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Geert Hofstede 文化分类理论

2009-11-28  daisyjoy
  • 作者:吉尔特•霍夫斯太德 / Geert Hofstede
  • 翻译:钱婧

     

    译者注:霍夫斯太德的研究领域是研究企业文化及跨国管理学学生所必须要涉足的。据笔者经验,应用各大中文搜索键入中文和英文搜索引擎中键入英文所得到的结果相去甚远,关于霍氏的中文资料十分匮乏。其中的可参考性还有待商榷,比如,某著名大学研究生的论文中,对于该维度的阐述仅有4级,不免贻笑大方。现摘译霍夫斯太德研究的最新文献,望抛砖引玉,也望求志同道合者共同进步。

     

    吉尔特•霍夫斯太德教授指导了一系列关于工作环境中的价值观如何受文化影响的研究。

    1967年至1973年间,霍夫斯太德教授在70多个国家的IBM公司采集关于员工价值观的数据,至2001年,他的研究已经拓展到74个国家和地区。

    后续研究证实了先前的研究成果。研究对象包括了在23个国家的航空公司飞行员,14个国家的行政事务经理,15个国家的高端消费者及19个国家的杰出人物。

    通过分析早期及后续的研究数据,霍夫斯太德教授提出了一系列维度来描述、区分文化差异:权利距离、个人主义-集体主义、不确定性的规避及男性气质-女性气质。

    之后,在霍氏与中国雇员及经理的合作中,又发展了一个新的衡量维度----长远取向-短期取向文化。该维度基于孔夫子的儒学思想,并已应用于23个国家。

    原文:

    Prof. Geert Hofstede conducted perhaps the most comprehensive study of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture.

    Geert Hofstede analyzed a large data base of employee values scores collected by IBM between 1967 and 1973 covering more than 70 countries, from which he first used the 40 largest only and afterwards extended the analysis to 50 countries and 3 regions. In the editions of GH‘s work since 2001, scores are listed for 74 countries and regions, partly based on replications and extensions of the IBM study on different international populations.

    Subsequent studies validating the earlier results have included commercial airline pilots and students in 23 countries, civil service managers in 14 counties, ‘up-market‘ consumers in 15 countries and ‘elites‘ in 19 countries.

    From the initial results, and later additions, Hofstede developed a model that identifies four primary Dimensions to assist in differentiating cultures: Power Distance - PDI, Individualism - IDV, Masculinity - MAS, and Uncertainty Avoidance - UAI.

    Geert Hofstede added a fifth Dimension after conducting an additional international study with a survey instrument developed with Chinese employees and managers.

    That Dimension, based on Confucian dynamism, is Long-Term Orientation - LTO and was applied to 23 countries.

  •  


     

    权利距离指数——Power Distance Index (PDI) 聚焦于不同国家人与人之间的平等程度。高权利距离意味着在该社会对于由权利与财富引起的层级差异有很高的认同度。这些社会一般倾向于遵从层级制度体系,自下而上上的沟通受到严格的限制。低权利距离文化则指此社会不再强调公民间的由财富或权利引起的层级差异,而更加强调任与人之间地位、机会的平等。

    个人主义——Individualism (IDV) 聚焦于社会对于个人成就及人际关系的认同程度。高个人主义强调个性及个人权利在一个社会中是头等重要的。倾向于建立一种松散的组织关系架构。低个人主义(集体主义)文化指组织更强调个体之间紧密的联系。这些文化强调家庭式的观念和情感依赖以及成员对于组织中其他成员的责任感。

    女性气质——Masculinity (MAS) 关注对于传统女性的工作角色及男性成功、控制、权力的社会角色模式的认同程度。高女性气质文化显示该国家对于性别差异的敏感度很高。在这些国家中,男性占据了社会及权力结构的主体地位,而女性则在男性的控制之下。低女性气质文化的社会显示出这些国家对于性别差异认同度不高,没有明显的性别歧视。身处这种文化中的女性常常可以在各个方面享有与男子平等的权利。

    不确定性规避指数——Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) 聚焦于对于不确定性及含糊性的容忍程度。比如:非结构性情况(非常规形势)。一个高不确定性规避的组织通常是规则导向性的,通过建立一系列法律,规章,制度,限制来减少不确定因素。一个低不确定性规避组织则对于不确定情况具有高的容忍度及适应力。这些组织通常更愿意变革,乐于承担风险。

    长期取向文化——Long-Term Orientation (LTO) 关注一个组织是否愿意长期忠诚于传统的、先前的思想和价值观。高长期取向国家强调长期承诺,尊重传统,认为长期忠诚的风险会带来丰厚的结果。然而,这样的组织往往需要很长时间去组建、发展,尤其对于外来者。短期取向文化的组织则不强调长期观念,同时传统和承诺不会成为组织绊脚石。


    原文:

    Power Distance Index (PDI) focuses on the degree of equality, or inequality, between people in the country‘s society. A High Power Distance ranking indicates that inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society. These societies are more likely to follow a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens. A Low Power Distance ranking indicates the society de-emphasizes the differences between citizen‘s power and wealth. In these societies equality and opportunity for everyone is stressed.

    Individualism (IDV) focuses on the degree the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships. A High Individualism ranking indicates that individuality and individual rights are paramount within the society. Individuals in these societies may tend to form a larger number of looser relationships. A Low Individualism ranking typifies societies of a more collectivist nature with close ties between individuals. These cultures reinforce extended families and collectives where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group.

    Masculinity (MAS) focuses on the degree the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, the traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power. A High Masculinity ranking indicates the country experiences a high degree of gender differentiation. In these cultures, males dominate a significant portion of the society and power structure, with females being controlled by male domination. A Low Masculinity ranking indicates the country has a low level of differentiation and discrimination between genders. In these cultures, females are treated equally to males in all aspects of the society.

    Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) focuses on the level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within the society - i.e. unstructured situations. A High Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the country has a low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. This creates a rule-oriented society that institutes laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty. A Low Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the country has less concern about ambiguity and uncertainty and has more tolerance for a variety of opinions. This is reflected in a society that is less rule-oriented, more readily accepts change, and takes more and greater risks.

    Long-Term Orientation (LTO) focuses on the degree the society embraces, or does not embrace, long-term devotion to traditional, forward thinking values. High Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country prescribes to the values of long-term commitments and respect for tradition. This is thought to support a strong work ethic where long-term rewards are expected as a result of today‘s hard work. However, business may take longer to develop in this society, particularly for an "outsider". A Low Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country does not reinforce the concept of long-term, traditional orientation. In this culture, change can occur more rapidly as long-term traditions and commitments do not become impediments to change

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