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定语从句专项讲解与训练

 江边日月 2010-04-18

    今天我发现个别无耻之徒在转走我的这篇原创文章后抹去我的署名,硬是狠狠地剥夺了我的署名权和著作权,我很伤心!结果,其他人在从他博客转走时,根本也就不知道文章的出处和真正的作者。希望网友们要相互尊重!尊重他人=尊重自己!2010年9月18日

 
    定语从句专项讲解与训练

   文/江节明

作者简介:
    江节明 高考英语满分“状元”指导教师,在北京师范大学获硕士学位,师从博士生导师周流溪教授。 1983-1998年连续15年在安徽省重点中学——怀宁中学教高三英语,每年他所教的学生都有几个考上北大和清华。发表学术论文数篇,文章100余篇,先后主编大中小学英语工具书、辅导书50多部。全国高考英语命题改革曾采纳过他的建议,“为中国的考试事业做出了贡献”。在词汇、阅读、语法和写作方面有独特的教学方法。他认为:没有不会学的学生,只有不会教的教师。一个好教师一定是既让自己教得轻松,又让他的学生学得轻松,花最少的教学时间取得最佳的教学效果。
    1998年起他在北京工作,从事英语教学与研究工作。他目前的联系方式有:E-mail: bookfun@126.com QQ: 928589163

一、定语从句概念
定语从句(attributive clause),顾名思义,就是一个句子作定语从属于主句。定语一般是由形容词充当,所以定语从句又称作形容词从句。另外,定语从句是由关系代词或关系副词引导的,故又称作关系从句。
定语从句一般放在它所修饰的名词或代词之后,这种名词或代词被称作先行词。请看示例:
The woman who lives next door is a teacher.
先行词 定语从句
在所有的从句中,算定语从句最难掌握,因为汉语里没有定语从句,汉语里只有定语,而且总是放在名词之前来修饰名词。

二、关系代词引导的定语从句
关系代词代替前面的先行词,并且在定语从句中充当句子成分,可以作主语、宾语、定语等。常见的关系代词有:who, that, which。它们的主格、宾格和所有格如下表所示:

先行词 主格 宾格 所有格
人 who whom whose
物 which which
whose
of which
人、物 that that —

(一)关系代词who, whom和 whose的用法
who代替人,是主格,在定语从句中作主语。例如:
An architect is a person who designs buildings. 建筑师是设计房屋的人。
I will never forget the teacher who taught us chemistry in the first year of my senior middle school. 我将永远不会忘记在高一时教我们化学的那位老师。
Anyone who wants to apply for this job must send us the resume by email first. 想应聘这个职位的任何人都必须先通过电子邮件向我们发送简历。
whom代替人,是宾格,在定语从句作宾语,在非正式英语常可省略。例如:
Do you know the gentleman whom we met in the school library yesterday? 昨天我们在学校图书馆里遇到的那位先生你认识吗?
This is the student whom my father taught ten years ago. 这是我爸爸十年前教的学生。
The girl who I saw is called Mary. 我见到的那个女孩名叫玛丽。(在非正式英语中,主格who代替了宾格whom,亦可省略)
whose一般代替人,有时亦可代替物,是所有格,在定语从句作定语。例如:
The girl student whose father is a senior engineer used to study abroad. 其父是一位高级工程师的那个女学生过去在国外留学。
Do you know the name of the hotel whose window we can see here? 我们这儿能看到窗户的那个宾馆叫什么名字,你知道吗?(关系代词whose指代先行词hotel,正式用法应该用of which。whose window=the window of which,意思是:the window of the hotel。)
【透视高考题】
真题:Look out! Don’t get too close to the house ______ roof is under repair.
A. whose B. which C. of which D. that (2006福建卷-22)
简析:考查关系代词whose引导的定语从句。whose在这个句子里代替物,whose roof=the roof of which,定语从句用另外一句话表达即为:…The roof of the house is under repair。所以A是正确答案。

(二)关系代词which的用法
which代替物,在定语从句作主语或宾语,作宾语时还可省略。例如:
I do not like stories which have unhappy endings.
我不喜欢有不幸结局的小说。(which可以换成that)
Tom works for a factory which makes watches.
汤姆在一个制表厂工作。(which可以换成that)
(三)关系代词that的用法
that既可指人又可指物,在当代英语中大多指物,在定语从句作主语或宾语,作宾语时还可省略。例如:
Is she the girl that sells newspapers?
她是卖报纸的那个女孩吗?(that可以换成who)
Where is the ice-cream that was in the fridge?
放在冰箱的冰激凌哪儿去了?(that可以换成which)
Is this the book that you want to buy?
这是你要买的那本书吗? (that可以换成which,在定语从句作宾语,还可以省略)

三、关系副词引导的定语从句
常用的关系副词只有三个:when, where, why,在定语从句中充当时间、地点和原因状语。它们的用法大家不妨记住一个口诀:
the time when
the place where
the reason why
(一)关系副词when的用法
关系副词when代替的先行词表示的是时间,when在定语从句作时间状语。例如:
In Beijing July and August are the months when it rains very often.
北京的七月和八月是常下雨的月份。(when先行词是months)
Do you remember the day when we first went to the Summer Palace?
你还记得我们第一次去颐和园的那一天吗?(when先行词是day, 当代英语里when可以用that替代,这时关系代词that就变成了表示时间的关系副词)
I haven’t seen her since the year when I left Tokyo.
自从我离开东京的那一年我就一直没见到过她。(when先行词是year,同样when可以用that代替)
【透视高考题】
真题:Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer ______ it was 20 years ago, ______ it was so poorly equipped.
A. what; when B. that; which C. what; which D. which; that
(2005安徽卷-32)
简析:考查关系代词when引导的定语从句。第一个空填连接代词what,第二个空前的先行词是20 years ago,故这个空应填表示时间的关系副词when。故A是正确答案。

(二)关系副词where的用法
关系副词where代替的先行词表示的是地点,where在定语从句作地点状语。例如:
During the Spring Festival I went back to the town where I was brought up.
春节期间,我回到了生我养我的家乡。(where的先行词是town)
This is the place where Li Bai once lived.
这是李白曾经生活过的地方。(where先行词是place)
上面这个句子不可以将where改为that,因为that不能作为表示地点的关系副词。试比较下句:
This is the place that Li Bai once visited.
这是李白曾经游览过的地方。(that的先行词同样是place,但这个that是关系代词,在定语从句中作宾语,可以省略,还可以用which替换)
【透视高考题】
真题:If a shop has chairs ______ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop.
A. that B. which C. when D. where (2005上海卷-40)
简析:考查关系副词where引导的定语从句。定语从句的意思是说男人可以停留在椅子上休息,显然是表示地点,故D是正确答案。

(三)关系副词why的用法
关系副词why代替的先行词表示的是原因,why在定语从句作原因状语。例如:
The reason why I am phoning you is to ask you whether you have got my email.
我打电话给你的原因是想问问你是否收到了我的电子邮件。(why先行词是reason, 当代英语里why可以用that替代,这时关系代词that就变成了表示原因的关系副词,还可以将why省略)
This is the reason why he came late to school.
这就是他为什么上学迟到的原因。(why先行词是reason,why可以用that替代,还可以省略)
注意:如果上面的句子将the reason省略,那么这个句子就变成了(This is why he came late to school. )表语从句,句子意思丝毫未变。

四、特殊关系代词as引导的定语从句
as是个比较特殊的关系代词,一是用在某些句型搭配里,二是独立于主句之外。下面分别讲解。
(一)在固定搭配as…as, so…as, such…as, the same…as中,as引导定语从句
You may take as many books as you want.
你想要拿多少书就拿多少。(第一个as是副词,修饰many的;第二个as才是关系代词,代替先行词books,在定语从句中作宾语)
I have got such a computer as yours.
我有一台你这样的电脑。(as是关系代词,代替先行词computer,在定语从句中作表语,因为yours后省略了is )
I have never seen so beautiful a place as Guilin.
我从未见过像桂林那样美丽的地方。(as是关系代词,代替先行词place,在定语从句中作表语,因为Guilin后省略了is )

(二)独立于主句之外,as引导定语从句
As we know,
the earth turns around the sun. 正如我们所知,地球围绕太阳旋转。
As is known to us,
(As we know和 As is known to us均为定语从句,as分别作宾语和主语,替代后面的主句。)
Taiwan is, as you know, is an inseparable part of China.
你知道,台湾是中国不可分割的一部分。(关系代词as指代整个主句,在定语从句中作宾语。)
【透视高考题】
真题1:The Beatles, ______ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool.
A. what B. that C. how D. as (2006天津卷-12)
简析:考查关系代词as引导的定语从句。as代替先行词the Beatles同时又在从句中作remember的宾语,as的功能同which,但as有“正如”的意思,故D是正确答案。
真题2:______ is often the case, we have worked out the production plan.
A. Which B. When C. What D. As (2004江苏卷-33)
简析:考查关系代词as引导的定语从句。which与as引导定语从句均可代表整个一句话或整个主句,但which不能放在句首,另外as有“正如”的意思,而which却没有,故D正确。

五、关系代词who, which与that的区别
(一)关系代词who与that的区别
1. 当关系代词用作主语时,多用主格who。例如:
He who loses hope loses all.
失去希望的人就失去一切。(先行词为代词he, they, any, all, one等时,多用who)
I met Alice, who told me that she was learning Chinese.
我遇见艾丽斯,她告诉我她在学汉语。(在非限制性定语从句中,用who)
2. 当关系代词用作介词后的宾语时,用宾格whom,不用that。例如:
The man to whom our headmaster talked just now is our English teacher.
我们校长刚才与他谈话的那个人是我们的英语老师。(介词与关系代词紧密相连时,只能用宾格whom,不可用主格who)
注意:介词与关系代词不是紧密相连时,或者说介词放在句子后面时,这时可以用主格who,也可用that,还可以省略关系代词。因此,上面的这句话还可以有如下四种说法:
(1) The man whom our headmaster talked to just now is our English teacher.
(2) The man who our headmaster talked to just now is our English teacher.
(3) The man that our headmaster talked to just now is our English teacher.
(4) The man our headmaster talked to just now is our English teacher.
第4句简洁、自然,所以口语中用得最多。
3. 当关系代词泛指人时,多用that。例如:
He is a man that is never afraid of failure.
他是个从不怕失败的人。(that用来泛指人)
4. 当关系代词出现在who开头的疑问句时,应用that。例如:
Who is the girl that is talking to Tom in English?
用英语同汤姆交谈的那个女孩是谁?(避免重复使用who,以免造成误解或语义含混不清)

(二)关系代词which与that的区别
1. 当先行词为all, much, little以及不定代词anything, something, everything等时,关系代词多用that。例如:
All that glitters is not gold. 闪闪发光物,未必尽黄金。
She told me everything that she knew. 她把她所知道的一切都告诉了我。
2. 当先行词的前面有形容词最高级、序数词或限定词the only, the very, all, every, any, no等时,关系代词一般都用that。例如:
This is the best novel that I have ever read. 这是我读过的最好的一部小说。
He is the only person that has been invited to the ball. 他是惟一应邀参加舞会的人。
3. 当关系代词出现在which开头的疑问句时,应用that。例如:
Which was the hotel that was recommended to the foreign guest? 哪一个是推荐给外宾的宾馆?(这里使用that很明显是为了避免重复which)
4. 在非限制性定语从句中,关系代词一般只用which。例如:
Beijing, which is the capital of the People’s Republic of China, will host the 2008 Olympic Games. 北京是中华人民共和国的首都,将主办2008年奥运会。
5. 介词后的关系代词用which,而不用that。例如:
She has collected 600 stamps, 60% of which are German stamps. 她收集了600张邮票,其中60%是德国邮票。
【透视高考题】
真题1:I saw a women running towards me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was, she had run back in the direction ______ she had come.
A. of which B. by which C. in which D. from which (2006重庆卷-34)
简析:考查介词+关系代词which引导的定语从句。先行词为事物时,关系代词既可用which,也可用that,但介词后的关系代词却只能用which。由于词组为come from,故此句应选from which。
真题2:He was educated at a local grammar school, ______ he went on to Cambridge.
A. from which B. after that C. after which D. from this (2005山东卷-30)
简析:考查介词+关系代词which引导的定语从句。句意是上完中学后到剑桥大学深造,所以应选after which。如果在空格前加上and,那么就要选B。
真题3:The English play ______ my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great success.
A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which (2005广东卷-34)
简析:考查“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句。表达“在英语剧中”,介词用in,故选择C. in which。

六、限制性定语从句和非制性定语从句
限制性定语从句中,从句与其所修饰的先行词之间关系很密切,若缺少,句意则不完整,故从句前不用逗号隔开;非限制性定语从句中,从句与其所修饰的先行词之间关系不太密切,若缺少,句意则仍完整,故从句前一般都用逗号隔开。试比较以下两组句子:
The water which has been polluted by the factory is not fit to drink.
被工厂污染的水不宜饮用。(如果缺少定语从句,句子的主要意思会受到影响)
Water, which is a clear liquid, is widely used in our everyday life.
水是一种清澈的液体,在我们的日常生活中应用非常广泛。(如果缺少定语从句,句子的主要意思不会受到影响)
His brother who is nineteen years old is serving in the army now.
他的一个十九岁的哥哥现在部队服役。(表明他不只一个哥哥)
His brother, who is nineteen years old, is serving in the army now.
他的哥哥,今年十九岁,现在部队服役。(表明他只有一个哥哥)
【透视高考题】
真题1:The owner of the cinema needed to make a lot of improvements and employ more people to keep it running, ______ means spending tens of thousands of pounds.
A. who B. that C. as D. which (2006江苏卷-29)
简析:考查非限制性定语从句。在非限制性定语从句一般不用that,which可以替代前面整个一句话,因此选D。
真题2:I have many friends, ______ some are businessmen.
A. of them B. from which C. who of D. of whom (2005全国卷I/II-24)
简析:考查非限制性定语从句。这句话若用并列句表达就可写成:I have many friends, and some of them are businessmen..因此D是正确答案。

七、定语从句的位置
如前所述,定语从句一般总是直接置于所修饰的名词或代词之后。有时候,定语从句与先行词之间插入了其他的短语,这样它们被分隔了,这种情况下的定语从句被称作隔离定语从句。例如:
There was a girl upstairs who was shouting and crying, obviously mad.
楼上有一个女孩,大喊大叫。很明显,她疯了。(定语从句who was shouting and crying修饰the girl,被upstairs所隔开)
A new master will come tomorrow who will teach you German.
明天要来一位新老师教你们德语了。(定语从句置于句末以示强调)
【透视高考题】
真题:The factory produced half a million of shoes every year, 80% ______ are sold abroad.
A. of which B. which of C. of them D. of that (2004辽宁卷-35)
简析:考查隔离定语从句或非限定性定语从句。形式上看80%把关系代词与先行词分离了,另外,of前后表示部分与整体的关系,其中80%的鞋子售往国外市场。故A是正确答案。


八、定语从句与同位语从句的区别
同位语从句与定语从句从形式上看好像没什么区别,实际上从含义和功能上看,还是比较易区分的。同位语从句的先行词一般为fact, idea, news, thought, reply, report, problem等抽象名词,而且关联词大都为that,在idea, problem等词后根据句意可能用到who, when, why, how等其他关联词。关联词that在同位语从句中仅仅起连接作用,不作任何成分,但又不可省略。定语从句的关联词(关系代词和关系副词)在从句中是要充当句子成分的且有实际含义。试比较以下两句:
The suggestion that we should practise speaking English every day came from our monitor.
我们每天都应练习说英语的建议是我们的班长提出来的。(同位语从句)
The suggestion that our monitor put forward at the meeting is very valuable.
我们的班长在会上提出的建议很有价值。(定语从句)
【透视高考题】
真题1:A warm thought suddenly came to me ______ I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday.
A. if B. when C. that D. which (2006安徽卷-29)
简析:考查关联词that引导的同位语从句。先行词为thought,that引导的同位语从句表达thought的内容,由于从句太长,故移至句末以保持句子平衡。C正确,注意不能误选which。
真题2:We haven’t settled the question of ______ it is necessary for him to study abroad.
A. if B. where C. whether D. that (2006江苏卷-35)
简析:考查whether引导的同位语从句。这个句子中的of可以省略,形式上看,of后面的从句为介词的宾语从句,但实际上of连接的question与whether引导的从句是同位关系。因此C正确,注意不能误选if,在表示“是否”含义时,用在介词后或在同位语从句中不可用if。

九、定语从句与强调句型的区别
强调句型一般总是使用It is…that…这个句式,将被强调的成分(主语、宾语或状语)放在句式里。这个关联词that没有任何实际意义,仅仅起连接作用,但一般情况下不省略。当代英语有一种趋势:如果强调的主语是人,则可用who;如果强调的宾语是人,则可用宾格whom;如果强调时间状语,则可用when;如果强调地点状语,则可用where。定语从句一般不用It is开头,而且定语从句的关联词that在从句中担当句子成分。试比较以下两个句子:
It is Professor Johnson who is to visit China Agricultural University next week.
是约翰逊教授计划下周访问中国农业大学。 (强调句型,who可以换成that)
This is Professor Johnson, who is to visit China Agricultural University next week.
这是约翰逊教授,他计划下周访问中国农业大学。 (定语从句,who不可以换成that)
【透视高考题】
真题:It was with great joy ______ he received the news that his lost daughter had been found.
A. because B. which C. since D. that (2004福建卷-35)
简析:考查强调句型。强调原因状语,但不能误选because,强调句型不管强调什么成分,都可以用that。故D是正确答案。


十、定语从句专项训练
I. 语法鉴赏。下列这句话的英语表达有8种,它们都正确,请观察、分析和体会它们在句式、用词和文体上的区别。
他出生的那天是元旦。
① The day on which he was born was New Year’s Day.
② The day which he was born on was New Year’s Day.
③ The day that he was born on was New Year’s Day.
④ The day he was born on was New Year’s Day.
⑤ The day when he was born was New Year’s Day.
⑥ The day that he was born was New Year’s Day.
⑦ The day he was born was New Year’s Day.
⑧ When he was born was New Year’s Day.

II. 选择填空。从A、B、C、D四个选项中选出一个最佳选项填空。
1. Anyway, that evening, ______ I’ll tell you more about later, I ended up staying at Rachel’s place.
A. when B. where C. what D. which (2006湖南卷-30)
2. She was educated at Beijing University, ______ she went on to have her advanced study abroad.
A. after that B. from that C. from which D. after which (2006陕西卷-8)
3. Last month, part of Southeast Asia was struck by floods, from ______ effects the people are still suffering.
A. that B. whose C. those D. what (2005天津卷-13)
4. Mark was a student at this university from 1999 to 2003, ______ he studied very hard and was made Chairman of the Students’ Union.
A. during which time B. for which time C. during whose time D. by that time (2005重庆卷-32)
5. The schools themselves admit that not all students will be successful in the jobs ______ they are being trained.
A. in that B. for that C. in which D. for which (2005江西卷-25)
6. I walked in our garden, ______ Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees.
A. which B. when C. where D. that (2005辽宁卷-28)
7. Do you have any idea ______ is actually going on in the classroom?
A. that B. what C. as D. which (2005辽宁卷-28)
8. – Is that the small town you often refer to?
– Right, just the one ______ you know I used to work for years.
A. that B. which C. where D. what (2005福建卷-35)
9. Some researchers believe that there is no debt ______ a cure for AIDS will be found.
A. which B. that C. what D. whether (2005广东卷-34)
10. ______ is reported in the newspapers, talks between the two countries are making progress.
A. It B. As C. That D. What (2004北京卷-34)

III. 句型转换。将下列的句子使用关系代词或关系副词合并成定语从句。
1. A bus goes to the airport. It runs every ten minutes.
2. Our teacher is talking to an Englishwoman. Do you know her?
3. I’ve got a brother called Tom. He lives in the United States. He’s an engineer.
4. Can you tell me the name of the school? Your father once studied in that school.
5. We met a couple on the highway. Their car had broken down.

IV. 句子改错。下列的定语从句使用有误,请改正。
1. The valley in that the town lies is heavily polluted.
2. Is this the shop where sells children’s shoes?
3. This is the place where we first met in.
4. I do not know the reason which she came late
5.There are altogether eleven books on the shelf, of that five are mine.

附定语从句专项训练参考答案
I. 语法鉴赏。
第①句最为正式,第⑧句最为非正式。

II. 选择填空。
1. 【答案】 D 【简析】考查关系代词which引导的非限制性定语从句。从动词句型tell sb. about sth.可以得知,定语从句中少了宾语,所以选择which,不能误选when。
2. 【答案】 D 【简析】考查介词+关系代词which引导的定语从句。句意为北大毕业后出国留学深造,故选after which。
3. 【答案】 B 【简析】考查关系代词whose引导的定语从句。whose在这个句子里代替物,whose effects =the effects of which,意指“洪水的影响”。
4. 【答案】 A 【简析】考查“介词+关系代词”引导的非限制性定语从句。which替代词先行词from 1999 to 2003,在那一段时间里,故用during which time。
5. 【答案】 D 【简析】考查介词+关系代词which引导的定语从句。根据词组train sb. for sth.,故选for which。
6. 【答案】 C 【简析】考查关系副词where引导的定语从句。在花园里,显然是表示地点,关系代词用in which或关系副词where。
7. 【答案】 B 【简析】考查同位语从句。句意是:你知道教室里真正发生了什么事吗?根据句意,从句的关联词应使用what。
8. 【答案】 C 【简析】考查关系副词where引导的定语从句。这里替代词the one实际上指的就是the small town,我过去多年在那里工作过的,故选表示地点的关系副词。
9. 【答案】 B 【简析】考查同位语从句。that引导的从句表明doubt的内容。
10.【答案】 B 【简析】考查关系代词as引导的定语从句。句意是:正如报纸所报道的,两国会谈正取得进展。as在从句中作主语,又代替后面整个主句。

III. 句型转换。
1. A bus which (that) goes to the airport runs every ten minutes.
2. Do you know the Englishwoman our teacher is talking to?
或:Do you know the Englishwoman who (whom/that) our teacher is talking to?
或:Do you know the Englishwoman to whom our teacher is talking?
3. My brother Tom, who lives in the United States, is an engineer.
4. Can you tell me the name of the school where your father once studied?.
5. We met a couple on the highway whose car had broken down.

IV. 句子改错。
1. The valley in which the town lies is heavily polluted.
或:The valley where the town lies is heavily polluted.
或:The valley which (that) the town lies in is heavily polluted.
或:The valley the town lies in is heavily polluted.


2. Is this the shop which (that) sells children’s shoes?
3. This is the place where we first met.
或:This is the place in which we first met.
4. I do not know the reason why she came late.
或:I do not know the reason that she came late.
或:I do not know the reason she came late.
5. There are altogether eleven books on the shelf, of which five are mine.
 

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