evaluation
    Evaluation designed to improve a program while the program is being developed (quality assurance).

    形成性评价 [Formative evaluation]

  • Goal
    A broad general statement of course or instruction intent (higher than an objective).

    目标 [Goal]

  • ILT
    Instructor-led training. Provides instruction in classroom or virtual classroom under the direction of an instructor or facilitator.

    ILT [Instructor-led training]

  • IMS
    The Instructional Management Systems (IMS) is a set of technical specifications defining how learning materials will be exchanged over the Internet and how organizations and individual learners will use these materials. Initiated by Educom and developed through a partnership of academic, commercial and government organizations, the goal of these specifications is the adoption of a set of open standards for Internet-based education.

    IMS [The Instructional Management Systems]

  • Instructor-led Training vs. Classroom Training
    For a few years, most of us have referred to the traditional training that takes place in a classroom or workshop as Instructor-led training. However, with more and more collaboration, several organizations are providing an academic structure to their courses. They are now offering their tools in the corporate training space that are both online and instructor-led. Therefore, I think we should update our term to “classroom based” as the term for traditional training that takes place in a classroom without the benefit of technology.
    教师指导的培训VS 课堂培训 [Instructor-led Training vs. Classroom Training]
  • Integrated Learning Management System See
    Learning Management System
    /Integrated Learning Management System

  • Instructional analysis
    Procedures to determine what type of skills or knowledge is required for a learner to achieve a goal.
    教学分析 [Instructional analysis]

  • Instructional strategy
    Plan of activities (with or without an instructor) to teach content and sequence learning experience.

    教学策略 [Instructional strategy]

  • Instructor guide
    A set of materials that provide direction, answers to tests, helpful hints, or any supplement information.
    教学指导 [Instructor guide]

  • ISD Model
    Instructional Systematic Design Model, developed in the 1960‘s provides a methodical process for the design and development of instruction.

    ISD模型 [Instructional Systematic Design Model]
    兴起于1960年代的教学系统设计模型(Instructional Systematic Design Model)为教学设计和促进教学提供了一种方法。

  • JDBC
    Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is an application program interface to connect programs written in Java to the data in popular databases. Whereas programs written for Microsoft, Windows, UNIX, OS/2, and Macintosh platforms often use the Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) standard, programs written in Java use JDBC. (for more information on this topic, see Learning Management Systems 2001)
    JDBC [Java Database Connectivity]

    Java数据库互联(Java Database Connectivity)是将用Java语言编写的程序连接至在公众数据库数据的应用程序界面。就像Microsoft, Windows, UNIX, OS/2, 和 Macintosh平台所支持的程序常常使用开放数据连接(ODBC)标准,用Java语言编写的程序则使用JDBC。

  • Job aid
    Often generated in paper or electronic format, used to relieve learner to rely on memory to remember a skill (typically procedure).
    工作帮助 [Job aid]

  • Kirkpatrick Training Evaluation
    Many years ago, Donald Kirkpatrick created four levels of evaluation for training. The first level answers the question: did the trainees like the training? The second level assesses whether they understood the material and could pass a test on it. The third level, usually involving a follow-up to the training six months down the road, examines whether the training changed the behavior of the trained. Level four evaluation tries to determine whether the training had a bottom-line impact on the company, i.e., did trainees sell more or waste less or somehow affect the financials of the company in a positive way as a result of the training.

    Kirkpatrick培训评估 [Kirkpatrick Training Evaluation]
    很多年以前,Donald Kirkpatrick创造了培训评估的四个层次。第一个层次回答了一下问题:被培训者喜欢培训吗?第二层次确定他们是否能够理解资料并通过测试。第三层次,通常是涉及到培训6个月之后的事,考察培训是否改变了被培训者的行为。第四层次决定了培训是否对公司有一个最低层次的影响,即被培训者在培训之后是否销售更多、浪费减少或在某种程度上通过积极的方式影响公司的财务状况。

  • Knowledge Management System
    A Knowledge Management System is an application that collects, stores, and makes information available among individuals in an organization. This system‘s primary purpose is to capture a company‘s collective knowledge and then make it simple to retrieve and re-use. A knowledge management system can help companies to avoid reinventing the wheel. It can also enhance the exchange and dissemination of understandings within an enterprise and can increase the level of collaboration between employees. (for a free white paper on the convergence of KM/ LM, see http://www.brandonhall.com/public/whitepapers/)

    知识管理系统 [Knowledge Management System]

  • Learning Content Management System
    A learning content management system is an environment where developers can create, store, reuse, manage and deliver learning content from a central object repository, usually a database. LCMS generally work with content that is based on a learning object model. These systems usually have good search capabilities, allowing developers to find quickly the text or media needed to build training content.Learning Content Management Systems often strive to achieve a separation of content, which is often tagged in XML, from presentation. This allows many LCMS to publish to a wide range of formats, platforms, or devices such as print, Web, and even Wireless Information Devices (WID) such as Palm and windows CE handhelds, all from the same source material. (for more information on this topic, see Learning Content Management Systems)

    学习内容管理系统 [Learning Content Management System]
    通常学习内容管理系统所要达到的目标是拆分内容,这些内容通常在介绍中用XML语言做了标记。这使得学习内容管理系统可以对同一学习源材料通过一系列广泛的格式来发布到各种平台、设备(例如打印设备)、网络甚至无线信息设备(掌上电脑和WINDOWS CE等)上去。

  • Learning Environment
    A Learning Environment is software designed as an all-in-one solution that can facilitate online learning for an organization. It includes the functions of a learning management system for those courses within the learning environment, but it may not be able to track online courses that were not created within this particular learning environment.
    A learning environment is characterized by an interface that allows students to register and take courses, staying within that environment for the duration of the course. The program will usually include some self-instructional portions, along with an academic model of a multi-week course. This model is often facilitated by an instructor, where a group can proceed on a week-to-week basis with seminar assignments. Most learning environments also include an authoring capability for creation of additional courses for the instructor.

    学习环境 [Learning Environment]
  • Learning Management System (LMS)
    A Learning Management System (LMS) is software that automates the administration of training events. All Learning Management Systems manage the log-in of registers users, manage course catalogs, record data from learners, and provide reports to management.
    There used to be a distinction between Learning Management Systems and more powerful Integrated Learning Management Systems. That distinction has now disappeared. The term Learning Management System is now used to describe a wide range of applications that track student training and may or may not include functions such as:
    Classroom management
    Competency management
    Knowledge management
    Certification or compliance training
    Discussion boards
    (for more information on this topic, see Learning Management Systems 2001)

    学习管理系统 [Learning Management System (LMS)]

  • Learning Object
    Learning objects (LO), also called Reusable Learning Objects, are not really a set technology, but rather a philosophy for how content can be created and deployed. Learning Objects refer to self-contained chunks of training content that can be assembled with other Learning Objects to create courses and curricula, much the same way a child‘s Lego blocks are assembled to create all types of structures.Learning Objects are designed to be used in multiple training contexts, aim to increase the flexibility of training, and make updating courses much easier to manage. Update a part of a learning object and the change should appear in any course using that Learning Object.
    The size of a Learning Object differs based on the instructional designer, from as small as a single page of content to as large as is required to contain an objective, presentation material, a practice section, and an assessment. (for more information on the use of learning objects, see Learning Content Management Systems)

    学习对象 [Learning Object][LO]
    学习对象(Learning Object)也称为“可复用学习对象“(Reusable Learning Object)与其说是一套技术,不如说是一套学习如何创建和配置内容的思想体系。学习对象指的是那些包含了培训内容的模块,这些模块能够和其他学习对象组合起来创建各种课程,很象小孩子用乐高积木搭起各种结构。

  • Media
    Text, graphics, audio, video, or human element used to teach.

    媒体 [Media]

  • Module
    An integrated “theme” of content — typically one component of a course or a curriculum
    模块 [Module]

  • Modality
    Delivery medium determined for the delivery of instruction. Ranges from ILT, CBT, WBT, and Distance Learning to paper-based, read-ahead packages, journals and peer modeling.
    形态 [Modality]

  • Needs assessment
    Formal process of identifying discrepancies between a learner‘s current performance vs. an organization‘s desired performance for that employee. Identify whether training is the solution.
    Pre-test and Post-test — tests that are given to learners prior to learning or post learning experience. Pre-test judges whether learners need to take training, or can “prescribe” what pieces of a course a learner must take. Post-test will provide remediation for reinforcement and sometimes reports back to management with scores.
    需求评估 [Needs assessment]

  • ODBC
    Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is an application program interface to access information from numerous different types of databases including Access, dBase, DB2, etc. Although Microsoft Windows was the first to provide an ODBC product, versions now exist for UNIX, OS/2, and Macintosh platforms as well.

    ODBC [Open Database Connectivity]
    开放式数据库互连(Open Database Connectivity)提供一个应用程序界面,它可以通过各种不同类型的数据库访问信息,包括Access, dBase, DB2等。微软的WINDOWS是第一个提供ODBC的产品,现在UNIX,OS/2和Macintosh等操作平台都有其ODBC版本。

    Quality Assurance (QA) is a widely-used term to describe the techniques, processes, and workflows used to ensure that a company‘s products and services meet standards for excellence.

    QA [Quality Assuranc]
    质量保证(Quality Assuranc)是一个被广泛应用的术语,用于描述用来确保企业的产品和服务符合某种优质标准的技术、过程和工作流程。

  • Remediation
    Provides direction to students to review specific content in training program based on some performance criteria.

    辅导 [Remediation]

  • RFP
    A Request for Proposal (RFP) is a document produced by a company seeking goods and/or services and distributed to prospective vendors. Vendors then provide proposals based on the criteria specified within the RFP. A request for proposal forces the company seeking goods or services to identify its business and technical requirements. It also forces the vendor to state in writing to what extent they can meet the company‘s requirements. (for information on RFPs, see How to Develop a Request for Proposal for LMS Selection)

    RFP [Request for Proposal]
    需求方案说明书(Request for Proposal)由那些需要某种商品或服务的公司提出并分发给那些预期中可能的供应商。供应商随即提供针对该需求方案标准说明的提案。撰写需求方案说明书要求那些需要某种商品或者服务的公司确定他们在商业上和技术上的需求,同时要求供应商在文件中阐明他们能在多大程度上满足这些需求。

    The Sharable Courseware Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a set of specifications that, when applied to course content, produces small, reusable learning objects. A result of the Department of Defense‘s Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative, SCORM-compliant courseware elements can be easily merged with other compliant elements to produce a highly modular repository of training materials. (for more information on this topic, see Learning Management Systems 2001)

    SCORM [The Sharable Courseware Object Reference Model]
    可共享课件对象参考模型(The Sharable Courseware Object Reference Model)是一套标准规范,应用于课程内容,小型产品以及可复用的学习对象。该标准来自美国国防部高级分布式学习(ADL)计划,与SCORM标准相容的课件单元能够轻松地和其他相容的单元结合起来制作出高度模块化的培训资料知识仓库。
    译者注:ADL网站上,SCORM指Sharable Content Object Reference Model——可分享内容对象参考模型,应以ADL为准。

  • Skill Gap Analysis
    A Skill Gap Analysis compares a person‘s skills to the skills required for the job to which they have been, or will be, assigned. The purpose is to identify clearly the skills employees need in order to succeed in their current or planned positions and to compare employee skills against those requirements. The result is an improved understanding of exactly which skills employees need to develop further. A simple Skill Gap Analysis consists of the list of skills required for a specific job along with a rating of the employee‘s level for each skill. Ratings below a certain predetermined level identify a skill gap.

    技能差距分析 [Skill Gap Analysis]

  • SME
    Subject Matter Expert who is an expert in the domain of the course. Critical component in the success of task analysis and content gathering.

    SME [Subject Matter Expert]
    学科问题专家(Subject Matter Expert)是该课程领域的专家,在内容搜集和任务分析时起关键作用。

  • Summative evaluation
    Used after an instructional program to determine worth of program and usefulness to learner.

    累积性评定 [Summative evaluation]

  • Synchronous
    Synchronous, or live e-Learning, means that communication occurs at the same time between individuals and information is accessed instantly. Examples of synchronous e-Learning include real-time chat, and video/audio conferencing.Synchronous e-Learning can provide instant feedback on a student‘s performance and allows the training to be adjusted immediately if needed. The disadvantages of synchronous e-Learning are that the training is not self-paced and the logistics of scheduling, time zones, and student availability need to be managed. (for more information on this topic, see How to Determine Readiness for Live E-Learning; and How to Choose a Live E-Learning Tool for Your Organization)
    See also Asynchronous.

    同步教学 [Synchronous]

  • System Requirements
    System requirements focus on the technological conditions including the operating system, programming language, database, hardware configuration, bandwidth, processing power, etc., required to run a software application correctly. Business requirements focus on the needs of people; system requirements focus on the needs of machines.
    See also Business Requirements.

    系统需求 [System Requirements]

  • Task analysis
    Process by which an instructional designer (through observation, questionnaires, focus group sessions, or one-on-one Q&A with an SME) extrapolates the steps necessary to perform a skill or to build knowledge. Identifies learning objectives and sequence of instruction.

    任务分析 [Task analysis]

  • TBT
    Technology-based training. An all encompassing term that can include anything from online learning, CD-ROM, and use technology for learning, usually outside the classroom.

    TBT [Technology-based training]

  • WBT
    Web-based training. This is “self-paced” training that is delivered using an Internet browser.

    WBT [Web-based training]




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