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形容词adjective 和 副词adverb

 小云翳 2010-09-24

  第三讲:形容词adjective 和 副词adverb

知识点概述:形容词(adjective),简称adj.a.,很多语言中均有的主要词类中的一种。主要用来修饰名词的词,表示事物的特征。形容词用来修饰名词或代词,表示人或事物的性质、状态,和特征的程度好坏,与否。

教学目标  1.了解形容词和副词的含义及等级划分

               2.掌握形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的变化规则

               3. 掌握形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的运用

               4.养成良好的学习习惯---学以致用

教学重难点:掌握形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的变化规则

                  掌握形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的运用

教学过程:

        教学引导 :同学们请你们描述一下你们同桌,朋友,爸爸妈妈的。相互表扬一下对方。

请两个同学相互比较一下,从而得出本课时的学时目标

            A is more beautiful than  B .   B is taller than A .

          新课呈现:板书主题  adjective and adverb

   The  comparative Degree and superlative Degree of Adjectives and adverbs

形容词和副词的等级划分:1.The Positive Degree 原级即原词

                        2.The Comparative Degree 比较级

                        3.The Superlative  Degree 最高级

      一、形容词和副词的比较级:

 规则变化:参见下表:

情况

   变化规则

  例词

   一般情况

直接加词尾加er est

 

smallsmallersmallest shortshortershortest

  e词尾的词

   

rst

 

nicenicernicest

largelargerlargest

以“辅音+y”结尾的词

yi再加er est

easyeasiereasiest   heavyheavierheaviest

在重读闭音节(即:辅音+元音+辅音)中

先双写末尾的辅音字母,比较级加-er,最高级加-est

bigbiggerbiggest hothotterhottest fatfatterfattest

其他双音节词和多音节词

 

 

比较级在前面加more,最高级在前面加most

Lessleast也可以用来构成比较级和最高级

 

beautifulmore beautifulmost beautiful

  differentmore differentmost different

easy/pleased/glad/careful/active/likely

/difficult/effective

形容词和副词比较级和最高级构成口诀

结尾直加-er,-est属一般,详细构成方法逐一来侃谈。一辅音结尾重读闭音节看,辅音双写-er,-est是习惯。

辅音加y(ly)除外有型感,按照去y,-ier,-iest方法办。上述皆属单音部分双音段,下面把多音节规律来看看。

词前加more,most此规律唤。规则变化到此已全都谈完。有些不规则变化请你记全。“双好”better,best记的宽。

“坏病”worse,worst莫记乱。“双多” more,most不用管 “老、远”两种形式别记篡,“有点”less,least记清盼

 注意事项:除开以y结尾的双音节词外,以ow er te 等结尾的双音节词,也可用加词尾的方法结构比较级和最高级:

      narrownarrowernarrowest   clevercleverercleverest  simplesimplersimplest

      politepoliterpolitest     commoncommonercommonest  quietquieterquietest

    

二、不规则变化的形容词

   good/wellbetterbest  bad/ill/badly worseworst  much/manymore most   

little lessleast    fatherfarther/furtherfarthest/furthest

oldolder/elderoldest/eldest   friendlyfriendlier/more friendlyfriendliest/most friendly

latelater/latterlatest/lattest

三、形容词、副词的比较级和最高级的用法

  1.“A + be +形容词比较级 + than + B 意思为“AB更……”。

  如:This tree is taller than that one. 这棵树比那棵树高。

  注意:

  在含有连词than的比较级中,前后的比较对象必须是同一范畴,即同类事物之间的比较。

  ②在比较级前面使用much,表示程度程度“强得多”。

  如:A watermelon is much bigger than an apple.

  very, quite一般只能修饰原级,不能修饰比较级。

  2.“比较级 + and + 比较级”或“more and more +原级”表示“越来越……”

  如:It becomes warmer and warmer when spring comes. 春天来了,天气变得越来越暖和了。

  It is getting cooler and cooler.天气越来越凉爽。

  The wind became more and more heavily. 风变得越来越大。

  Our school is becoming more and more beautiful.  我们的学校变得越来越美丽。

  3.在含有or的选择疑问句中,如果有两者供选择,前面的形容词要用比较级形式。

  如:Who is taller,Tim or Tom? 谁更高,Tim还是Tom?

  4. the +比较级……, the+比较级”,表示“越……越……”。

  The more money you make, the more you spend.钱你赚得越多,花得越多。

  The soonerthe better.  越快越好。

  5. 表示倍数的比较级用法:

  . A is times the size /height/length/width of B.

  如:The new building is three times the height of the old one.这座新楼比那座旧楼高三倍。(新楼是旧楼的四倍高)

  . A is times as big /high/long/wide/large as B.

  如:Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲是欧洲的四倍大。(亚洲比欧洲大三倍)

  . A is times larger /higher/longer/wider than B.

  如:Our school is twice bigger than yours.我们学校比你们学校大两倍。

  6.形容词、副词的最高级形式主要用来表示三者或三者以上人或事物的比较,表示“最……”的意思。

  句子中有表示范围的词或短语。如:of the three, in our class等等。

  如:He is the tallest in our class.

  他在我们班里是最高的。

  7."否定词语+比较级""否定词语+ so as"结构表示最高级含义。

  Nothing is so easy as this. =Nothing is easier than this. =This is the easiest thing.

  8. 比较级与最高级的转换:

  Mike is the most intelligent in his class. Mike is more intelligent than any other student in his class

  9.修饰比较级和最高级的词

  1)可修饰比较级的词

  .a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等。

  . 还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。

  . 以上词(by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。

  注意: 使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。

  () Tom is the tallest of his three brothers.

  () Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.

  2)下列词可修饰最高级:by far, far, much, mostly, almost

  This hat is nearly / almost the biggest.

  注意:

  a. very可修饰最高级,但位置与much不同。 This is the very best. This is much the best.

  b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。  Africa is the second largest continent.

  10.要避免重复使用比较级。 () He is more cleverer than his brother.

秘籍再现江湖

注意:(1形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。

  例句: The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world.

        2 形容词most前面没有the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"

        It is a most important problem.

        =It is a very important problem.

形容词和副词比较级和最高级的特殊用法:

一、more........ than 把两种品质加以比较“更多......而不是........This is more a war movie than a western .

二、more and more 越来越The story gets more and more exciting.

三、the more ......the more.....越是.........The more learned a man is ,the more modest he usually is.

四、more than 超过........He can’t be moe than thirty .

五、less than 不到......、不太.....In less a week ,the MS was ready.

六、no less than 多达、不少于He won no less than 500.

七、more or less 基本上、大体上、大约 It’s an hour’s journey ,more or less.

 

 

教学后记:略

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

第五讲:形容词adjective 和 副词adverb

知识点概述:形容词(adjective),简称adj.a.,很多语言中均有的主要词类中的一种。主要用来修饰名词的词,表示事物的特征。形容词用来修饰名词或代词,表示人或事物的性质、状态,和特征的程度好坏,与否。

教学目标  1.了解形容词和副词的含义及等级划分

               2.掌握形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的变化规则

               3. 掌握形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的运用

               4.养成良好的学习习惯---学以致用

教学重难点:掌握形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的变化规则

                  掌握形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的运用

随堂检验:小试牛刀

       英语形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的练习题 

(一) 写出下列形容词与副词的比较级与最高级形式:

long_____ ______ wide ______ _______ fat ____ _____

heavy____ ______ slow ______ _______ few____ _____

brightly______ -_____ bably _____ _______ far____ _____

quickly _____ ______ happy_____ -______ unhappy_____  ______

bad____ _____      big_____  ______   handsome_____ ______

selfish_______ ______ glad______ ______ active_____ _____

dangerous_____  ______ late____ ______ old______ _____

friendly_____ _______    little_____  _____young _____ ______

()用所给词的正确形式填空:

1. Of the two girls, I find Lucy the _______ (clever).

2. Gold(黄金) is ______ (little) useful than iron().

3. My sister is two years _______ (old ) than I.

4. John’s parents have four daughters, and she is the _____ (young) child.

5. The _____ (cheap) bags are the not usually the best ones.

6. The short one is by far _______ expensive of the five.

7. The boy is not so ______ (interesting) as his brother.

8. Dick sings _____ (well), she sings ______(well) than John, but Mary sings______(well) in her class.

9. She will be much ______ (happy) in her mew house.

10. This dress is ______than that one.( expensive)

()选择填空:

1 He feels _____ today than yesterday.

A. tired B. more tired C. more tireder D. much tired

2. Which do you like _____, coffee, tea or milk?

A. the worst B. worse C. the worse D. worst

3. Of the two toys, the child chose_____.

A. the expensive one B. one most expensive

C. a least expensive D. the most expensive of them

4. The line is ____ than that one.

A. more longer B. not longer C. much more longer D. many more longer

5. The earth is _____ the moon.

A. as 49 times big as B. 49 times as bigger as C. 49 times as big as D. as big as 49 times

6. The book is ____ of the two.

A. thinner B. the thinner C. more thinner D. the thinnest

7. She looks _____ than she does.

A. the more older B. very older C. much older D. more older

8. The garden is becoming ______.

A. more beautiful and more B. more beautiful and beautiful

C. more and more beautiful D. more beautiful and beautifuler

9. They competed(比赛) to see who could work _____.

A. the fastest and best B. the faster and the better

C. fastest and better D. faster and better

10.______ hurry, _______speed.

A. More, less B. Much, little C. The more, the less D. The much, the little

11. This kind of coffee is different ______.

A. and it is also better B. and better than the other

C. but also than others D. from the other, and better

()翻译句子:

1.本书跟那本书一样有趣。This book is _____ _____ _____ that one.

2.你游泳没有你弟弟好。You cant swim _____ _____ _____ your brother.

3.今天比昨天冷的多。It is _____ ______ today______ it was yesterday.

4.对这个故事我比另一个喜欢的多。This story is _____ ______ ______ than that one.

5.他比我大两岁。He is _____ ______ ______ than I.

6.这个故事不如那个有趣。This story is _____ _____ _____ than that one.

7.她的身体状况一天天好起来。He is getting _____ ______ ______ every day.

8. 他对英语越来越感兴趣。He is becoming ______ _____ _______ _____ ______ English.

9. 他吃的越多,人越胖。The more he eats, the _______ he gets.

10.你的问题是两个中比较难的那个。Your question is _______ ______ ______ of two.

 

 

 

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