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连词 (Conjunctions)知识点

2010-03-28  昕梦缘
‖连词概述‖

连词是一种虚词,用于连接单词、短语、从句或句子,不能单独做句子成分。连词按其性质可分为并列连词和从属连词。并列连词用于连接并列的单词、短语、从句或句子,如and,but,or,for等;从属连词主要用于引导主语从句、宾语从句、状语从句等

如:

Get up and dress quickly. 起来,快穿好衣裳。        
  (并列连词)

Tell him as soon as he arrives. 他一来就告诉他。     (从属连词)

1. 并列连词------1.1 并列连词与并列结构

1) and 与or

    判断改错(错)They sat down and talk about something.

              (错)They started to dance and sang.

              (错)I saw two men sitting behind and whisper there.

              (对)They sat down and talked about something.

               (对)They started to dance and sing.

               (对)I saw two men sitting behind and whispering there.

     
解析: 第一句: and 连接两个并列的谓语,所以 talk 应改为 talked。

           第二句:and 连接两个并列的动词不定式,第二个不定式往往省略to,因此sang 应改为 sing。

            第三句:and 连接感观动词saw 后面的用作的宾补的两个并列分词结构,因此whisper应改为whispering。

     
注意: and 还可以和祈使句或名词词组连用表示条件。(or也有此用法)例如:

            Make up your mind, and you'll get the chance. 拿定主意,这次你会有机会的。

             = If you make up your mind, you'll get the chance.

            One more effort, and you'll succeed. 再努力一下,你会成功的。

             = If you make one more effort, you'll succeed.

2)  both…and 两者都。例如:

      She plays (both) the piano and the guitar. 她弹钢琴,也弹吉他。

3) not only…but (also), as well as不但…而且。例如:

    She plays not only the piano, but (also) the guitar. 她不但弹钢琴,也弹吉他。

     注意:not only… but also 关联两个分句时,一个分句因有否定词not 而必须倒装。例如

     Not only does he like reading stories, but also he can even write some.他不但喜欢读小说,甚至还会写。

 4) neithe…nor 意思为"既不……也不……"谓语动词采用就近原则,与nor后的词保持一致。例如:

    Neither you nor he is to blame. 你和他都不该受指责。

1.2 表示转折或对比

 1) but表示转折,while表示对比。例如:

    Some people love cats, while others hate them.有些人喜欢猫,而有些人不喜欢。

  典型例题 

  --- Would you like to come to dinner tonight?  

  --- I'd like to, ___ I'm too busy.

     A. and  B. so  C. as  D. but  

    答案D。but与前面形成转折,符合语意。而表并列的and, 结果的so,原因的as都不符合句意。

 2) not…but… 意思为"不是…而是…",后面的用词要遵循一致原则

    They were not the bones of an animal, but (the bones) of a human being. 这些不是动物的骨头,而是人的。

1.3 表示选择的并列结构

 1) or意思为"否则"。例如:

    I must work hard, or I'll fail in the exam. 我要努力学习,否则考试要不及格了。

 2) either…or 意思为"或者……或者……"。注意谓语动词的主谓一致采用就近原则。例如:

    Either you or I am right. 不是你对,就是我对。

1.4 表原因关系

1) for是并列连词,不能置于含两个并列分句的句子的句首,只能将其放在两个分句中间

判断改错:(错) For he is ill, he is absent today.

              (对) He is absent today, for he is ill.

2) so为连词, therefore一般为副词。例如:

He hurt his leg, so he couldn't play in the game. 他的腿受伤了,不能上场。

I think; therefore I exist. 我思故我在。

2. 从属连词------2.1 引导名词性从句的从属连词

  引导名词性从句的从属连词有连接词 that,whetherif,这些连词在句中不充当任何句子成分;连接代词主要有 who,whom,whose,which,what 等,它们在句中可作主语、宾语、定语等;连接副词主要有 when,where,how,why 等,它们在句中可作状语。

  We know (that) the earth goes round the sun. 我们知道地球围绕太阳运转。 (宾语从句)

  Who will attend the meeting hasn't decided yet. 谁去参加会议还没有决定。 (主语从句)

  That's why he didn't come to school. 那就是他为什么没来学校的原因。 (表语从句)

  The news that our team had won was very exciting. 我们队赢了,这消息令人十分振奋。 (同位语从句)

2.2 引导状语从句的从属连词

  1)  引导时间状语从句的从属连词

      when(当...时) ,while(在...期间), as(当...时,一边...一边), after(在...之后), before(在...之前), since(自从...以来), till/until(直到,直到...才), once(一旦...), as soon as(一...就), the moment/instant(一...就), no sooner...than(刚...就), hardly...when(刚...就) 等。

      Once you begin, you must go on. 一旦你开了头,就要继续下去。
      We had hardly finished the work when it began to rain. 我们刚做完工作就开始下雨了。

  2)  引导原因状语从句的从属连词

      as(由于),because(因为),since(既然),for(因为)等。

      Since everybody is here, let's begin. 既然大家都在这里,我们开始吧。

  3)  引导地点状语从句的从属连词

      where(在...地方),wherever(无论在...哪里)

      Wherever she may be, she will be happy. 她无论在什么地方都会快乐。

  4)  引导条件状语从句的从属连词

      if(如果),unless(除非),so/as long as(只要),in case(如果,万一)等。

      He will not come unless he is invited. 除非被邀请,否则他是不会来的。

  5)  引导目的状语从句的从属连词

      that(以便),so that(为了),in order that(为了),lest(以防,免得),in case(以防,免得)

      She took medicine on time in order that she might get well soon. 为了尽早康复,她按时吃药。

  6)  引导结果状语从句的从属连词

      so(结果),so that(结果),so/such...that(如此...以致),that(that)等。

      It was very cold,so that the water in the bowl froze. 天气很冷,碗里的水都结冰了。

  7)  引导让步状语从句的从属连词

      though/although(虽然),as(虽然),even if/though(即使),however(无论怎样),whatever(无论什么),whoever(无论谁),no matter how/what/which/...(无论多么/什么/哪一个/...)

      Even if/though you were here yesterday,you couldn't help him. 即使你昨天在这里,你也帮不了他。

  8)  引导方式状语从句的从属连词

      as(正如),as if/though(好像,似乎)等

      Use a book as a bee does a flower. 像蜜蜂利用花一样利用书籍。

  9)  引导比较状语从句的从属连词

      as(如...),as...as... (像...一样),not so...as...(与...不一样),than(比)等。

      His elder sister is as tall as his mother. 他姐姐和他母亲一样高。

3. 常见近义连词的用法------3.1 比较 and 和 or

 1) 并列结构中,or通常用于否定句,and用于肯定句

 2) 但有时and 也可用于否定句。请注意其不同特点:

    There is no air or water in the moon.

    There is no air and no water on the moon.

     在否定中并列结构用or 连接,但含有两个否定词的句子实际被看作是肯定结构,因此要用and

 典型例题

     ---I don't like chicken ___ fish. 

     ---I don't like chicken, ___ I like fish very much.

     A. and; and  B. and; but C. or; but D. or;and

     答案C。否定句中表并列用or, but 表转折。

 判断改错(错)We will die without air and water.

              (错)We can't live without air or water.

              (对)We will die without air or water.

         (对)We can't live without air and water.

3.2 比较 so 和 such

   such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。so 还可与表示数量的形容词many,few,much, little连用,形成固定搭配。

so + adj.             such + a(n) + n.

so + adj. + a(n) + n.    such + n. (pl.)

so + adj. + n. (pl.)     such +n. (pl.) 

so + adj. + n. (不可数)    such +n.(不可数)

so foolish             such a fool 

so nice a flower         such a nice flower

so many/ few flowers       such nice flowers

so much/ little money.     such rapid progress 

so many people           such a lot of people

   so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名词性的,只能用such搭配。so…thatsuch…that之间的转换即为 sosuch之间的转换

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