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字母组合的发音规律

2010-08-22  阿布c
字母组合的发音规律

元音字母组合 读 音 例 词
ai/ay [ei] afraid rain wait day play
air [εE] air hair chair pair repair
al [C] small ball talk wall all
al [C:l] always also salt almost
al在f m前[α:] half calm
au/aw [C:] autumn daughter draw
ea [i:] teach easy cheap please
[e] heavy bread sweater weather
[ei] break great
ear [iE] hear dear near clear year
[εE] bear pear wear swear
[E:] earth learn early
ee [i:] jeep week green three
eer [iE] pioneer deer beer
ei/ey [ei] eight neighbour they
[i:] either key
eu/ew在j l r s后 [ju:] new few newspaper
[u:] flew brew jewelry
ie/ei[s]音之后 [i:] piece field receive
oa [ou] coat Joan boat goal
oar/oor [C:] roar board door floor
oi/oy [Ci] noise point boy toilet
oo [u:] broom food tooth school
book look cook foot good
ou/ow [au] flower house count down
[ou] know row throw though
[∧] young country enough
[u:] group you soup
our [C:] course your four
[auE] our hour ours
[E:] journey
ui在j l r s后 [ju:i] fluid suicide tuition
[u:] juice fruit suit
七、非重读音节中元音字母组合和字群的读音
元音字母组合或字群 读 音 例 词
ai/ay ei/ey Sunday foreign monkey
ow [ou] yellow sparrow tomorrow
元音字组在非重读音节中读[E]音或。例如:neighbour serious famous biscuit coffee
-sion -tion [Fn] impression nation
-sion在元音字母后 [Vn] vision decision occasion
-tion在s后 [tFEn] question suggestion
-sten [sn] listen
-stle [sl] whistle
-sure [VE] pleasure measure
-ture [tFE] picture culture
八、元音字母组合在复合词非重读音节中的读音
复合词中的第二部分不标注重音符号,但其中的元音字母或元音字母组合仍按重读音节拼读规则拼读。例如: everyday[ei] handbag[æ] blackboard[C:]
有些词随着语言的发展,前后两部分已失去其单独存在的意义,融合成为一个词。其中的非重读部分要按非重读音节的读音规则发音。例如: sun太阳 + day[ei]日子 > Sunday 星期天 holy神圣 + day[ei]日子> holiday 假日 break中断 + fast[α:]斋戒 > breakfast[E] 早餐 cup茶杯 + board木板[C:] > cupboard[E] 碗柜
九、辅音字母组合的读音
辅音字母组合 读 音 例 词
b bike bus bag
[/] bomb tomb
cc在e前或在i/y前 [k] cake picture coat music
[s] face decide cinema
ch [tF] much chick rich teacher
[k] school headache chemistry
[F] machine
-ck [k] cock pocket black knock
d [d] doctor bread hand day
-dge [dV] bridge fridge
dr- [dr] children driver drink
f [f] five four breakfast
gg在e i/y前 [^] bag garden go
[dV] orange large German
gh [f] cough enough
[/] light daughter high
gu- -guegu在非重读音节中 [^] guess league dialogue
[^w] language anguish
h [h] hot head house hand
[/] hour honest
j [dV] jeep jar joke join July
k [k] kind bike skate make week
kn- [n] knife know knock
l [l] life milk school tall
m [m] monkey come autumn
-mn [m] autumn column solemn
nn在[k] [g]音前 [n] not shine ten note
[N] uncle thank hungry
-ng [N] morning young wrong
p [p] paper plane pig ship pen
ph [f] elephant photo telephone
q [k] Iraq
qu- [kw] quality quite
r [r] red rubber ruler
s在词首或清辅音前元音字母间或浊辅音前 [s] sit sleep desk
[z] music husband
sc- [sk] scarlet
[s] muscle science
sh [F] she fish shirt wash
t在通常情况下在弱读字母ia ie io前 [t] ten letter meet
[F] patient nation
tch [tF] watch
th在通常情况下在冠词 代词 介词 连词中在词尾-the -ther中 [θ] thin thirty method
[T] the these with than
[T] clothe fathe r weather
tr- [tr] tree train country truck
v [v] very voice love leave
w [w] week win wake sweet wait
[/] Answer two
wh-wh-在字母o前 [w] what when white why
[h] who whose whole
x在重读元音前 [ks] box text exercise
[gz] example exist exact
wr- [r] write
y- [j] yes yard yellow young
z [z] puzzle zero zoo

一、元音字母在重读音节中的读音
元音字母 读 音 例 词 编 号
a 在开音节中 [ei] name plane Jane baby cake 1-01
在闭音节中 [æ] bag dad hat map black back 1-02
e 在开音节中 [i:] he these me Chinese 1-03
在闭音节中 [e] bed let pen desk yes egg 1-04
i 在开音节中 [ai] bike fly drive time nice kite 1-05
在闭音节中 [i] fish big drink sit milk swim 1-06
o 在开音节中 [u] those close go hoe home no 1-07
在闭音节中 [] clock not box shop sock 1-08
u 在开音节中 [ju:] student excuse duty Tuesday 1-09
在闭音节中 [] bus cup jump much lunch 1-10
在开音节中,元音字母u在辅音字母j l r s后面时读[u:]音,例如:June blue ruler super 1-11
二、元音字母在非重读音节中的读音
元音字母 读 音 例 词 编 号
a [] China another woman breakfast 2-01
[i] orange comrade village cabbage 2-02
e [] hundred student open moment 2-03
[i] chicken pocket begin children 2-04
i []/[i] holiday beautiful family animal 2-05
[ai] exercise satellite 2-06
o [] second tonight somebody welcome 2-07
[u] also zero photo 2-08
u [] autumn difficult 2-09
[ju(:)] popular congratulation January 2-10
动词中的a如果处在开音节位置,a读[ei]音,例如:operate 2-11
u处在开音节位置,又在辅音字母j l r s后面时,读[u(:)]音,例如:July influence February issue 2-12
在非重读音节中,许多单词中的元音字母a e i 即可以读作[]音,也可以读作[i]音。
三、元音字母在重读音节中的特殊读音
元音字母
a在[w]音后面
want what watch wash quality
a在f n sk ph sp ss st th前
[α:]
after plant graph ask grasp glass fast father
i在-nd -ld和gh前
[ai]
find child light high
o在-st -ld前
[ou]
most postcard old cold
o在m n v th前
[]
come monkey love mother
四、-r音节元音字组在重读音节中的读音
元音字组 读 音 例 词 编 号
ar
ar在[w]音后面 [α:] car farm dark sharpener 4-01
[:] warm quarter towards 4-02
or
or在[w]音后面 [:] forty morning short 4-03
[:] word worker worse 4-04
er ir ur [:] certainly bird Thursday 4-05
辅音字母r双写时,前面的元音字母不能与r构成-r音节,而是按重读闭音节的拼读规则发音。例如: carry berry mirror sorry hurry
4-06
-r音节元音字组在非重读音节中通常读[]音,例如:dollar teacher martyr comfort Saturday
五、-re音节元音字组在重读音节中的读音
元音字组 读 音 例 词 编 号
are [ε] care dare hare 5-01
ere [i] here mere 5-02
ire [ai] fire hire wire 5-03
ore [:] more score before 5-04
ure [ju] pure cure 5-05
完整的-re音节are ere ire ore很少出现在非重读音节中,ure在非重读音节中读[]音,例如:picture pleasure
非重读音节中-re音节的变体通常发[r]音,例如:salary 5-06
重读音节中元音字母加r,再加非重读元字组时,元音字母和r构成-re音节的变体,按-re音节拼读规则拼读,字母r读[r]音。
例如:parent zero inspiring story during
5-07
某些常用词及多音节词经常出现长音短化现象。
例如:orange very American paragraph forest spirit 5-08

六、元音字组在重读音节中的读音
元音字组 读 音 例 词 编 号
ai/ay [ei] afraid rain wait day play 6-01
air [ε] air hair chair pair repair 6-02
al

 

辅字组

读 音

例 词

 

b

[b]

bike bus bag

 

[/]

bomb tomb lamb climb

 

c

c在e前或在i/y前

[k]

cake picture coat music

 

[s]

face decide cinema

 

ch

[ ]

much chick rich teacher

 

[k]

school headache chemistry

 

[ ]

machine Chicago

 

-ck

[k]

cock pocket black knock

 

d

[d]

doctor bread hand day

 

-dge

[ ]

bridge fridge

 

dr-

[dr]

children driver drink

 

f

[f]

five four breakfast

 

g

g在e i/y前

[ ]

bag gardon go

 

[ ]

orange large German

 

gh

[f]

cough enough rough

 

[/]

light daughter high eight

 

gu- -gue

[ ]

guess league dialogue guitar

 

[ w]

language anguish penguin

 

h

[h]

hot head house hand

 

[/]

hour honest honor

 

j

[ ]

jeep jar joke join July

 

k

[k]

kind bike skate make week

 

kn-

[n]

knife know knock

 

l

[l]

life milk school tall

 

m

[m]

monkey come tomato

 

-mn

[m]

autumn column solemn

 

n

n在[k] [g]音前

[n]

not shine ten note

 

[?]

uncle thank hungry

 

-ng

[?]

morning young wrong

 

p

[p]

paper plane pig ship pen

 

ph

[f]

elephant photo telephone

 

q

[k]

Iraq

 

qu-

[kw]

quality quite quarter

 

r

[r]

red rubber ruler

 

s在音节开头或清辅音前

在元音字母间或浊辅音前

[s]

sit sleep desk

 

[z]

music husband

 

sc-

[sk]

scarlet scout Scotland

 

[s]

muscle science

 

sh

[ ]

she fish shirt wash

 

t在通常情况下

在弱读字母ia ie io前

[t]

ten letter meet

 

[ ]

patient nation

 

tch

[ ]

watch catch match

 

th在通常情况下

在冠词 代词 介词 连词中

在词尾-the -ther中

[θ]

thin thirty method

 

[ð]

the these with than

 

[ð]

clothe father weather

 

tr-

[tr]

tree train country truck

 

v

[v]

very voice love leave

 

w

[w]

week win wake sweet wait

 

[/]

answer two

 

wh-

wh-在字母o前

[w]

what when white why

 

[h]

who whose whole

 

x

在重读元音前

[ks]

box text exercise

 

[gz]

example exist exact

 

wr-

[r]

write wrong wrist

 

y-

[j]

yes yard yellow young

 

z

[z]

puzzle zero zoo

 

1.音节 以元音为主体构成的发音单位,一般说来元音发音响亮,可以构成音节,辅音发音不响亮,不能单独构成音节([m] [n] [ ] [l]例外)。从单词拼写形式上看,有几个元字组就有几个音节。

 

2.音节的划分 ①在两个音节的相邻处有两个辅字组时,一个辅字组属于前面的音节,一个属于后面的音节。

例如:let-ter mem-ber chil-dren daugh-ter

②在两个音节的相邻处只有一个辅字组时,如果前面音节里的元音是长元音则辅字组属于后面一个音节,如果前面一个音节里的元音是短元音,则辅字组属于前面一个音节。

例如:长元音 pa-per stu-dent fa-ther ze-ro mo-tor far-ther

   短元音 sev-en stud-y moth-er ver-y mod-le weath-er

 

3.重读音节 单词中读音特别响亮的音节。用音标标记双音节、多音节词的读音时,应使用重读符号。单音节词多数是重读音节,标记读音时不需要使用重读符号。

 

4.开音节 ①绝对开音节:单个元音字母后面没有辅字组的重读音节。例如:no blue ba-by stu-dent se-cret.

②相对开音节:单个元音字母后面加单个辅音字母,再加一个不发音字母e构成的重读音节。例如:name these bike home ex-cuse.

 

5.闭音节 单个元音字母后面有辅字组(r w y 除外)且以辅字组结尾的重读音节。例如:bag egg fish not cup

 

6.双音节词重读规则 双音节词的第一个音节通常是重读音节。

例如:´stu-dent ´Chi-na ´sec-ond ´au-tumn in-´deed

含有a- be- de- re- in- ex- 等前缀的双音节词往往是在第二个音节上重读。双音节词的重读位置不会因增加前缀或后缀而发生改变。例如:

a´bout be´fore ex´cuse re´pair for-´get-ful in-´ven-tor

 

7.多音节词重读规则 多音节词通常在倒数第三个音节重读。

例如:´el-e-phant con-grat-u-´la-tion

词尾有-ic 或-tion,-sion 的词,在-ic或-sion,-tion前的一个音节上重读。例如:scien´tific im´pression ´nation

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