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2010-11-29  文竹88
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高一英语相关语法复习--主谓一致
2010-11-28 09:34:34 来源: 作者: 【 】 浏览:5次 评论:0
  英语句子中,大部分主语都是名词。名词的单复数形式(或含义)直接影响着谓语动词的形式,也就是说,谓语动词的单复数形式要和主语保持一致。这种谓语在人称和数方面与主语的一致就叫作主谓一致。主谓一致有三个原则:语法一致原则,意义一致原则及就近一些原则。

  一、主谓一致的三个原则

  (一)语法一致原则

  语法一致原则是指谓语动词要和它的主语在语法形式上取得一致,即单数主语用单数动词,复数主语用复数动词。如:

  China is a big country with a long history.中国是一个历史悠久的大国。

  These books are all Wei Fang's. 这些书都是魏芳的。

  [特别提醒]

  谓语动词的单复数不受主语修饰的影响。如:

  The building among the trees is our public library.树丛中的房子是我们的公共图书馆。(among the trees是介词短语,修饰主语the building;尽管修饰语中有复数名词trees,但其不影响谓语动词的单数形式。)

  The questions raised by Mr Wang are of great importance. 王先生提出的问题很重要.(raised by Mr Wang是过去分词短语,修饰主语the questions;尽管修饰语中有单数名词Mr Wang,但其不影响谓语动词的复数形式。)

  (二)意义一致原则

  意义一致原则是说谓语动词的单复数要取决于主语表达的意义,而不是形式。如:

  The news is inspiring.这消息令人鼓舞。

  People are talking about the news.人们在谈论这条消息。

  (三)就近一致原则

  就近一致原则是指谓语动词的数要与它最邻近的名词的数保持一致。如:

  Either you or the headmaster is to hand out the prizes to these gifted students at the meeting.要么你,要么校长,将在大会上为这些有才华的学生颁奖。

  --Are both Ann and I going to the party? 我和安都去参加聚会吗?

  --No, neither you nor Ann is going. 不,你们谁也不去。

  Not only the teacher but also his students like playing football.不仅这位老师喜欢踢足球,而且他的学生们也都喜欢踢足球。

  二、主谓一致的几种情况

  (一)复数形式主语用单数动词的情况

  [典型例题]

  用所给词的适当形式填空。

  1.The Arabian Nights ____(be) an interesting story book.

  2.Physics ____(be) a subject that every student should learn in middle school.

  3.Thirty dollars ____(be) too expensive for this dictionary.

  4.As you can see, the number of cars on our roads ____ rising these days.

  A.was keeping    B.keep    C.keeps    D.were keeping

  5.With more forests being destroyed, huge quantities of good earth ____ each year.

  A.is washing away         B.is being washed away

  C.are washing away         D.are being washed away

  [试题解析及语法归纳]

  1.is。表示国家、城市、人名、书名、报纸、杂志及组织等专有名词作主语时,通常作为整体看待,谓语动词用单数。如:

  The United States lies in North America.美国位于北美洲。

  The New York Times is read all over the United States.《纽约时报》是流行于美国各地的报纸。

  2.is。以-ics结尾表示学科名称的名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数,这类名词有:physics, mathematics等;另外,以-s结尾的名词:nwes, plastics等,也同属此类。如:

  Politics is now taught in all schools.现在各个学校都开设政治课。

  Plastics is a kind of matter.塑料是一种物质。

  3.is。表示时间、距离、金钱、重量、度量、容量、温度等复数名词作主语时,通常看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数。如:

  Twenty-five thousand dollars is the average income for a four-person family living in a mediumsized community in the United States.两万五千美元是一个居住在美国中等社区四口之家的平均收入。

  Two hours is not long enough for this work.对做这项工作来说,两个小时不算长。

  [特别提醒]

  如果说话人侧重于一个个的个体时,谓语动词可以用复数。如:

  Thirty years have passed since he left home.自从他离开家以后,三十年已经过去了。

  4.C。车辆的数量在不断地增长,这是事实,所以用一般现在时。“the number of+复数名词或代词”作主语时,表示“……的数量”,谓语动词用单数。如:

  The number of people who own cars is increasing every year.拥有汽车的人数每年在增加。

  而“a number of+名词复数”作主语时,表示“许多……”,谓语动词用复数。如:

  A number of people have cars now.现在许多人都拥有汽车。

  5.D。本句主语是复数形式,故谓语应用复数形式。(large)quantities of修饰复数可数名词以及不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数;a (large) quantity of修饰不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数;large amounts of修饰不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数;a large amount of修饰不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数。如:

  A large quantity of water is needed for cooling purposes.=Large quantities of water are needed for cooling purposes.冷却需要大量的水。

  [帮你归纳]

  其他几种复数形式主语用单数动词的情况:

  (1)引号中的词若作为整体看待时,谓语动词用单数。如:

  “Bikes”is the plural of“bike”“Bikes”是“bike”的复数形式。

  “They”is a pronoun.“They”是代词。

  (2)一些由两个对应部分组成一体的复数名词(如:trousers, glasses, shoes等)的前面若有“一条,一幅,一把”之类的量词时,谓语动词复数形式应与这些量词的数保持一致。如:

  This pair of trousers is his brother's.这条裤子是他哥哥的。

  The two pairs of trousers are his brother's.这两条裤子是他哥哥析。

  (二)单数形式主语用复数动词的情况

  [典型例题]

  用所给词的适当形式填空。

  1.The cattle ____(be) eating grass on the other side of the hill.

  2.The Japanese ____(do) the same even now.

  3.The wounded ____(be) sent to hospital at once.

  [试题解析及语法归纳]

  1.are。有些集合名词(如:people, police, cattle等)虽然形式上是单数,但意义上却为复数,谓语动词需用复数形式。如:

  The police are searching for a thief.警察正在搜捕一名小偷。

  What are those people? 那些人是干什么的?

  2.do。有些以-sh,-ese,-ch,-iss结尾的表示国家、民族的形容词与定冠词the连用时,指整个民族,表示复数含义,谓语动词用复数。如:

  The Chinese are kind and friendly.中国人亲切、友好。

  Chinese is difficult language.汉语是一种很难的语言。

  3.were/was。某些形容词加上定冠词the(如:the old, the young, the dead, the rich, the sick等)时,用来表示一类人,其意义为复数,谓语动词用复数形式。如:

  The old are taken good care of in our country.在我们国家老人受到很好的照顾。

  The rich are for the plan, but the poor are againstit.富人赞成这个计划,但穷人反对。

  但是,如果这些词表示抽象概括或指个人时,谓语动词仍用单数。如:

  The wounded was taken to a hospital.这个伤员被送到了医院。

  The beautiful is not always the same as the good.漂亮的不一定就是好的。

  (三)同是单数形式主语,动词形式不同的情况

  [典型例题]

  用所给词的适当形式填空。

  1.Class 6 ____(be) playing football on the playground.

  2.The rest of the story ____(need) no telling.

  3.Here ____(be) some books for you.

  4.The company had about 20 notebook computers but only one-third ____ used regularly. Now we have 60 working all day long.

  A.is      B.are      C.was      D.were

  [试题解析及语法归纳]

  1.are。有些集合名词(如:family, class, group, team, enemy, government, nation, couple, public等)若作为一个整体看待时,谓语动词用单数;如果就其中一个个成员考虑时,谓语动词则用复数。如:

  My family is a large one.我家是个大家庭。

  My family are all workers.我的一家人都是工人。

  The government has managed to control SARS and bird flu.政府已设法控制了非典和禽流感。

  2.needs。“the rest of, a lot of, lots of, plenty of等+名词”作主语时,谓语的数依据名词的数而定。如:

  A lot of students are waiting outside.许多学生在外面等候。

  Lots of food is needed.需要许多食物。

  3.are。在here和there的倒装句中,如主语是复数名词,谓语动词用复数;如主语是单数名词,谓语动词用单数。如:

  There are hundreds of people in the hall.大厅里有几百人。

  Here is your key.这就是你那把钥匙。

  在这种结构中,如果是并列主语时,谓语动词的数常与最近的平行主语相一致。如:

  There is a table and some chairs in the room.房间里有一张桌子和一些椅子。

  There are some chairs and a table in the room.房间里有一些椅子和一张桌子。

  4.D。“分数/百分数+of+名词”作主语时,谓语动词和名词的数保持一致。此句中的分数one-third后省略了of 20 notebook computers。

  另外,“some, all, any, none, more, most等+of+名词”作主语时,谓语动词也应与名词的数保持一致。如:

  Most of his spare time was spent in reading.他的大部分业余时间都花在读书上。

  Most of his books were lost.他的大部分书都丢了。

  More than 70 percent of the surface of our planet is covered by water.我们这颗行星70%多的表面被水覆盖。

  One-third of the students are girls in our group. 我们组三分之一的学生是女生。

  (四)并列主语与谓语动词的一致关系

  [典型例题]

  1.The father as well as his three children ____ skating on the frozen river every Sunday afternoon in winter.

  A.is going    B.go    C.goes    D.are going

  2.The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, ____ visiting a museum when the earthquake struck.

  A.was       B.were   C.had been  D.would be

  用所给词的适当形式填空。

  3.What he said and what he did ____(have) greatly encouraged the other students.

  4.Neither his parents nor his wife ____(be) at home.

  [试题解析及语法归纳]

  1.C。as well as连接名词或代词作主语时,遵循就近原则;另外,句中时间为every Sunday afternoon in winter,故为一般现在时。

  2.A。由with连接两个主语时,谓语动词应与with前的主语保持一致;另外,根据句意可知,要用过去进行时态。

  由as well as, with, but, besides, except, like, including, along with, together with等连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词的数取决于前一个主语。如:

  A library with twenty thousand books has been offered to the college as a gift.一个拥有两万藏书的图书馆被作为一个礼物捐给这所大学。

  The teacher as well as the students likes the painting.老师和学生们都喜欢这幅画。

  3.have。由and或both…and连接的两个单数主语,表示两个不同的人或物,意义上为复数,谓语动词需用复数形式。如:

  Both my father and my sister are teachers.我爸爸和姐姐都是老师。

  Fire and water do not agree.水火不相容。

  [特别提醒]

  在下列情况,谓语动词需用单数形式:

  (1)由and连接的两个单数主语,指同一人、同一物或同一概念时,谓语动词用单数。如:

  The teacher and writer has come to the meeting.那位老师兼作家来开会了。

  (2)由and连接的两个单数主语,如果其前面有every, each, no等词修饰时,谓语动词用单数。如:

  Every boy and every girl has the right to be educated.每个男孩和女孩都有受教育的权利。

  (3)有时用and连接两个单数主语时,谓语动词既可以是单数,也可以是复数。如:

  Five and four makes/make nine.五加四等于九。

  4.is。由or, either…or, nor, neither…nor, not only…but also等连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词的数一般与后一个主语的数相一致。如:

  Either you or I am to do the work.或者是你,或者是我做这个工作。

  (五)几种特殊结构的主谓一致

  [典型例题]

  1.He is the only one of the students who ____ a winner of scholarship for three years.

  A.is    B.are    C.have been    D.has been

  用所给词的适当形式填空。

  2.A day or two ____(have) passed.

  3.More than one soldier ____(be)killed in the battle.

  4.Many a ship ____(have) been damaged in the storm.

  5.One and a half hours ____(have) passed, but he hasn't come here.

  6.Each of us ____(have) a dictionary.

  7.I, not you, ____(be) the right person to do the work.

  8.Walking on the moon ____(be) very difficult.

  9.In front of the house ____(be) some flowers.

  [试题解析及语法归纳]

  1.D。the only one of the students中的先行词是one,故定语从句中的谓语动词要用单数;又因for three years是完成时的标志,所以答案为D。

  在“one of+复数名词+定语从句”结构中,定语从句一般被看作是修饰复数名词,因此该从句中的谓语动词要用复数;但是在“the only one of+复数名词+定语从句”结构中,先行词是one而不是靠近它的复数名词,因此该从句的谓语动词应该是单数形式。如:

  This is one of the best movies that have been on this year.这是今年上映的最佳影片之一。

  She was the only one of the girls who was late for the meeting.她是这些女孩中开会唯一迟到的一个。

  2.has。“a+单数名词+or two”作主语时,谓语动词用单数;但是当“one or two+复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用复数。如:

  One or two days have passed.一两天已经过去了。

  3.was。“more than one+单数名词”结构虽有复数意义,但谓语动词习惯上用单数形式。如:

  More than one student has read Rowling's Harry Porter.许多学生都看过罗琳的《哈利·波特》。

  4.has。“many a+单数名词”作主语时,尽管意义上是复数,但谓语动词常用单数形式。如:

  Many a student has seen the film Titanic twice.许多学生都看过两次电影《泰坦尼克号》。

  5.has。“one and a half+复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数。如:

  One and a half apples is left on the table.一个半苹果剩在桌子上。

  6.has。由each或each修饰名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数;但是,如果each位于复数主语后或在句末作主语的同位语时,不影响谓语动词的数,谓语动词仍用复数形式。如:

  Each student has made a mistabke.每个学生都犯过错误。

  The students each have a new book.学生们人手一册新书。

  7.am。当两个主语中一个为肯定,另一个否定时,谓语动词的数与肯定主语相一致。如:

  She, not you is geing to the shop.她,不是你去商店。

  8.is。动词-ing形式、不定式或从句作主语时,谓语动词用单数。如:

  To talk with him is a great pleasure.和他谈话是一件愉快的事。

  What he said is right.他说的是对的。

  [特别提醒]

  如两个或两个以上的动名词、不定式或从句作主语时,谓语动词用复数。如:

  What to do and how to do heven't been decided.做什么,怎样做还没有决定。

  9.are。在倒装结构中,谓语的数应与其后主语的数相一致。如:

  At the foot of the mountain stands a tall building.山脚下有一幢高楼。

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