喀斯特 / 龚双宗的书柜 / 喀斯特双语

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喀斯特双语

2007-09-16  喀斯特
健康专题 > 糖尿病中毒 神哲学院 国学网 文化研究 孔子文化 简帛网 象牙塔 汉籍文献 汉学研究 荆楚文化 学说连线

 2007916

題目內容

Don Ysidro
症状
诊断
预计病程
预防
治疗
及时就诊
预后
附加信息

Don Ysidro

Don Ysidro

On that last morning, anyone who came to visit me could see that I was dying. I knew it myself. As if I had cotton in my ears, I heard the voice of don Leandro saying to my wife, "dona Susana, I think it is time to fetch the priest," and I thought, yes, it‘s time. We don‘t have our own priest, or even our own church, so someone has to drive in a pickup truck to get the priest from El Puentecito. But don‘t be fooled by what you may hear in Malpasa or in Palpan de Baranda. Here we remain Catholic. Yes, we make pots in the old way. That‘s why tourists come here. And it‘s true, as is sometimes whispered, that we have restored certain other practices from the past. But not as they were done back then. Those were bloody and terrible times, the times of the Mejica. They say that the sacrificial blood covered the sun pyramids from top to bottom. Thank the Virgin, we don‘t do anything like that.
在最后那天早上,每一个来看我的人都能看出来我快死了。我自己也知道。我的两个耳朵里就像都塞上了棉花,我听到唐蔺卓跟我妻子说话的声音。“唐娜苏姗娜,该叫牧师来了,” 我也想,是的,是时候了。我们没有自己的牧师,甚至连教堂也没有,所以得有人开上小卡车去艾尔坡泰西多。不过可别被你在马耳帕沙或者帕尔畔德巴兰德可能听到的东西给糊弄了。我们这里一直信着天主教。是的,我们用旧时的法子做陶罐。这就是为什么游客到这里来的原因。而且,真的,就像有的时候人们悄悄地传说的那样,我们还恢复了某些别的旧时做法。不过也还不是像过去做的那样。那个时代太血腥恐怖了,那个麦基卡时代。他们说祭祀的血都从上到下涂满了太阳金字塔。感谢圣母,我们可没那样做。
A little after the priest came and went, I died. Word spread. People came to our house. My family asked first for things of mine that they wanted. Then the other neighbors. Don Francisco stood near my body and said, "Don Ysidro, may I have your shovel? I need one, and your sons-in-law can dig new clay for Susana."
牧师来了又走了以后不久,我死了。消息传了出去。人们来到我们家。我的家人先要了我的遗物中他们想要的。然后是其他的邻居。唐富兰西斯克立在我的遗体的旁,说:“唐伊斯卓,我能要你的锹吗?我需要一把锹,你的女婿可以帮苏姗娜挖新的黏土。”
I said, "Take it with my blessing."
我说,“带着我的祝福,拿去吧。”
Susana said, "He says for you to take it."
苏姗娜说:“他说让你拿去吧。”
Next was dona Eustacia. She asked for one of my seguetas for scraping pots.
下一个是唐娜尤思塔西雅。她要我的一个小铲刀刮陶罐。
I said, "Of course. Go with my blessing," and Susana said, "He says for you to take it."
我说,“当然行,带着我的祝福,拿去吧,”苏姗娜就说,“他说让你拿去吧。”
When don Tomas came, he asked for my boots, the ones of red leather with the roosters in the stitching.
等到唐托马斯来的时候,他要我的靴子,那双红皮靴,上面缝着公鸡的。 I said, "Tomas, you thieving rascal! I know very well that you took two of my chickens that night seven years ago to feed to your whore from Puebla. And here you come asking not for a segueta or some wire, but for my good boots!"
我说,“托马斯,你这个贼混球!我早就知道我的两只鸡是你七年前的那天夜里拿走喂了你那个佩布拉来的婊子。而你现在来不是要个小铲刀或铁丝什么的,你来要我的好靴子!”
And Susana said, "He says for you to take them." Because, of course, she couldn‘t hear me. In any case, I would have let Tomas have the boots. I only wanted to see him blush just one time.
可苏姗娜说:“他说让你拿去吧。” 因为,当然,她听不见我说什么。不管怎样,我也会让托马斯拿走的。我不过是就想看他红一次脸。
They came and asked for everything that Susana would not need. They asked even for things for which it was not necessary to ask. They asked for things I had already promised to them. They even asked for permission to dig white clay from the place where I liked to find it. They asked, and I said yes, with my blessings. We are nothing if not polite.
他们来,要走了苏姗娜不想要的所有物件。他们甚至要一些他们无须张口要的东西。他们要那些我已经许给了他们的东西。他们甚至请求允许他们从我喜欢找着挖土的地方挖白粘土。他们问,我说行,带着我的祝福。我们一无所有,如果不是有礼貌。
Last of all, they asked for a few of my hairs to make brushes for painting pots. They cut what locks there were with scissors. They asked for my hands and cut them off with a knife for butchering goats. They said, "Don Ysidro, we want your face." I agreed, and they flayed off the skin very carefully and tenderly. They put my hands in a metal drum and burned them. They dried my face in the sun. Meanwhile, they wrapped the rest of my body in a shroud and buried it in the churchyard according to the customs of the Church.
到最后,他们要我头上的一络头发去做刷陶罐的刷子。他们用剪子绞下随手抓住的一络络头发。他们要我的双手,用一把宰羊的刀把它们砍了下来。他们说,“唐伊斯卓,我们想要你的脸。” 我答应了,他们小心翼翼地轻轻剥下了皮。他们把我的手放进一个金属滚筒里烧了。把我的脸皮放在太阳下晒干。同时,他们把我剩余的尸体用裹尸布裹起来,然后根据教堂的习俗在教堂的院子里埋了。
For a time after that, I was in an emptiness, a nowhere place. I didn‘t see. I didn‘t hear. I couldn‘t speak. I wasn‘t anywhere, not in my house, not in the coffin in the ground. Nowhere. But that would change.
在那以后的一段时间,我处在一个虚无缥缈的境地。我看不见。我听不见。我不能说话。我哪儿也不在,不在我家,不在地下的棺材里。哪儿也不在。不过这一切会变化的。
All my life, I had taught the other people of my village to make pots as I made them. That was nothing special. We all did this. I made my own don Ysidro pots, except when dona Isabela showed me how to make her little tiny ones, or don Marcos demonstrated how he painted his. Then for a while, I would make little tiny pots just like dona Isabela or pots painted in the style of don Marcos. When dona Jenífera had gone to the capital to see the birds and animals on ancient pots, she imitated those decorations, showed us, and soon we all knew how to do it. The rest of the time, I made pots in my own manner, though sometimes with a little touch of Isabela or Marcos or Jenífera that I had learned from them and made my own.
这一辈子,我都在教我们村里人按我的方法制作陶器。这也没什么了不得的。我们都这么做。我做我的唐伊斯卓罐,除了唐娜伊莎贝拉给我看她怎么做她那种小巧的陶罐,或是 唐马考斯示范他怎样给他的罐儿上漆。然后,会有一阵子,我就会做跟唐娜伊莎贝拉的小罐一样的罐儿或是跟唐马考斯漆法相同的罐儿。在 唐娜捷妮菲拉去首都看那些在古陶罐上的禽兽时,她描下了这些装饰图案,拿给我们看,很快我们就都会做了。剩下的光阴里,我照着我的样子做罐儿,虽然有时候,我会用一点从 唐娜伊莎贝拉或托马斯或捷妮菲拉那儿学来的样子,然后做成我自己的陶罐。
Now for the week after I had died, everyone in the village would be making pots as I had made them. Even the children, if they were old enough to make pots of their own. They dug white clay from my favorite place, soaked it, filtered it, let it settle, and poured off the clear water from the slurry. When the clay was dry enough, they mixed in the ashes of my hands. Then they made clay tortillas and pressed them into big plaster molds for the base, just like the ones I used. Sometimes they used my very own molds. They made snakes of clay, attached them to the bases, wound them around from the bottom up. My pots didn‘t have necks. Neither did these. The people --- my family and all the rest of the town --- scraped these pots smooth, rubbed them to a shine, and painted them with black paint, using brushes of my own hair and in designs I would have used: lizards and rabbits with checkered backs, or else just checkers that started big around the middle of the pot and became intricate at the lip. Those were pots in the don Ysidro style. They fired them. The ones that the fire didn‘t break, they brought to my house. Susana put pots all around the front room, and even in the bed where I had lain.
我死后的那一周里,村里的人个个都在照着我做罐儿的样子做陶罐。连孩子们也在做,如果他们岁数到了能自己做罐儿的时候。他们从我最喜欢去挖土的地方挖白黏土,然后浸泡,过滤,让粘土沉淀下来,然后从土浆中倒掉清水。等粘土够干了,他们把用我的双手烧成的灰搅拌进粘土里去。然后他们做成土团,把它压进胶泥模子里坐底儿,就像我以前用的那些模子。有时候,他们干脆就用我的那些模子。他们做出泥蛇,然后贴到底儿上,然后从底部一圈圈绕上来。我的罐儿没颈脖,他们的也没有。人们,就是我的家人和村里的所有其他人,把这些陶罐刮平,磨亮,然后涂上黑漆,用我头发做成的刷子,用我一贯用的图案:蜥蜴和兔子,背上有花纹的,或干脆就是花纹,从罐子中部开始很大,到了罐唇的部位越来越细密,这些是 唐伊斯卓的风格。他们烧制这些陶罐。那些没烧破的罐儿,他们就送到我家里来,苏姗娜把他们一圈圈摆在前屋。连我睡觉的床上也摆满了。
But I didn‘t see this. I only knew it was happening.
可是,我看不到这些。我只知道这件事在进行着。
These pots in my house sat undisturbed. The people burned the brushes made from my hair.
这些罐儿安坐在我家里,无人打扰。人们烧了用我的头发做成的刷子。
On the third day, there was a feast at my house. Probably there were all kinds of tamales, some with olives and meat, some with seeds and beans. Men and women drank pulque, and there was perhaps melon water for the children. The sun went down. Candles were lit. A fire burned in my fireplace.
第三天,在我家里举行了一个宴会。各式各样的墨西哥面饼,有些是有橄榄和肉的,有些是有松子和大豆的。男人和女人们喝着龙舌兰酒,好像还有专为孩子们备下的西瓜。太阳下山了。蜡烛点了起来。我的壁炉里烧着火。
At midnight, don Leandro opened a box and took out the mask made of my own skin. He put my face over his face, and I opened our eyes. I came from the place that was nowhere. I was in the room. I looked at the faces, at the wide eyes of the living, at Susana holding her hand over her mouth. I saw my grandchildren, Carlos and Jalea, Ana and Quinito. And for the first time, I could see the pots in the living room. They glowed in the candlelight. Together, don Leandro and I went into the bedroom and I saw the pots there on the bed. We returned to the living room, and I said with our mouth, "I see that I am not dead after all!"
到了半夜,唐蔺卓打开一个盒子,拿出用我的皮做的面具。他把我的脸戴到他脸上,我睁开了我的眼睛。我从虚无中走来。我在这屋里。我看着这一张张面孔,看着活人们一对对圆睁的眼睛,看着苏姗娜用手捂住自己的嘴巴。我看到我的孙儿们,卡洛斯,杰利,安娜和奎尼托。而且是第一次,我能看到在客厅里摆放的这些陶罐。它们在烛光中油光发亮。一块儿,我跟着唐蔺卓来到了卧室,在那里我看到了床上的陶罐。我们又回到客厅,我用我们的嘴说,“我看我压根没死啊!”
"No, no, don Ysidro," they assured me. "You are not dead!"
“没有,没有,唐伊斯卓,”他们安慰我。“你没死!”
I laughed. That‘s what you feel like doing when you see that you aren‘t dead.
我大笑起来。这就是在你看到你没死时想做的事。
Then don Leandro threw the mask into the fire, and I wasn‘t in the mask any more. I was in the pots. In all those round pots made by the hands of my friends, my rivals, my family, my neighbors. I was there, in each one. The people took me away from my house, pot by pot, and I entered their houses with them. In my former home, they left only the pot that Susana had made in my style.
然后唐蔺卓把面具扔进了火里,我就不再在面具里了。我在陶罐里了。在所有那些用一双双手做出来的滚圆的罐子里,这些手有我朋友的,我对头的,我家人的,和我邻居的。 我就在那里, 在每个陶罐里。人们从我家里把我一个一个地带走,我跟着他们进了他们的家。在我原来的家里,他们只留下了那只苏姗娜用我的风格烧制成的罐儿。
From that night forward, I was all over the village. People stored corn in me, or rice, or beans. They used me to carry water. And I spread out from there, for if tourists came to buy pots and happened to admire me, the potter would say, "Oh, that‘s don Ysidro." And the tourist would nod and perhaps buy the pot that he thought was merely made by don Ysidro.
从那天夜里开始,我就遍布在村庄的各处了。人们把玉米,大米,大豆贮藏在我的身子里。他们用我打水。而我又从那儿传开,因为如果有游客来买陶罐又正好欣赏我,制陶的人就会说,“噢,那是 唐伊斯卓。” 那游客就会点头,而且也许就会买下这个他以为只不过是唐伊斯卓烧制的陶罐。
I am still in my little village, but I am in Stockholm, too, and Seattle. I am in Toronto and Buenos Aires. Some of me is in Mexico, the capital, though I am mostly still at home here in the village where I grew up, grew old, and died. I sit on Susana‘s shelf where I can watch her make ordinary tortillas for her breakfast or clay tortillas for her pots. She is old, but her hands are still quick as birds. Sometimes she knows that I am watching her, and she looks over her shoulder and laughs. Whether she can hear it or not, my answering laughter is deep and full and round like a great big pot in the manner of don Ysidro.
我还是在我的小村庄里,不过我也在斯德哥摩尔,在西雅图。我在多伦多和布宜诺斯艾利斯。我的一部分在墨西哥,首都,虽然我大部分时间还是在这个小村庄,在这个我长大,变老,死掉的地方。我坐在苏姗娜的架子上,在那儿我看着她做家常的玉米饼当早饭或是捏着做罐儿的粘土。她老了,可是她的一双手却依然像鸟儿一样灵巧。有些时候,她知道我在注视着她,她就回过头来笑了。不管她听见还是听不见,我回应她的笑声深沉,浑厚,圆润,就像一只具有唐伊斯卓风格的好大好大的陶罐。

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症状

糖尿病酮症酸中毒的症状包括:

 

  • 尿频(排尿次数比平时增多)

  • 极度口渴

  • 口干

  • 皮肤冰冷

  • 恶心和呕吐,伴有或不伴有腹痛

 

血中酮体水平升高时,患者的呼吸可能变得慢而深, 而且带有烂苹果味。 酮症酸中毒的患者会感觉很乏力、神志不清或注意力不易集中。如果症状出现的当天没有迅速进行治疗,疾病可以进展,出现血压下降、意识丧失、昏迷或死亡。

如果患有1型糖尿病, 在家使用血糖仪检测血糖水平很重要。 也应该使用试纸检测尿液中的酮体。 如果血糖阅读值在每分升 300 毫克以上,应该检测尿中有无酮体。如果尿液试纸条上显示“中度” 或“重度” ,说明可能有酮症酸中毒。

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诊断

糖尿病酮症酸中毒患者通常需要住院进行治疗。 医生会检测患者血中的葡萄糖、酮体和其他的物质,如钠和钾的水平。 如果胰岛素用量适当,医生会检查你是否有感染。

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预计病程

糖尿病酮症酸中毒的症状会经过数小时的发展过程,治疗可以使患者很快恢复。 发展为酮症酸中毒的人通常需要住院1-3 天。

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预防

1型糖尿病患者按照医生处方的胰岛素用量及饮食方案进行治疗,并经常监测血糖,这样通常可以避免出现酮症酸中毒。 如果机体处于感染引起的应激状态,数小时里就可以出现酮症酸中毒,而且可能无法预防。 所以在感染期,经常检查血糖非常重要。同时也要调整治疗方案。呕吐和腹痛可能是酮症酸中毒的表现,认识这一点非常重要,可以帮助患者得到迅速的救治。

为了确保糖尿病酮症酸中毒患者能够得到适当的急救治疗,患者离家外出时应该在手腕和脖子处配戴医疗警示牌以标明是糖尿病患者,这样,即使是陌生环境或患者太虚弱而无法讲话时,也将有助于急救人员很快认清病情。

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治疗

糖尿病酮症酸中毒患者住院后,医生会使用胰岛素来降低患者血糖水平。也需要静脉输入大量液体。并会时常检测血糖和酮酸的水平,而且会为患者补钾以恢复机体基本矿物质的供给。 还会一直监测患者的生命体征(温度、脉膊、呼吸, 血压)和排尿量,直到血液生化水平回到正常状态。如果是感染引起的酮症酸中毒,会使用抗生素或其它药物治疗感染。

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及时就诊

1型糖尿病患者,并且血糖仪阅读值超过每分升300 毫克,就应该检测尿酮。 如果检测显示为中度或高度酮酸水平,或是以前没有和医生讨论过血糖达到这个值时的胰岛素的调整剂量,就应该及时就诊。医生将会给患者提供更多的指导,告诉患者何时及如何检查血糖和尿酮。如果患者出现不明原因的恶心及呕吐,不论伴有或不伴有腹痛,也要及时就诊。

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预后

经过适当的治疗,95%以上的糖尿病酮症酸中毒患者可以复原。

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附加信息

National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
1 Information Way
Bethesda, MD 20892-3560
Phone: (301) 654-3327
Toll-Free: (800) 860-8747
Fax: (301) 907-8906

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来源: 哈佛大学

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