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ADI AN-347屏蔽与接地--连接真实和虚拟的世界

2010-02-22  KingCraft...
ADI AN-347屏蔽与接地
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作者:Alan Rich
译者:
www.21ic.com akaer

屏蔽与接地
对干扰型噪声的处理方法及其原理

正文:
[001]
This is the second of two articles dealing with interference noise. In the last issue of Analog Dialogue (Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 16-19), we discussed the nature of interference, described the relationship between sources, coupling channels, and receivers, and considered means of combating interference in systems by reducing or eliminating one of those three elements.
本文是关于干扰型噪声处理方法的两篇论文的第2篇。第一篇已发表在《Analog Dialogue》上(见该杂志第16卷第3部分16至19页),该文剖析了干扰源、干扰耦合路径以及干扰接收方三个环节间的关系,并从选择三个环节中的某一个加以治理的角度,介绍了对付干扰型噪声的方法。

[002]
One of the means of reducing noise coupling is shielding. Our purpose in this article is to describe the correct uses of shielding to reduce noise. The major topics we will discuss include noise due to capacitive coupling, noise due to magnetic coupling, and driven shields and guards. A set of guidelines will be included, with do’s and don’ts.
屏蔽技术可以降低信号传输时耦合进来的噪声。本文的主体是介绍如何正确地利用屏蔽来降低噪声,接下来将从电容耦合噪声、磁耦合噪声和有源屏蔽与防护罩三个方面分别展开论述,同时将给出几套设计准则,指明哪些该做,哪些不该做。

[003]
From the outset, it should be noted that shielding problems are always rational and do not involve the occult; but they are not always straightforward. Each problem must be analyzed carefully. It is important first to identify the noise source, the receiver, and the coupling medium. Improper shielding and grounding, based on faulty identification of any of these elements, may only make matters worse or create a new problem.
首先需要明确:虽然屏蔽设计总是可以借助理论来进行,并不神秘,但是,在处理实际问题时不能生搬硬套,而要注意具体问题要具体分析。分析的第一步最重要,即确定噪声源、接收方和耦合介质。这一步如果判断错误,屏蔽和接地设计就会出错,最后的效果可能适得其反,甚至节外生枝。

[004]
You can think of shielding as serving two purposes. First, shielding can be used to confine noise to a small region; this will prevent noise from extending its reach and getting into a nearby critical circuit. However, the problem with such shields is that noise captured by the shield can still cause problems if the return path the noise takes is not carefully planned and implemented by understanding of the ground system and making the connections correctly.
屏蔽的作用可以从两方面来理解。第一,对于系统外的噪声,屏蔽体可以将其限制在一个有限的区域内,从而避免其扩散并影响其周围的重要电路。不过,如果噪声信号的泄放路径设计不当、接地错误、或者电气连接不可靠,屏蔽体上的噪声仍然会对系统产生不利影响。

[005]
Second, if noise is present in a system, shields can be placed around critical circuits to prevent the noise from getting into sensitive portions of the circuits. These shields can consist of metal boxes around circuit regions or cables with shields around the center conductors. Again, where and how the shields are connected is important.
第二,对于系统内的噪声,可以对敏感电路实施局部屏蔽,以避免噪声的侵入。用金属盒子把电路包起来,以及电缆芯线的金属包层都是这方面的实例。同理,屏蔽层的电气连接也是至关重要的。     

[006]
If the noise results from an electric field, a shield works because a charge, Q2, resulting from an external potential, V1, cannot exist on the interior of a closed conducting surface (Figure 1).
电场理论指出:外部电荷源V1在封闭导体内感应出电荷Q2,Q2的电量为0。这就是屏蔽的原理(如图1)。


Figure 1.  Charge Q1 cannot create charge inside a closed metal shell
图1  电荷Q1无法在封闭导体内感应电荷

[007]
Coupling by mutual, or stray, capacitance can be modeled by the circuit of Figure 2. Here, Vn is a noise source (switching transistor, TTL gate, etc.), Cs is the stray capacitance, Z is the impedance of a receiver (for example, a bypass resistor connected between the input of a high-gain amplifier and ground), and Vno is the output noise developed across Z.
由于介质之间的相互作用也就是寄生效应,电容性介质可以等效为图2所示的电路模型。图中Vn表示噪声源(如开关模式工作的晶体管、TTL门电路等),Cs表示寄生电容,Z表示负载阻抗(如高增益放大器输入端与地之间的旁路电阻),Von表示加在Z上的输出噪声电压。


Figure 2.  Equivalent circuit of capacitive coupling between a source and a nearby impedance
图2  干扰源与负载间电容耦合干扰的等效电路

[008]
A noise current, In = Vn/(Z + Zcs,), will result, producing a noise voltage, Vno = Vn/(1 + Zcs/Z). For example, if Cs = 2.5 pF, Z = 10k (resistive), and Vn = l00mV at 1.3 MHz, the output noise will be 20mV (0.2% of 10V, i.e., 8 LSBs of 12 bits).
该回路中的噪声电流In=Vn/(Z+Zcs),在负载Z上产生的噪声电压Vno=Vn/(1+Zcs/Z)。如果Cs=2.5pF,Z=10k欧,频率1.3MHz时的噪声电压Vn=100mV,则输出噪声为20mV(等于10V满摆幅的0.2%,对于12位模数变换器而言,相当于8LSB的误差)。

[009]
It is important to recognize the effect that very small amounts of stray capacitance will have on sensitive circuits. This becomes increasingly critical as systems are being designed to combine circuits operating at lower power (implying higher impedance levels), higher speed (implying lower nodal stray capacitance, faster edges, and higher frequencies), and higher resolution (much less output noise permitted).
一定要记住:即使是很小的寄生电容,也会对敏感电路产生影响。当今的电子系统常常包含着低功耗(意味着阻抗更高)、高速度(节点寄生电容更小、信号边沿更陡峭、信号频率更高)和高分辨力(噪声容限更小)等电路,因此这个问题尤其应该引起重视。
[译者疑虑]什么是nodal stray capacitance?是指PCB过孔的分布参数,还是另有所指?

[010]

When a shield is added, the change to the situation of Figure 2 is exemplified by the circuit model of Figure 3. With the assumption that the shield has zero impedance, the noise current in loop A-B-D-A will be Vn/Zcs1, but the noise current in loop D-B-C-D will be zero, since there is no driving source in that loop. And, since no current flows, there will be no voltage developed across Z. The sensitive circuit has thus been shielded from the noise source, Vn.
对图2的电路实施屏蔽后,其等效电路变为图3所示的样子。设屏蔽体阻抗为零,则在环路A-B-D-A内流动的噪声电流为Vn/Zcs1,而在环路D-B-C-D内的噪声电流为0,这是因为该环路中没有信号源。因为噪声电流为0,所以负载Z上的噪声电压为0。这样一来,这部分电路就被屏蔽体保护了起来,不会受到噪声源Vn的影响。


Figure 3. Equivalent circuit of the situation of Figure 2, with a shield interposed between the source and the impedance.
图3  图2的等效电路,干扰源与负载之间加入了屏蔽体
Guidelines for Applying Electrostatic Shields
针对电场干扰实施屏蔽的准则


[011]
◎An electrostatic shield, to be effective, should be connected to the reference potential of any circuitry contained within the shield. If the signal is earthed or grounded (i.e., connected to a metal chassis or frame, and/or to earth), the shield must be earthed or grounded. But grounding the shield is useless If the signal is not grounded.
要发挥静电屏蔽体的作用,必须将其连接到所有被屏蔽电路的参考电位上。如果某电路的参考电位是机壳或(和)大地——也就是说电路以金属支架或外壳的电位为电压的参考零点,该点可以接大地,也可以不接——则屏蔽体就必须连接机壳或(和)大地。如果电路的参考电位不是大地,那么即便将屏蔽体接大地,也起不到屏蔽效果。

[译者注]本段中earthed译为“接机壳”(俗称搭铁、搭壳)、grounded译为“接大地”(就是地球)。在不引起混淆的情况下,后文earthed译作“接地”。

[012]
◎The shield conductor of a shielded cable should be connected to the reference potential at the signal-reference node (Figure 4).
电缆的屏蔽层必须单点连接到参考电位,连接点应尽量靠近信号源的参考电位。
[译者注]根据后文的论述,这里增加了“单点”的限定。

>>>>这个“限定”很精彩:单点接地的原则很重要,有人想“好心”搞成电缆两头屏蔽层接地,结果会适得其反,务必留意。----IC921



Figure 4. Grounding a cable shield
图4  电缆屏蔽层的接地方法

[013]
◎If the shield is split into sections, as might occur if connectors Ro2 is the 13-ohm output impedance of the logic gate, Cws is the are used, the shield for each segment must be tied to those for the adjoining segments, and ultimately connected (only) to the signal-reference node (Figure 5).
如果屏蔽体被隔断成多个部分——比如使用连接器的情况,那么应该将各部分首尾相接,然后单点连接到信号源的参考电位。



Figure 5. Shields must be interconnected if interrupted
图5  隔断的屏蔽体必须连接起来

[014]
◎The number of separate shields required in a system is equal to the number of independent signals that are being measured. Each signal should have its own shield, with no connections to other shields in the system, unless they share a common reference potential (signal "ground"). If there is more than one signal ground (Figure 6), each shield should be connected to its own reference potential.
系统中需要测量的独立信号有多少,屏蔽体就要有多少,二者要一一对应。每路信号都要有其专用的屏蔽体,除非多个信号源采用相同的参考电位(信号地),否则任何一个屏蔽体都不要与其他屏蔽体连接。如果系统中有2个以上的信号地(如图6),那么各路信号的屏蔽体必须分别连接到相应信号的参考电位。



Figure 6. Each signal should have its own shield connected to its own reference potential
图6  多路信号应该使用各自的屏蔽体,各屏蔽体应连接到相应信号的参考电位

[015]
◎Don't connect both ends of the shield to "ground". The potential difference between the two "grounds" will cause a shield current to flow (Figure 7). The shield current will induce a noise voltage into the center conductor via magnetic coupling. An example of this can be found in Part 1 of this series, Analog Dialogue 16-3, page 18, Figure 10.
屏蔽体一定不要多点接“地”。否则,由于多个“地”之间可能存在电位差,屏蔽体上将可能产生电流(如图7),由该电流激发的磁场会在屏蔽体内部感应出噪声电压。在上一篇论文中就此举过一个例子(详见《Analog Dialogue》卷16第3部分第18页图10)。



Figure 7. Don’t connect the shield to ground at more than one point
图7  屏蔽体决不能多点接地
[译者疑虑]此处的ground是如前文特指“大地”?还是指参考电位?或者有更广泛的含义?

[016]
◎Don't allow shield current to exist (except as noted later in this article). The shield current will induce a voltage in the center
conductor.
屏蔽体内决不能有电流(后文所述情况除外),因为该电流会在被屏蔽体保护的电路中激发感应电压。

[017]
◎Don't allow the shield to be at a voltage with respect to the reference potential (except in the case of a guard shield, to be described). The shield voltage will couple capacitively to the center conductor (or conductors in a multiple-conductor shield). With a noise voltage, Vs, on the shield, the situation is as shown in Figure 8.
屏蔽体与参考电位之间一定不能有电位差(本文后面所述的防护罩的情况除外)。屏蔽体与参考电位之间的电位差通过电容性耦合,将在被屏蔽电路中形成干扰。若屏蔽层对信号地的电压为Vs,此时的电路如图8所示。



Figure 8. Don’t permit the shield to be at a potential with respect to the signal
图8  屏蔽体与参考电位之间一定不能有电位差

[018]
The fraction of Vs appearing at the output will be where V1 is the open-circuit signal voltage, Ro is the signal's source impedance, Csc is the cable's shield-to-conductor capacitance, and Req is the equivalent parallel resistance of Ro and RL. For example, if Vs = 1V at 1.5MHz, Csc = 200pF (10 feet of cable), Ro = 1000 ohms, and RL = 10k, the output noise voltage will be 0.86 volts. This is an often-ignored guideline; serious noise problems can be created by inadvertently applying undesired potentials to the shield.
因Vs产生的输出噪声电压Vo可由下式(1)得到:



其中V1表示信号源开路电压,Ro是信号源的输出阻抗,Csc表示屏蔽体与被屏蔽电路间的容抗,Req表示Ro与负载RL的等效并联电阻。假设频率为1.5MHz时Vs=1V,Csc=200pF(与10英尺长的电缆等效),Ro=1k欧,RL=10k欧,则由(1)式计算得输出噪声电压为0.86V。这条准则经常被忽视,而屏蔽体上的电压将会带来不小的麻烦。

[019]
◎Know by careful study how the noise current that bas been captured by the shield returns to "ground". An improperly returned shield can cause shield voltages, can couple into other circuits, or couple into other shields. The shield return should be as short as possible to minimize inductance.
干扰源会在屏蔽体上感应出电荷,因此一定要深入研究并掌握电荷的泄放路径。如果屏蔽体的泄放路径设计不当,屏蔽体上就会产生电压,继而通过耦合干扰被屏蔽的电路,或者影响其它的屏蔽体。为了减小感抗,屏蔽体的泄放路径必须尽可能地短。

[020]
Here is an example that illustrates the problems that can arise in relation to these last two guidelines: Consider the improperly configured shield system shown in Figure 9, in which a precision voltage source, V1, and a digital logic gate share a common shield connection. This situation can occur in a large system where analog and digital signals are cabled together.
下面举例说明违反最后两条准则的后果。图9所示的屏蔽设计存在缺陷——精密电压源V1的屏蔽体与逻辑门信号的屏蔽体直接相连。这种情况常见于模拟信号和数字信号用同一根电缆传输的场合。


Figure 9. A situation that generates transient shield voltages
图9  一种会导致屏蔽体出现瞬变电压的错误设计

[021]
A step voltage change in the output of the logic circuit couples capacitively to its shield, creating a current in the common 2-foot shield return. This, in turn, develops a shield voltage common to both the analog and digital shields. An equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 10, in which V(t) is a 5-volt step from a TTL logic gate, 470-pF capacitance from the shield to the center conductor of the shielded cable, and Rs and Ls are the 0.1-ohm resistance and 1-microhenry inductance of the 2-foot wire connecting the shield to the system ground.
逻辑电路的输出端会产生阶跃变化的电压信号,该信号将以电容耦合的方式进入屏蔽层,随即在2英尺长的屏蔽体泄放路径中产生电流,这个电流又会对模拟信号屏蔽层和数字信号屏蔽层形成共模电压。图10给出了本例的等效电路,其中V(t)表示TTL逻辑门输出的阶跃信号,摆幅为5V;Ro2表示逻辑门的输出电阻,大小为13欧;Cws表示电缆屏蔽层与芯线间的寄生电容,大小为470pF;Rs和Ls表示连接屏蔽层与系统参考电位([译者]系统地)之间导线的电阻和电感,对于2英尺长的导线,这两个参数分别为0.1欧和1毫亨。
[译者疑虑]“形成共模电压”的译法是否确切?


Figure 10. Equivalent circuit for generating shield voltage.
图10  图9的等效电路

[022]
The shield voltage, Vs(t), can be solved for by conventional circuit analysis techniques, or simulated by actually building and carefully making measurements on a circuit with the given parameters. For the purpose of demonstration, the calculated response waveform, illustrated in Figure 11, with a 5-volt initial spike, resonant frequency of 7.3 MHz, and damping time constant of 0.15us, is sufficient to illustrate the nature of the voltage that-appears on the shield and is capacitively coupled to the analog input. If the voltage is looked at with a wideband oscilloscope, it will look like a noise "spike." We can see that this transient will couple a fast damped waveform of significant peak amplitude to the analog system input.
屏蔽层的电压Vs(t)既可以根据电路理论计算,也可以按照所给出的参数先搭电路,再精确测量来获得。经理论计算,图11绘出了本例中屏蔽层电压的响应曲线,初始是一个幅值5V的尖峰,谐振频率7.3MHz,衰减时间常数0.15us。该曲线可以充分反映屏蔽体上的电压信号的特征,以及对模拟信号输入端的耦合情况。用宽带示波器观察这个信号,会以为这不过是普通的“尖峰”干扰,殊不知这种瞬变信号会耦合到模拟电路中,形成快速衰减的、高幅值的噪声。


Figure 11. Computed response of circuit of Figure 10.
图11  图10电路的理论响应曲线

[023]
Even in a purely digital system, noise glitches can be caused to appear in apparently remote portions of a system having the kind of situation shown. This can often explain some otherwise inexplicable system bugs.
即使是纯数字电路,如果存在上例的错误,那么在相距较远的部件之间同样会出现因噪声引起的假信号,常常让电路出现莫名其妙的故障。

[024]
In quite a few cases, the proper choice of shield connection among the many possibilities may not be immediately obvious, and the guidelines may not provide us with a clear choice. There is no alternative but to analyze the various possibilities and choose the approach for which the lowest noise may be calculated.
当屏蔽体与参考电位的连接有多种可能,而且上文给出的准则不能直接套用的时候,要选出正确的方案,常常让人左右为难。这种情况相当常见,此时应当全面分析各种可能,选择一种令噪声影响最小的方案,除此之外别无他法。

[译者语]每次看到这里,心都凉半截儿……----IC921:接地的学问和难度由此可心略见一斑   

[025]
For example, consider the case illustrated in Figure 12, in which the measurement system and the source have differing ground potentials. Should we connect the shield to A: the low side at the measurement-system input, B: ground at the system input, C: source, or D: the low side at the source?
以图12所示系统为例,图中测试电路和信号源的参考电位不一样。这时,屏蔽层应该连接到紧靠测试电路入口的低端A点、或是系统输入地B点、信号源附近的地C点还是信号源的低端D点呢?
[译者注]感谢IC921对ABCD译法的指点


Figure 12. Possible grounds where system and source have differing ground potentials.
图12  系统与信号源的参考电位不同时,有四种可能的接地方案

[026]
A is a poor choice, since noise current is allowed to flow in a signal through C4, is shown in Figure 13a.
A点是错误的。因为噪声电流将会通过C4直接进入信号传输线,等效电路如图13a所示。

[027]
B is also a poor choice, since the 2 noise sources in series, VG1 and VG2, produce a component across the two signal wires, developed by the source impedance in parallel with C2, in series with C1, as shown in Figure 13b.
B点也不正确。如图13b所示,两个干扰源VG1和VG2串联起来,在两条信号线之间形成一个干扰源,信号源输出阻抗与C2并联,然后与C1串联。

[028]
C is poor, too, since VG1 produces a voltage across the two signal wires, by the same mechanism as (B), as Figure 13c shows
C点同样不理想。VG1加在两条信号线之间,对电路的干扰模式与选择B点时差不多。

[029]
D is the best choice, under the given assumptions, as can be seen connect the shield at the signal's reference potential
D点是最佳选择,等效电路如图13d所示。这不仅是因为本例中别无选择,而且选择D点也符合上文给出的准则——将屏蔽层连接到信号源的参考电位。


Figure 13. Equlvalent circuits.
图13  四种接法的等效电路

NOISE RESULTING FROM A MAGNETIC FIELD
磁场感应噪声

[030]
Noise in the form of a magnetic field induces voltage in a conductor or circuit; it is much more difficult to shield against than electric fields because it can penetrate conducting materials. A typical shield placed around a conductor and grounded at one end has little if any effect on the magnetically induced voltage in that conductor.
磁场形式的噪声会在导体或电路中感生出电压。因为磁场能够穿透导磁介质,所以与电场相比,磁屏蔽的难度要大得多。对于磁感应噪声,前文所述的那种用屏蔽体包裹导体,然后将屏蔽体单点接地的典型办法几乎无济于事。

[031]
As a magnetic field, B, penetrates a shield, its amplitude decreases exponentially (Figure 14). The skin depth, δ, of the shield material, is defined as the depth of penetration required for the field to be attenuated to 37% (exp (-1)) of its value in free air. Table 1[1] lists typical values of δ for several materials at various frequencies. You can see that any of the materials will be more effective as a shield at high frequency, because δ decreases with frequency, and that steel provides at least an order of magnitude more effective shielding at any frequency than copper or aluminum.
磁场在屏蔽介质中传播时,磁场强度将按照指数规律衰减(如图14)。如果磁场穿透某屏蔽体后,其强度衰减为自由辐射条件下(同样空间位置)的37%(exp-1),那么就将此屏蔽体的厚度定义为“表层厚度(skin depth)”,用符号δ表示。表1[注1]列出了几种材料在不同频率条件下的δ典型值。表格数据表明,几种材料的δ值均随频率升高而降低,这说明用这些材料制成的屏蔽体在高频条件下的效果会更好。此外还可以看出,在所有频率点,钢的δ值都比铜和铝低一个数量级,这说明钢更适合用作磁屏蔽材料。


Figure 14. Magnetic field in a shield as a function of penetration depth
图14  磁场在屏蔽体内传播时,其强度与屏蔽体厚度的函数关系

[032]
Figure 15 compares absorption loss as a function of frequency for two thicknesses of copper and steel. 1/8-inch steel becomes quite effective for frequencies above 200 Hz, and even a 20-mil (0.5 mm) thickness of copper is effective at frequencies above 1 MHz. However, all show a glaring weakness at lower frequencies, including 50-60-Hz line frequencies--the principal source of magnetically coupled noise at low frequency.
取相同厚度的钢和铜,并选择两种厚度进行不同频率下的磁场衰减特性测试,结果如图15所示。测试表明,当频率高于200Hz时,1/8英寸厚的钢就足以有效地衰减磁场;当频率高于1MHz时,只要20mil(0.5mm)厚的铜就能获得很好的屏蔽效果。不过,在低频条件下,包括50~60Hz的电力频段——这是低频磁耦合噪声的主要来源,这些材料的性能显然很差。


Figure 15. Absorption loss vs. frequency for two thicknesses of copper and steel.
图15  两种厚度的铜和钢在不同频率下对磁场的衰减特性

表1  不同频率下的δ值



[1] Table 1 and Figures 15 and 16 are from Ott, H.W., Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems (New York: John Wiley & Sons, ©1976).
[注1] 表1、图15及图16摘自Ott, H.W. 《Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems》 (New York: John Wiley & Sons, ©1976)。

[033]
For improved low-frequency magnetic shielding, a shield consisting of a high-permeability magnetic material (e.g., Mumetal) should be considered. Figure 16 compares a 30-mil thickness of Mumetal with various materials at several frequencies. It shows that, below 1 kHz, Mumetal is more effective than any of the other materials, while at 100kHz it is the least effective. However, Mumetal is not especially easy to apply, and if it is saturated by an excessively strong field, it will no longer provide an advantage.
要改善低频磁屏蔽的效果,就要考虑用高导磁率的磁性材料(即高导磁合金)来制作屏蔽体。图16给出了厚度为30mil的高导磁合金与其它几种材料在不同频率下的性能对比。从图中可以看出:与其它材料相比,频率低于1kHz时,高导磁合金的性能最优;而当频率为100kHz时,高导磁合金的性能最差。虽然高导磁合金有诸多优点,但是这种材料用起来并不是很方便,如果受到强磁场作用而达到磁饱和的话,这种材料就不再具备任何优势了。


Figure 16. Shielding attenuation of Mumetal and other materials at several frequencies.
图16  高导磁合金等几种材料在不同频率下的磁场衰减特性

[034]
As you can see, it is very difficult to shield against magnetic fields, i.e., to modify the coupling medium by shielding. Therefore, the most effective approaches at low frequency are to minimize the strength of the interfering magnetic field, minimize the receiver loop area, and minimize coupling by optimizing wiring geometries. Here are some guidelines:
从上文可以看出:(单靠)改良耦合介质的特性来达到屏蔽磁场的目的是非常困难的。因此,在低频条件下,将以下几种手段结合起来才是最有效的对策——尽量压低磁场的强度、尽量缩小接收方的环路面积,以及通过优化布线来尽量减少耦合。下面给出一些准则: 

[035]
Locate the receiving circuits as far as possible from the source of the magnetic field.
接收方电路应尽可能远离磁场中心。

[036]
Avoid running wires parallel to the magnetic field; instead, cross the magnetic field at right angles.
不要沿磁场方向走线,走线方向应与磁场方向正交。

[037]
Shield the magnetic field with an appropriate material for the frequency and field strength.
要根据磁场频率和强度选择合适的屏蔽材料。

[038]
Use a twisted pair of wires for conductors carrying the high-level current that is the source of the magnetic field. If the currents in the two wires are equal and opposite, the net field in any direction over each cycle of twist will be zero (Figure 17a). For this arrangement to work, none of the current can be shared with another conductor, for example, a ground plane. Figure 17b shows what can happen if a ground loop is formed; if part of the current flows through the ground plane (depending on'the ratio of conductor resistance to ground resistance), it will form a loop with the twisted pair, generating a field determined by ia (=il - i2).
承载大电流的导线应做成双绞线。导线中的大电流会([译者]在其周围)感生磁场,如果两根导线的电流大小相等,方向相反,([译者]则将两根导线做成双绞线后,)在双绞线的各个部位,各空间方向的磁场均完全抵消(如图17a)。为保证完全抵消,两根导线上的电流都不能被分流,比如接地。图17b所示是存在接地环路的情形——一部分电流ia流经地线(电流的大小取决于导线电阻与地阻的大小),在双绞线之外形成了一个环路,这个环路将感应磁场,磁场强度由ia(=i1-i2)决定。


Figure 17. Connections to a twisted pair.
图17  双绞线连接的示意图

[039]
The ground connection between A and B need not be as simple as a short circuit to cause trouble. Any stray unbalanced capacitance or resistance from Rload circuits to the ground plane will also unbalance the currents and produce a net current through the wires and the ground plane, producing a ground loop and a related magnetic field. For this reason, it is also good practice to run the twisted pair close to the ground plane to tend to balance the capacitances from each side to ground, as well as to minimize loop area.
即使不连接A点和B点,问题也可能出现。Rload电路与地线平面之间哪怕只有一点点寄生电容和寄生电阻,也会破坏([译者]双绞线内的)电流平衡,使导线与地线平面形成的环路中出现电流,这个电流随即会感应出磁场。基于这个原因,人们总结出一条经验——在放置双绞线时应使其接近地线平面,这样做可以使两根线对地的寄生参数基本相同,并且(导线与地线构成的)环路面积最小。

[040]
Use a shielded cable with the high-level source circuit's return current carried in the shield (Figure 18). If the shield current, I2 is equal and opposite to that in the center conductor, the center-conductor field and the shield field will cancel, producing a zero net field. In this case, which seems to violate the "no shield current" rule for receiver circuits, the concentric cable is not used to shield the center lead; instead, the geometrv produces cancellation.
负载电流较大时,用屏蔽体来充当负载电流返回信号源的通道。如图18,图中屏蔽体上的电流与电缆芯线中的电流大小相等、方向相反,于是由这两个电流感应出来的磁场将相互抵消。这个例子看起来违背了上文“屏蔽体一定不能有电流”的准则,但是这里屏蔽电缆并非用来屏蔽芯线,而是通过这种特殊接法抵消干扰。


Figure 18. Use of shield for return current to noise source.
图18  用屏蔽体作为负载电流的返回路径
[译者疑虑]此处图题似与图的含义不符,暂按上段文字翻译。

[041]
This scheme can be usefully employed in an ATE system where accurate measurements must be performed on devices with high power-supply currents that may be noisy. For example, Figure 19 shows the application of this technique to the connections for the high-current logic supply for an a/d converter under test--at the end of a test cable.
上图的接法如果应用在ATE(自动测试仪器)中,可以有效地克服被测对象因负载电流大而引起的噪声干扰。以图19所示的AD转换器为例:AD转换器位于测试电缆的一端,为了消除外部数字电源因电路电平跳变而产生的大电流波动,就(在测试电缆上)应用了这项技术。


Figure 19. Application of circuit of Figure 18 in a test system.
图19  图18电路的应用示例

[042]
Since magnetically induced noise depends on the area of the receiver loop, the induced voltage due to magnetic coupling can be reduced by reducing the loop's area. What is the receiver loop? In the example shown in Figure 20, the signal source and its load are connected by a pair of conductors of length L and separation D. The circuit (assuming it has a rectangular configuration) forms a loop with area D- L.
如前文所述,磁感应噪声的大小与接收方的回路面积成正比。因此只要缩小回路面积,就可以削弱磁场耦合引起的感应噪声电压。那么接收回路是什么呢?图20的示例中,信号源及其负载通过一对长度为L、距离为D的导线相连,该电路就形成了一个面积为DxL的回路(假设电路按矩形布置)。


Figure 20. Area of a loop that receives magnetically coupled noise.
图20  感应磁噪声的环路面积的定义

[043]
The voltage induced in series with the loop is proportional to the area and the cosine of its angle to the field. Thus, to miimize noise, the loop should be oriented at right angles to the field, and its area should be minimized.
回路感生电压的大小与回路面积以及回路与磁场方向夹角的余弦成正比。因此,要减少噪声干扰,一要让回路与磁场方向垂直放置,二要尽量缩小回路的面积。

[044]
The area can be reduced by decreasing the length of and/or decreasing the distance between the conductors. This is easily accomplished with a twisted pair, or at least a tightly cabled pair, of conductors. It is good practice to pair conductors so that the circuit wire and its return path will always be together. To do this, the designer must be certain of the actual path that the return current takes in getting back to the signal source. Quite often, the current returns by a path not intended in the original design layout.
只要缩短导线长度和/或导线的间距,就可以缩小回路的面积。采用双绞线或者将导线成对紧扎成线束,可以很容易地达到这个要求。而如果能将电路的输入线和返回线总是成对捆扎在一起,效果会更好。要做到这一点,设计者必须掌握电流的实际流向和返回信号源的路径。不过很多时候,电流的实际返回路径与设计者预计的不一致。

[045]
If wires are moved (for example, by a technician troubleshooting some other problem), the loop area and orientation to the field may change, so that yesterday's acceptable noise level may be transformed to tomorrow's disastrous noise level. Which may lead to a service call…, and another repetition of the cycle. The bottom line: Know the loop area and orientation, do what must be done to minimize noise--and permanently secure the wiring!
导线的移动(例如,在进行故障检修时)可能会使回路面积及回路与磁场的夹角发生变化,(相应地,噪声强度也变化了,)结果可能会使噪声强度超过移动导线之前的水平,从而可能引发故障,甚至就此恶性循环下去。根本的原则就是:牢记回路面积和回路走向的影响,采取各种措施努力抑制噪声,特别是要牢牢地固定导线。
 
[035]
Locate the receiving circuits as far as possible from the source of the magnetic field.
接收方电路应尽可能远离磁场中心。

[036]
Avoid running wires parallel to the magnetic field; instead, cross the magnetic field at right angles.
不要沿磁场方向走线,走线方向应与磁场方向正交。

[037]
Shield the magnetic field with an appropriate material for the frequency and field strength.
要根据磁场频率和强度选择合适的屏蔽材料。

[038]
Use a twisted pair of wires for conductors carrying the high-level current that is the source of the magnetic field. If the currents in the two wires are equal and opposite, the net field in any direction over each cycle of twist will be zero (Figure 17a). For this arrangement to work, none of the current can be shared with another conductor, for example, a ground plane. Figure 17b shows what can happen if a ground loop is formed; if part of the current flows through the ground plane (depending on'the ratio of conductor resistance to ground resistance), it will form a loop with the twisted pair, generating a field determined by ia (=il - i2).
承载大电流的导线应做成双绞线。导线中的大电流会([译者]在其周围)感生磁场,如果两根导线的电流大小相等,方向相反,([译者]则将两根导线做成双绞线后,)在双绞线的各个部位,各空间方向的磁场均完全抵消(如图17a)。为保证完全抵消,两根导线上的电流都不能被分流,比如接地。图17b所示是存在接地环路的情形——一部分电流ia流经地线(电流的大小取决于导线电阻与地阻的大小),在双绞线之外形成了一个环路,这个环路将感应磁场,磁场强度由ia(=i1-i2)决定。


Figure 17. Connections to a twisted pair.
图17  双绞线连接的示意图

[039]
The ground connection between A and B need not be as simple as a short circuit to cause trouble. Any stray unbalanced capacitance or resistance from Rload circuits to the ground plane will also unbalance the currents and produce a net current through the wires and the ground plane, producing a ground loop and a related magnetic field. For this reason, it is also good practice to run the twisted pair close to the ground plane to tend to balance the capacitances from each side to ground, as well as to minimize loop area.
即使不连接A点和B点,问题也可能出现。Rload电路与地线平面之间哪怕只有一点点寄生电容和寄生电阻,也会破坏([译者]双绞线内的)电流平衡,使导线与地线平面形成的环路中出现电流,这个电流随即会感应出磁场。基于这个原因,人们总结出一条经验——在放置双绞线时应使其接近地线平面,这样做可以使两根线对地的寄生参数基本相同,并且(导线与地线构成的)环路面积最小。

[040]
Use a shielded cable with the high-level source circuit's return current carried in the shield (Figure 18). If the shield current, I2 is equal and opposite to that in the center conductor, the center-conductor field and the shield field will cancel, producing a zero net field. In this case, which seems to violate the "no shield current" rule for receiver circuits, the concentric cable is not used to shield the center lead; instead, the geometrv produces cancellation.
负载电流较大时,用屏蔽体来充当负载电流返回信号源的通道。如图18,图中屏蔽体上的电流与电缆芯线中的电流大小相等、方向相反,于是由这两个电流感应出来的磁场将相互抵消。这个例子看起来违背了上文“屏蔽体一定不能有电流”的准则,但是这里屏蔽电缆并非用来屏蔽芯线,而是通过这种特殊接法抵消干扰。


Figure 18. Use of shield for return current to noise source.
图18  用屏蔽体作为负载电流的返回路径
[译者疑虑]此处图题似与图的含义不符,暂按上段文字翻译。

[041]
This scheme can be usefully employed in an ATE system where accurate measurements must be performed on devices with high power-supply currents that may be noisy. For example, Figure 19 shows the application of this technique to the connections for the high-current logic supply for an a/d converter under test--at the end of a test cable.
上图的接法如果应用在ATE(自动测试仪器)中,可以有效地克服被测对象因负载电流大而引起的噪声干扰。以图19所示的AD转换器为例:AD转换器位于测试电缆的一端,为了消除外部数字电源因电路电平跳变而产生的大电流波动,就(在测试电缆上)应用了这项技术。


Figure 19. Application of circuit of Figure 18 in a test system.
图19  图18电路的应用示例

[042]
Since magnetically induced noise depends on the area of the receiver loop, the induced voltage due to magnetic coupling can be reduced by reducing the loop's area. What is the receiver loop? In the example shown in Figure 20, the signal source and its load are connected by a pair of conductors of length L and separation D. The circuit (assuming it has a rectangular configuration) forms a loop with area D- L.
如前文所述,磁感应噪声的大小与接收方的回路面积成正比。因此只要缩小回路面积,就可以削弱磁场耦合引起的感应噪声电压。那么接收回路是什么呢?图20的示例中,信号源及其负载通过一对长度为L、距离为D的导线相连,该电路就形成了一个面积为DxL的回路(假设电路按矩形布置)。


Figure 20. Area of a loop that receives magnetically coupled noise.
图20  感应磁噪声的环路面积的定义

[043]
The voltage induced in series with the loop is proportional to the area and the cosine of its angle to the field. Thus, to miimize noise, the loop should be oriented at right angles to the field, and its area should be minimized.
回路感生电压的大小与回路面积以及回路与磁场方向夹角的余弦成正比。因此,要减少噪声干扰,一要让回路与磁场方向垂直放置,二要尽量缩小回路的面积。

[044]
The area can be reduced by decreasing the length of and/or decreasing the distance between the conductors. This is easily accomplished with a twisted pair, or at least a tightly cabled pair, of conductors. It is good practice to pair conductors so that the circuit wire and its return path will always be together. To do this, the designer must be certain of the actual path that the return current takes in getting back to the signal source. Quite often, the current returns by a path not intended in the original design layout.
只要缩短导线长度和/或导线的间距,就可以缩小回路的面积。采用双绞线或者将导线成对紧扎成线束,可以很容易地达到这个要求。而如果能将电路的输入线和返回线总是成对捆扎在一起,效果会更好。要做到这一点,设计者必须掌握电流的实际流向和返回信号源的路径。不过很多时候,电流的实际返回路径与设计者预计的不一致。

[045]
If wires are moved (for example, by a technician troubleshooting some other problem), the loop area and orientation to the field may change, so that yesterday's acceptable noise level may be transformed to tomorrow's disastrous noise level. Which may lead to a service call…, and another repetition of the cycle. The bottom line: Know the loop area and orientation, do what must be done to minimize noise--and permanently secure the wiring!
导线的移动(例如,在进行故障检修时)可能会使回路面积及回路与磁场的夹角发生变化,(相应地,噪声强度也变化了,)结果可能会使噪声强度超过移动导线之前的水平,从而可能引发故障,甚至就此恶性循环下去。根本的原则就是:牢记回路面积和回路走向的影响,采取各种措施努力抑制噪声,特别是要牢牢地固定导线。
 
DRIVEN SHIELDS AND GUARDING
加驱动的屏蔽及防护罩

[译者疑虑]driven shield一词的译法不确定


[046]
We have discussed the role of a current-driven shield carrying an equal and opposite current to reduce generated noise by reducing the magnetic field around a conductor.
上文探讨了载流屏蔽体的效果——让包围导线的屏蔽层带有大小相等、方向相反的电流,从而抵消磁场,降低干扰。

[047]
Guarding is similar, in that it involves driving a shield, at low impedance, with a potential essentially equal to the common-mode voltage on the signal wire contained within the shield. Guarding has many useful purposes: It reduces common-mode capacitance, improves common-mode rejection, and eliminates leakage currents in high-impedance measurement circuits
防护罩的原理与载流屏蔽体相似,即用一个电压源来驱动低阻抗的屏蔽体,电压源的电压与屏蔽体内信号线上的共模电压相等。防护罩的用途较广,它可用于降低共模容抗,提高共模抑制比,在高阻抗测量电路中还可以减少漏电流。
[译者疑虑]屏蔽体内信号线上为什么会有“共模电压”?成因?

[048]
Figure 21 shows an example of an op amp with negligible bias current connected as a high-impedance non-inverting amplifier with gain. The purpose of the cable is to shield the high input-impedance signal conductor from capacitively coupled noise and to minimize leakage currents. The signal comes from a 10-megohm source, and the cable is assumed to have 1000-megohms of leakage resistance (which may change as a function of temperature, humidity, etc.) from conductor to shield. If connected as shown, the equivalent input circuit is an attenuator which loses 1% of the signal at the time it is measured, and an unknown fraction at other times. Also, the cable capacitance produces a substantial lag time constant, RsCc.
以图21上部所示电路为例:图中运放的偏置电流近似为零,此处接成一个高输入阻抗的同相比例放大器;接入运放的信号采用屏蔽电缆传输,目的是避免外界噪声通过电容耦合侵入高输入阻抗的信号线,同时可以降低漏电流;信号源的输出阻抗为10兆欧,电缆绝缘层的绝缘电阻为1000兆欧(阻值与温度、湿度等环境条件相关)。在图21下部给出了等效电路,从中可看出,在测量期间,信号源内阻将衰减掉1%的信号,在非测量期间这个比例不确定。与上文各例一样,电缆的寄生电容Cc会引起信号延迟,延迟的时间常数为RsCc。
[译者注]此处将“leakage resistance from conductor to shield”译做“电缆绝缘层的绝缘电阻”。-----根据原文的意思,就是信号线间的等效绝缘电阻。IC921



Figure 21. Op amp connected as high-impedance non-inverting amplifier with gain, with shielded input lead.
图21  运放搭成同相比例放大器,信号输入采用屏蔽电缆

[049]
Figure 22 has the same players, but the shield is connected to the tap of the gain divider ( usually at low impedance ). Being connected to the inverting input of the op amp, it should be at the same potential as the amplifier's non-inverting input. Since there is no voltage across the cable’s leakage resistance, there is no current through it and its resistance value doesn’t matter. V1 must therefore be equal Vs , since bias current was assumed negligible.
图22的电路基本上与图21一样,只是将屏蔽体接到了比例放大电路中分压电阻的连接点处(连接阻抗一般都很低)。由于该点与运放反相端直接相连,所以该点电位与运放同相端相等。这样一来,电缆绝缘层内外电压为零,漏电流为零,因此电缆绝缘层电阻的大小也就无所谓了。鉴于运放的偏置电流小到可以忽略,因此V1与Vs相等。
[译者疑虑]原文usually at low impedance的译法对吗?



Figure 22. Same as Figure 21, but cable shield connected as a guard.
图22  将图21电路中的屏蔽体用作防护罩

[050]
Also, there is no voltage across the cable capacitance, hence no charging or discharging of the cable; thus the lag time constant depends mainly on circuit strays and the amplifier's input capacitance. For stability, capacitance should be connected between the output and the negative input, such that CfRF = CsRi, where Cs is sum of the stray capacitance between shield and ground and the input capacitance.
另外,这样做也使加在电缆寄生电容上的电压为零,这时电缆既不会放电也不会充电,从而避免了因电缆寄生参数和放大器输入容抗而产生的信号延迟。为了提高稳定性,应该在运放输出端和反相输入端之间接一个电容Cf,使CfRF=CsRi,其中Cs是屏蔽层与地线间的寄生电容与放大器输入容抗之和。

[051]
There must be no noise voltage applied to the guard. In noisy systems, as Figure 22 shows, capacitively coupled noise will be differentiated, emphasizing the higher-frequency components. This can be avoided (Figure 23) by either using a buffer follower with fast response and Iow output impedance to drive the guard (a) or a second shield, around the guard, grounded to the signal common (b).
防护罩上决不能有噪声电压。在图22的噪声环境下,电容耦合噪声将呈现差分特性,并且带有较强的高频成分。采用图23所示的两种办法可以解决这个问题——用一个响应速度快、输出阻抗小的缓冲跟随器来驱动防护罩(图23.a),或者在防护罩外面再加一层屏蔽体,并将屏蔽体接到信号的参考电位(图23.b)。



Figure 23. Avoding noise pickup on the guard.
图23  消除防护罩上出现的噪声

[052]
In high-impedance current-input inverting configurations, where a length of shielded wire is used to guard the lead from the current source to the amplifier's inverting input, the guard should either be driven by a buffer at the same potential as the non-inverting input (and connected nowhere else), or be tied directly to the non-inverting input, with a second outer shield connected to the signal's reference point.
如果将运放接成反相放大器的形式(高阻输入、电流输入),并且在信号源与运放反相端之间用一段带有屏蔽层的导线来充当(信号线)的防护罩,那么对防护罩的处理有两种选择:要么用一个缓冲跟随器来驱动,跟随器输出端与运放同相端电位相等,而且除跟随器外,防护罩不与其他点接触;要么将防护罩直接接到运放的同相端,然后在其外面加一个屏蔽层,并且将屏蔽层连接到信号的参考电位。

[译者疑虑]high-impedance current-input inverting configurations的译法不确定,反相放大器的输入阻抗比较小,为什么还说是“高阻抗”呢?

SUMMARY
结束语


[053]
Table 2 summarizes the important points made in this article. All are important to maintaining a high-integrity shield system. However, we cannot emphasize too strongly the two subjects that are most-often ignored: appearance of noise voltage on signal shields and proper disposition of shield noise currents. Noise voltage must not exist on the shield; shield-to-conductor capacitance will couple the noise directly to the center conductor. If shield currents are not returned properly, they can show up in a remote part of the system and perhaps cause trouble in a location totally unrelated to the shielding problem that was "solved."
表2列出了本文的要点,这些要点对于构建一个严密有效的屏蔽系统来说是很重要的。不过,最容易被忽略的两个因素——信号线屏蔽层上的噪声电压,以及正确处置屏蔽体中的噪声电流——在前文还强调地不够。屏蔽体上一定不能存在噪声电压,由于在屏蔽体与信号线间存在寄生电容,屏蔽体上的电压会通过电容耦合侵入信号线,形成噪声。如果屏蔽层的电流返回路径设计不当,这部分电流将会影响分开布置的系统部件,并且可能引发故障,而故障出现的位置可能与“看似完好”的屏蔽层相去甚远。

[054]
   Table 2. Applicability of shielding consideratins
  
┌─────────────────────────────┬─────┬────┬────┐
│Consideration                                             │Universal │Electric│Magnetic│
│要点                                                      │   通用   │电场干扰│磁场干扰│
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│Know the noise source, coupling medium,and receiver.      │   X      │   X    │   X    │
│确定噪声源、耦合介质和接收器(受干扰对象)                  │          │        │        │
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│Different shielding techniques are required for           │          │        │        │
│different noise sources, coupling channels and receivers. │   X      │   X    │   X    │
│针对不同的噪声源、耦合介质和接收器采取不同的屏蔽措施      │          │        │        │
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│In most situations, conventional circuit analysis using   │          │        │        │
│lumped elements can be used.                              │   X      │   X    │   X    │
│绝丈多数情况下,可以使用常规的“集总元件式的”电路分析方法│          │        │        │
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│Connect the shield at the signal-source end only.         │          │   X    │        │
│屏蔽体必须与信号源的参考电位相连,而且必须单点连接        │          │        │        │
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│Carry shields through connectors.                         │          │   X    │        │
│分散的屏蔽体必须连成一体                                  │          │        │        │
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│Individual shields should not be tied together.           │          │   X    │        │
│不同信号的屏蔽体不要连在一起                              │          │        │        │
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│Do not ground both ends of a shield.                      │          │   X    │        │
│屏蔽体不要多点接地                                        │          │        │        │
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│Do not allow shield current to flow, except for driven    │          │        │        │
│shields- to cancel magnetic fields magnetic fields        │          │   X    │   X    │
│除非出于抵消磁场的目的,即用作加驱动的屏蔽,否则屏蔽体上  │          │        │        │
│不应有电流                                                │          │        │        │
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│Do not allow voltage on a shield, except for guarding.    │          │   X    │        │
│除非用作防护罩,否则屏蔽体上不应有电压                    │          │        │        │
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│Know exactly where noise current from the shield will flow│          │   X    │        │
│要“确切地”掌握屏蔽体上噪声电流的去向                    │          │        │        │
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│Use short connections to return noise current from the    │          │        │        │
│shield.                                                   │          │   X    │        │
│屏蔽体上的噪声电流应该用尽量短的导线引回信号地            │          │        │        │
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│Electrostatic shields have little effect in reducing      │          │        │        │
│noise resulting from magnetic fields.                     │          │        │   X    │
│针对电场千扰的屏蔽措施对于磁场千扰收效甚做                │          │        │        │
├─────────────────────────────┼─────┼────┼────┤
│Reduce magnetic fields by physical separation proper      │          │        │        │
│orientation, twisted pairs, and/or driven shields.        │          │        │   X    │
│远离磁场、选取适当的磁场夹角、使用双绞线、给屏蔽体加驱动  │          │        │        │

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