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定语从句/名词性从句/强调

 maggie2000 2010-12-15


定语从句

所谓从句,就是一个主谓结构相当于整个句子(这样的句子叫复合句)的一个成分,因此,从句不能单独使用。在复合句中修饰名词或代词、作定语的句子叫定语从句。定语从句是中国人学英语的难点之一。

其实定语从句很有规律,总结如下:在关系代词中that既可指人又可指物、既可作主语又可作宾语,因此,除了在非限定性定语从句中,用that一般不会出问题。

关系副词的用法比较单一,它们从句中只起状语的作用,表示时间的就用when,表示地点的就用where,而why只修饰一个词,即reason。

定语从句所修饰的词叫“先行词”,因为它总是处在定语从句的前头,比定语从句先行一步。

引导定语从句的词叫关系词,包括关系代词和关系副词。

关系代词:

who,which,that作从句的主语

whom,which,that作从句的宾语(可省略)

whose从句中作定语

以下情况只能用that,不能用which:

 i.              先行词为不定代词all, little, none,any,every,no,much, anything, nothing

 ii.              先行词有最高级和序数词修饰时(包括: the only, the very, the same, the last, the next等)

 iii.              先行词既有人又有物的时候

以下情况只能用which,不能用that;

①      引导非限制性定语从句(包括代表整个主句的意思时)

②      介词+关系代词的结构中

关系副词:

when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语

where指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语

why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语,只修饰reason。

如果用定语从句把两个句子合二为一:首先找出两个句子当中相同的部分,定语从句修饰的就是这一部分。要把其中一个句子变成定语从句,就要把这句中相同的那个部分用一个关系词来代替;代替时,先看被代替的部分是指人还是指物、再看它作什么句成分。指人并作主语的,就用who。或that;指人并作宾语的,就用whom或that;指人并作定语的,就用whose。指物并作主语的,就用which或that认指物并作宾语的,还是用which或that认是物并作定语的,就用whose或of which。这样找好并替换以后,再把这个关系代词放到要变成定语从句的那个句子的最前面(被代替的部分不能再保留,其它的词语一律不变),这个句子就变成了定语从句。然后,再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,最后,如果还有其它句子成分,就把它们放到定语从句的后面,就行了。

例如:

Have you found the book? You were looking for the book yesterday.

在这两个句子中,the book是相同的,定语从句修饰的就是the book。把后面这一句变成定语从句,找个关系词来代替the book;在将要被变成定语从句的名子中,the book是物并作宾语,所以用which或that代替它。

然后把which或that放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,就成了"that/which you were looking for yesterday?”,再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了“have you found the book that/which you were looking for yesterday?”定语从句就完成了,主句是问句,所以句末用问号。that/which代替的是原句中的宾语,原句变成了从句,它们仍然作从句的宾语。关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略,因此上句又可变成“have you found the book you were looking for yesterday?”.

请同学们照上面的例子,把下面变定语从句的步骤说出来(括号里的可以省略):

( 1 )  "The dog belongs to the Browns. It ate my fish yesterday."

……The dog which/that ate my fish yesterday belongs to the Browns。

(2)  "The lady has gone to the police station. Her car has been stolen."

……The lady whose car has been stolen has gone to the police station.

(3)  "I' ve seen the film. His girl friend played the leading role In it.''

……I' ve seen the film {which / that) his girl friend played the leading role in

……I’ve seen the film in which his girl friend played the leading role.

……His girl friend played the leading role in the film {which/that) I’ve seen.

    关系副词与此同理。只是关系副词代替的是原句中的状语。在被代替

之前,这个状语中一定要含有一个与另一句相同的成分。

例如:This is the house甲I was barn and brought up in the house.在这两个句子中,in the house是句子里的地点状语,定语从句修饰的就是the house。把后面这一句变成定语从句。在将要被变成定语从句的句子中,in the house是地点状语,所以用where来代替它。然后再把where放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序来代替它。然后再把where放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,就成了"where}was barn and brought up"。再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了"This is the house where I was barn and brought up.”,

定语从句就完成了,主句是陈述句,所以句末用句号。Where代替的是原句中的状语,原句变成了从句,它就作从句的状语。

(4) The hotel is an artistic building. We' 11 stay in it.

……The hotel where we' 11 stay is an artistic building.

……The hotel (which/that) we' 11 stay in is an artistic building.

……The hotel in which we' 11 stay is an artistic building.

(5) Perhaps they' ve heard of the place. We went there for our holidays last time.

……Perhaps they' re heard of the place where we went for our holidays last time

定语从句

请读者照上面的例子,把下面变定语从句的步骤说出来(括号里的可以省略):

(6)They’re redecorating the room. A conference will be held in the room.

    →They’re redecorating the room where a conference will be held.

    →They’re redecorating the room (which /that) a conference will be held in.

    →They’re redecorating the room in which a conference will be held.

那么,“介词+关系代词”是怎么回事呢?原来上面这个例句,还有一种做法:This is the house. I was born and brought up in the house.在这两个句子中,the house是相同的,定语从句修饰的就是the house 。把后面这一句变成定语从句。在将要被变成定语从句的句子中,the house表示物而且是介词in的宾语,所以用关系代词which或that来代替。然后把which或that放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,后面这一句就成了 “which/that I was born and brought up in”。再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了“This is the house which/that I was born and brought up in”。定语从句就完成了,主句是陈述句,所以句末用句号。

    which/that代替的是原句中的宾语,原句变成了从句,它们就作从句的宾语。关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略,因此上句又可变成“This is the house I was born and brought up in.”

但是,in可以提到关系代词的前面,不过这时不能用that,而且不能省略。所以上句又可变为“This is the house in which I was born and brought up.”这就是“介词+关系代词”的来历。

定语从句又分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。限定性定语从句把它的先行词限定在特定的意义之内,对先行词起限定的作用、是先行词必不可少的修饰语,没有它,整个句子的意思就会受到影响、就不完整。非限定性定语从句不对先行词起限定的作用,不是先行词必不可少的修饰语,只对先行词起补充说明的作用,没有它,整个句子的意思不会受到影响、仍然完整。非限定性定语从句相当于一个分句,翻译时也是把它当作分句处理的。非限定性定语从句和它的先行词之间要用逗号隔开;而限定性定语从句和它的先行词之间不能用逗号隔开。非限定性定语从句中除了不用that以外,其它关系词都可使用,使用方法与限定性定语从句一样。

例如:The supermarket which was opened two months ago is now closed down.

两个月前开的那家超市现在已经倒闭了。(限定)

    The supermarket, which was opened two months ago, is now closed down.   

那家超市现在已经倒闭了,那家超市两个月前开的。(非限定)

The book(which) you’re reading is mine .

    你正在读的那本书是我的。(限定)

    The book, which you’re reading, is mine.

    那本书是我的,你正在读那本书。(非限定)

如果以上例子的差别不十分明显,再看下面的例句:

    I’ve been to London , which is a beautiful city。

    我去过伦敦,那是个美丽的城市。

    Your father, whom I respect very much, is a kind old man.

    你父亲是个很和善的老头,我很尊重他。

    Nanjing, where I lived for five years, is very hot in summer.

    南京夏天非常热,我在那里生活过五年。

    在以上三例当中,定语从句不就能是限定性的。若变成限定性定语从句,其意就成了“我去过那个是座美丽的城市的伦敦。你那个我很尊重的父亲是个很和善的老头。我在那里生活过五年的南京夏天非常热。”言外之意是还有别的伦敦、父亲和南京。

通过这几个例子我们可以看出,专用名词以及世界上独一无二的东西都不能有限定性定语从句。因为它们的意义本身已经非常清楚,不需要对其进行限定。另外,非限定性定语从句的先行词还可以是整个主句所表达的意义。

如:He did well in the physics exam, which surprised me.

    他物理考得很好,这使我很吃惊。

(学地道的英语有两个重要的练习方法:parallel writing, and reverse translation,即平行写作和逆翻译。所谓平行写作,就是模仿英语的句子写类似的句子。而逆翻译就是先把英语译成汉语,或根据汉语的译文,再把汉语翻译成英语,再把英语译文同原文比较,分析差异。这两种方法能避免汉语式英语。)

He did well in the physics exam, which surprised me.

    他物理考得很好,这使我很吃惊。

    请把这句话逆翻译。有的同学会翻译为:He did well in the physics exam, this surprised me. 这句话错在什么地方呢?错在句法。这句话有两个主谓结构,是两个并列的分句,但没有连词(this 是代词),这就成了串句。

再如:He’s very particular about wording, which I am not.

      他很咬文嚼字,而我不。

      I said nothing, which made her angry.

      我什么也没说,这使她很生气。

      Tom didn’t go to the show, which was a pity.

      没去看演出,这很遗憾。

下面看看各个关系词的用法:

1.指人的关系代词:who, whom, whose, that 的用法:

(1)作主语(who, that )

Those who are going to play in the match are to meet at the gate at 1:30 after lunch.

那些参加比赛的人午饭后1:30在大门口集合。

    在本句中,先行词是those;关系代词who引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任动词are going to play 的主语。

The man who/that is talking with Mr. Wang is a famous doctor.

正在和王先生说话的那个人是一个有名的医生。

    在本句中,先行词是the man;关系代词who/that引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任动词is talking的主语。

这个复合句可以还原成两个句子:

The man is a famous doctor. He is talking with Mr. Wang.

(2)作宾语包括作介词宾语(whom, that )。此种情况下的关系代词可以省略;

This is just the man(whom/that) I want for the job.这正是我要的做这份工作的人。

    在本句中,先行词是the man;关系代词whom/that 引导定语从句,同时代替先行词在从句中担任动词want 的宾语。

Is he the manager (whom/that) you are looking for?

他是你在找的那位经理吗?

(3)当关系代词紧跟介词作介词宾语时,不能用that,也不能省略,

如:The book from which I got a lot of useful information was written by a famous scientist.

我从中得到许多有用信息的那本书是一位著名科学家写的。

Who is the boy with whom you were talking a moment ago.

你刚才和他说话的那个男孩是谁?

I know the young couple from whose house the music is coming.

但是当介词放在从句末尾时,作为介词宾语的关系代词可以用that 并且可以省略。

如上头两句可改为:

The book (that /which) I got a lot of information from was written by a famous scientist.

Who is the boy (that/whom) you were talking with a moment ago?

2.指物的关系代词which和that的用法:

(1)作主语

This is the instruction manual which/that tells you how to operate the computer.

这是那本教你如何操作计算机的说明手册。

(2)作宾语包括作介词宾馆。此种情况下的关系代词可以省略:

The chair (which /that) you broke yesterday is now being repaired.

你昨天弄坏的那把椅子现在正在修理。

The film (which/that) I saw last night was about a soldier who fought in WWII.

我昨天晚上看的那部电影是关于一个在二战中打过仗的士兵的。

(本句有两个定语从句。)

This is the bike for which I paid $ 100.

这就是我花了100美元买的那辆自行车。

The car(which/that)he went in was a black Cadillac.

他坐在里面走了的那辆汽车是一辆黑色的卡迪拉克。

The accounts of the company, (which/that) I’ve been paying great attention to, are in balance.

我一直非常注意的公司账目,是保持平衡的。

3.whose 和of which 指代人或事物,作定语。of which 可用whose 代替;

The car whose lights (of which the lights/the lights of which) were all broken was my father’s.

那辆所有的灯都破了的汽车是我父亲的。

例:His house of which the windows (the windows of which /whose windows) were all broken was a depressing sight.

    他那所有窗户都坏了的房子真是目不忍睹。

    That is the book whose cover (of which the cover/the cover of which ) was broken.

    这就是那本封皮破了的书。

4.关系代词的格应与它在从句中充当的成分一致。特别要注意插入语,

如:Peter is the one who everybody believes will fail to bring off the contract. Peter 是那个人人都认为不能完成合同的人。(everybody believes 是插入语)

    At the election I voted for the man whom I believed to be the most suitable.

    在选举的时候我投了我认为最合适的那个人的票。

5.关系代词作从句的主语时,从句的动词必须和先行词的人称和数一致:

例:These are the operating instructions that/which are written in English 。

    这就是用英文写成的使用说明。

    Are you staying at the white house which/that is newly completed and which /that has 15 bedrooms, 3 kitchens and 4 toilets?

    你是住在那幢刚刚竣工、有15个卧室、3个病房和4个卫生间的白色房子里吗?

    So far as I know, there are many VIPs who are going to attend the reception.

    就我所知有很多达官贵人将出席这个招待会。

6.非限定性定语从句不用that,只用who(whose, whom)和which代表人和物;

例:Her brothers, both of whom work in America, ring her up every week。

    她的兄弟们??两个人都在美国工作??每个星期都给她打电话。

    The buses, most of which were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd,

    那些公共汽车??大多已经坐满了人??被一群愤怒的人围着。

That tower block, which cost five million dollars to build, has been empty for five years.

    那个塔楼空着已经5年了。建它花了500万美元。

    Cricket, which I know very little about, is a very popular sport in England。

    板球是英格兰非常流行的体育活动,我对它知之甚少。

    The accounts of the company ,which I’ve been paying great attention to, are in balance.

    公司的账目是保持平衡的。我一直非常注意这些账目。

7.关系副词(=介词+关系代词):

关系副词

先行词

在从句中的作用

说明

when(=at / on / in / during which)

时间名词

时间状语

非正式文体中,有时用that代替关系副词

where(=in / at which)

地点名词

地点状语

why=(for which)

只有reason

原因状语

例:I shall never forget the day when (=on which) we first met.

    我永远也不会忘记我们第一次见面的那一天。

    The rain came at a time when (=at which) it was not needed.

    雨下得不是时候。

    This is the computer where (=by/on which) he has stolen top-secret documents.

    这就是他用来盗窃绝密文件的计算机。

    Here is the place where (=at which) the murder took place.

    这就是谋杀发生的地方。

He didn’t give any reason why (=for which) I had been fired.

    他没给任何解雇我的理由

    This is the house in which (=where) my parents used to live.

    这就是我父母以前住过的房子。

注意事项:

(1)在非正式场合, that有时可用来代替关系副词或相当于关系副词的“介词+which”,而且经常全部省略,

如:In all the years that (=when/during which) I was at collage

    在我读大学的那些年里

    the reason that(=why/for which)he is not happy

    他不高兴的理由

    The direction(that)(=in which )the heavenly bodies move can’t be changed.

    天体运行的方向是不可改变的。

    He is unpopular because people don’t like the offensive way (that)(=in which) he talks.

    他不受欢迎的原因是他说话的方式让人讨厌。

(2)是用关系代词还是用关系副词:

关系词(包括关系代词和关系副词)是学习英语定语从句的关键。用关系代词还是用关系副词,一要看关系词在从句当中作什么成分;二要看关系词所代表的是人、物、时间、地点还是原因;三要看所引导的是限定性定语从句还是非限定性定语从句。所以同样的先行词会有不同的关系词,这是因为关系词在从句当中担当的作用不同而决定的。

如:This is the room where/in which we’ll celebrate the New Year.

    这是我们将要在里面庆贺新年的房间。(充当地点状语)

    This is the room(that /which)we’ll celebrate the New Year in.

    这是我们将要在里面庆贺新年的房间。(充当介词宾语,可省略。)

    This is the room which /that will be used for the celebration of the New Year.

    这是那个将要被用来庆贺新年的房间。(充当主语)

    This is the room (which/that) we’ll use for the New Year dinner party.

    这是我们将要用来举行新年晚宴的房间。(充当宾语,可省略。)

The reason (that /which) he had given was not sound enough.

    他给的理由不够充分。(充当宾语,可省略)

    The reason why/for which he had done that was not sound enough.

    他做那件事的理由不够充分。(充当原因状语)

This is the house where she lives.这是她住的房子。

【比较:This is the house (that/which) she has bought. 这是她买的房子。This is the house that/which I’ve told you is extremely expensive.这就是我和你说过极其昂贵的那幢房子。】

I met him in the year when I was first in Xi’an.

    我刚到西安的那年遇到了他。

    That is the reason why he did not come that morning.

    那就是那天上午他没来的原因。

(3)定语从句中的时态。如果主句是一般将来时或过去将来时,从句的动作与主句的同时发生,那么该从句要用一般现在时表示一般将来时、用一般过去时表示过去将来时。

例:Anyone who/that touches the wire will get an electric shock.

    任何碰这根电线的人将受到电击。(不用will touch)

    I would give her anything that she asked for.

    她要什么我就给她什么。(不用would ask)

    The first person who/that opens the door will get a shock.

    第一个开门的人将被吓一跳。(不用will open)

    There will be a special price for anybody who orders a suit in the next two weeks.

    任何人在下两周内定做套装都将享受优惠价格。(不用will order)

但是,如果从句和主句的动作在将来不同的时间发生,则两部分都要用来将来时,

如:Those who will go abroad for training next year will start learning English tomorrow.

    那些明年出国受训的人员,将从明天开始学习外语。

注:①先行词有最高级形容词修饰时,常用that,而不用which:

例:Edison was one of the greatest inventors that ever lived.

    爱迪生是曾经有过的最伟大的发明家之一。

    This is the best film that I’ve ever seen.

    这是我曾经看过的最好的电影。

    She was the greatest woman that/who has ever lived.

    她是曾经有过的最伟大的女人。

②先行词有the same, the very, the first, the last, all, no, the only, much, little, none, any, every等时,常用that, 而不用which:

例:He was the first man that we saw in the village.

    他是我们在那个村子里看到的第一个人。

    There is little that is interesting.

    没什么令人感兴趣。

I still remember the first time that we met.

    我仍然记得我们第一次见面的时候。

    I’ll do anything (that) I can to help you.

    我将尽一切可能帮助你。

Everything that can be done has been done.

    能做的一切都做了。

    God bless this ship and all who sail in her.

    愿上帝保佑此船和所有乘此船航行的人。

    All that I can say is thank you very much.

    我能说的是(千言万语变成一句话):非常感谢你。

③当先行词既有人又有物时,用that,不用which,

如:We were deeply impressed by the workers and their working conditions that we had visited.

    我们参观过的工人及他们的工作条件留下了深刻印象。

We listened to him talk about the men and books that interested him。

    我们听他谈论他感兴趣的人物和书籍。

④在same和such之后,定语从句用as引导,

如:Let’s discuss only such questions as concern us.

    让我们只讨论与我们有关的问题。

    I’ve never heard such stories as he tells.

    我从来没听说过他讲的这种故事。

I shall be surprised if he does this in the same way as I do.

    如果他做这件事的方法和我一样,那就奇怪了。

    She works in the same office as I do.

    她和我在同一个办公室工作。

She wears the same kind of clothes as her sister does.

    她姐妹俩穿同样的衣服。

    He’s wearing the same dress as he wore at Mary’s wedding.

    他穿着与他在Mary的婚礼上穿的一样的衣服。

This is the same watch as I have lost.

    这块表和我丢的那块一样。

    I’ve never seen such kind of people as they are.

    我从来没见过像他们这样的人。

I’ve never seen such kind people as they are.

    我从来没见过象他们这样厚道的人。

    I want the same shirt as my friend’s.

    我要一件跟我朋友一样的衬衫。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in china.

    我们车间使用的这种机器是中国制造的。

但是,如果从句和主句的动作在将来不同的时间发生,则两部分都要用来将来时,

注:④在same和such之后,定语从句用as引导,

      偶尔,the same 后面也用that,

如:He’s wearing the same suit that he wore at Mary’s wedding.

    他穿着与他在Mary的婚礼上穿的一样的衣服。

    She works in the same office that I do.

    她和我在同一个办公室工作。

    This is the same watch that I have lost.

    这块表和我丢的那块一样。

as 引导非限定性定语从句即可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后,用来修饰整个句子。当as在从句中作主语时,后面常接下列句型。如:as is known, as is said, as is reported as is announced 等。

例如:As we all know, Mr. Wang is a good teacher.

      As is known to all, the earth revolves round the sun.

      He is tired, as you can see.

      As I expected, he didn’t believe me.

As 引导非限定性定语从句时与which的区别:当主句和从句语义一致时,用as;反之,用which。

如:He made a long speech, as was expected.

    He made a long speech, which was unexpected.

    Tom drinks a lot every day, which his wife doesn’t like at all.

(3)但是,如果从句和主句的动作在将来不同的时间发生,则两部分都要用来将来时,

注:⑤在“介词+关系代词”的结构中,也可用复杂介词,如:by means of (用,依靠),as a result of (作为结果)等:

例:I have three children, one daughter and two sons, all of whom graduated from the same university .

    我有三个孩子:一个女儿、两个儿子,他们都毕业于同一所大学。

    The police, in whom I have great confidence, are trying to find out who did it.

    我对警察有极大的信心,他们正在努力寻找是谁做的这件事。

This is the part of the river in which I like to swim.

   (in which=where)

    我喜欢在这条河里面游泳,这就是(我喜欢游的)那个地方。

    The man from whom you bought the house is my uncle.

    你从他那里买下房子的那个人是我叔叔。

This is the desk by means of which he jumped over the wall.

    这就是他用来跳过墙去的那张桌子。

    She was running a fever, as a result of which she failed in the exam.

    她当时正发烧,所以考试失败了。

    He is the man from whose house the picture was stolen.

    他就是那个家里的画被偷了的人。

注:⑥一个先行词后面可以跟一个以上的定语从句,这种现象叫双重关系从句:

例:Here are some words which are often used but which are very confusing.

    这里有些常用但非常混乱的词。

    He is the only person that I can find who is able to solve the problem.

    他是我能找到的唯一解决这个问题的人。

名词性从句

在主从复合句中,从句可以充当主句的主语、表语、宾语或同位语。由于在多数情况下,主语、表语、宾语或同位语这四种句子成分由名词性词类充当,所以,我们把这些作用相当于名词的从句统称为名词性从句,把充当主语、表语、宾语或同位语的从句分别称为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句或同位语从句。也就是说充当什么成分就叫什么从句。名词性从句由连接词(或关联词)引导。

    常用的连接词有:

连接词

作用

whether是否

that(本身无词义)

只起连接词作用,引导从句,在从句中不作任何成分

在从句中分别作主语、宾语和定语

who,whom,whose

which哪一个

what什么,所…的

在从句中分别作主语、宾语和定语

在从句中分别作主语、宾语和定语

除了起连接词作用外,还在从句中作状语

when什么时候,where什么地方

how怎样,怎么,why为什么

疑问词(who, whom, whose, what, which, where, why, when, how)可以引导主语、宾语和表语从句。

    它们的特点是:1、疑问词有本身的词义;2、疑问词在从句中担当句子成分,如主语、宾语或状语;3、这种疑问词引导的从句一律用陈述语序,不能用疑问语序。

    For example:

    Do you know whom they are looking for? 你知道他们在找谁吗?(宾语从句,陈述语序。不能是whom are they looking for?)

    I don’t know who did it. 我不知道这是谁干的。(宾语从句。在从句中如果疑问词作主语,其陈述语序和疑问语序一致。)

    She asked me where I had been. 她问我到哪儿去了。(宾语从句。陈述语序,不能是where had I been. 直接引语,间接引语。注意这句话的时态。)

Can you tell me when the train will arrive? 你能告诉我火车什么时候到吗?(宾语从句。陈述语序,不能是when will the train arrive. 直接引语,间接引语。)

    I don’t know why he hasn’t come yet. 我不知道他为什么还没来。(宾语从句,陈述语序。不能是why hasn’t he come yet.)

    He didn’t tell me what you were doing. 他没和我说你在干什么。(宾语从句,陈述语序。不能是what were you doing.)

What you have done might do harm t other people. 你所做过的事情有可能伤害别人。(主语从句。what 作从句的宾语。陈述语序,不能是what have you done. 如果用疑问语序,意思发生了变化,成了“你做了什么?”。)

    I don’t know where he is now. 我不知道他现在在哪里。(宾语从句,陈述语序。不能是where is he now.)

Where he went for his weekend is not known. 不知道他去哪里过的周末。(主语从句,where 作从句的地点状语。陈述语序,不能是where did he go for his weekend.)

    Whose fault this is is not important. 这是谁的过错并不重要。(主语从句,whose 作从句的定语。陈述语序,不能是whose fault is this.)

What I want to know is where he has gone for his weekend. 我想知道的是他到哪里度周末去了。(这句话包含两个名词性从句:what I want to know是主语从句,what 在从句中作宾语,从句用陈述语序,不能是What do I want to know. Where he has gone for his weekend 是表语从句,where 在从句中作状语,从句用陈述语序,不能是where has he gone for his weekend.)

下面我们再分别讲述主语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句和表语从句。

主语从句

1.that 引导主语从句时,that 没有意义,但不能省略。(that 引导宾语从句时可以省略。)

    For example:

    It worried her a bit that her hair was turning gray. 她的头发正在变白,这使她很不安。that引导主语从句,it 作形式主语,that 不能省略。

    That she is a rich woman is known to us all. 众所周知,她是个富有的女人。这是that 引导主语从句,that 不能省略。这句话可以改为用it 作形式主语的句型。请同学们改写:It is known to us all that she is a rich woman.)

    We didn’t know (that) you had sold your house. 我们不知道你已经把你的房子卖了。这是that引导宾语从句,that 可以省略。注意这句话的时态。

2.从句作主语时,多数情况下由 it 作形式主语,而把主语从句放在后面,尤其是谓语部分(包括宾语)较短的情况下。

    For example:

    It wasn’t very clear what she meant. 不清楚她是什么意思。

    It is important that he should come on time. 他按时来是很重要的。

    It is true that that man on the left is a well-known writer here. 左边那个人是本地的一位著名作家,这是真的。这里,第一个that 引导主语从句,是单纯的连词,无词义,不作句子成分。第二个that 是指示代词,作句子成分,是man 的定语。

3.whether 既可以引导主语从句也可以引导宾语从句,但if不能引导主语从句。whether 后面可以加or not, 而if 不能与or not 连用。作介词宾语时不用if.

    For example:

    Whether I knew John doesn’t matter. = It doesn’t matter whether I knew John. 我是否认识约翰没有关系。

    Whether or not she’ll come isn’t clear. = Whether she’ll come or not isn’t clear. = It isn’t clear whether …. 她是否来还不清楚。

    It all depends on whether we can get their cooperation. 这是主语从句还是宾语从句?it 是形式主语吗?it 是代词,whether 引导的是宾语从句,作介词on 的宾语,不能用if引导。请翻译这句话。这完全取决于我们是否能得到他们的合作。

    I worry about whether I hurt her feelings. 宾语从句,介词宾语,不能用if 引导。请翻译这句话。

    She asked me whether/if you were married. 宾语从句,既可以用whether, 又可以用if 引导。注意时态的对应。请翻译这句话。

    We haven’t decided whether/if we shall give them aid.

    I’m not sure whether/if the report is believable.

Now let’s do some translation:

    现在还很难预测谁会赢得下一届总统选举。

    It is still hard to predict who will win the next presidential election.

    对于多数公民来说,谁当选总统无关紧要。

    Who will become the president doesn’t matter much to most citizens.

    这位前总统是否会被判处死刑还有待观察。

    It remains to be seen whether the ex-president will be sentenced to death.

    真可惜,王教授不能出席我们的英语晚会。

    It is a pity that Prof. Wang can’t attend our English Evening.

    我们需要的是更多的时间。

    What we need is more time.

宾语从句

在谓语动词、介词、动词不定式、分词、动名词之后都可以带有宾语从句。某些形容词如sure, happy, glad, certain, pleased 等之后也可以带有宾语从句。

1.that 引导的宾语从句: that 没有意义,在口语或非正式文体中常省略:如:

    I really feel she’s making a mistake. 我的确感到她正犯错误。

    James said (that) he was feeling better. 詹姆斯说他感到好些了。

    Hearing that his son was badly wounded, he hurried to the hospital to see him. 听说儿子受了重伤,他急忙赶到医院去看望他。

    I suggested that we should go home. 我建议我们回家去。虚拟语气,that 一般不能省略。

2.whether/if (是否)引导的宾语从句:如果要突出“究竟是…还是不…”,常在whether 后面加or not; if 一般不与or not连用。如:

    He asked me if/whether I knew John. 他问我是否认识约翰。

    Let me know whether you can come or not. 你能来还是不能来,告诉我一声。

3.在think, believe, suppose, expect 等动词的宾语从句中,否定不用在从句中,而是将think 等词变为否定形式。

    For example:

    I don’t think the film is interesting. 我觉得这部电影没什么意思。

    I don’t suppose we are going outing tomorrow. 我认为我们明天不会出去郊游。

4.如果从句作宾语而后面还有补语,为了保持句子的平衡,用it 作形式宾语,而将宾语从句放在句尾。常跟这样的复合宾语的动词有:make, find, see, hear, feel, think, consider, regard, take….for granted等。如:

    George made it clear that he opposed this project. 乔治已明确表示他反对这个项目。it 代表that 引导的句子,作宾语,clear 是宾语补足语。

    They kept it quiet that he was dead. 对他已经死亡的消息,他们秘而不宣。

    I took it for granted that you’d stay with us. 我想当然认为你会和我们呆在一起。

同位语从句

同位语从句是对名词的内容给予具体、详细的说明。常在后面接同位语从句的名词有fact, news, idea, truth, hope, suggestion, question, problem, doubt, fear, belief等。同位语从句常用的引导词为that,有是也用when, where 等疑问词。如:

    The news that the United States was hit by terrorist attacks took the whole world by surprise. 美国受到恐怖主义分子袭击的消息令全世界吃惊。

    The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong. 你认为不动脑筋就能做好这件工作的想法是完全错误的。

    People used to hold the belief that the earth was the center of the universe. 人们曾认为地球是宇宙的中心。

The difficulty lies in the fact that we are short of money. 困难在于我们缺乏资金这个事实。

    They have no idea at all where he has gone. 他们一点儿也不知道他去哪儿了。

注意:同位语从句的that 只是引导词,没有其他语法作用,在句子中不作句子成分,不能省略;而定语从句中的that 除了引导定语从句外,还是定语从句的一个成分,在定语从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不能省略,作宾语时可以省略。如:

    The idea that some peoples are superior to others is sheer nonsense. 有些民族优越于其他民族这种想法简直荒谬。(请辨别是同位语从句还是定语从句。)(同位语从句)

    The idea that he proposed at the meeting is sheer nonsense. 他在会议上提出的这个想法简直荒谬。(请辨别是同位语从句还是定语从句。)(定语从句)

No one is happy with the fact that he found out. 没有人对他发现的事实感到高兴。(请辨别是同位语从句还是定语从句。)(定语从句)

    No one is happy with the fact that he will become their boss. 没有人对他将成为他们的老板这一事实感到高兴。(请辨别是同位语从句还是定语从句。)(同位语从句)

表语从句

表语从句位于主句的连系动词之后,在非正式文体中引导词that可以省略。如:

    That’s not what I want. 那不是我要的。

    That’s why I have come. 那就是我为什么来了。

    My opinion is that things will improve. 我的意见是事情会好起来的。

    One advantage of solar energy is that it will never run out. 太阳能的一个优点是永远也不会枯竭。

    The truth is that he didn’t really try. 实际情况是他没有真正努力。

    The problem is who is to pay and when we can start. 问题是谁来付帐、我们又何时开始。

    The fact is that he didn’t notice the car until too late. 事实是他注意到车时已经太晚了。

    What surprised me was that he spoke English so well. 使我感到吃惊的是他英语讲得那么好。

    All I can say is that I have nothing to do with it. 我能说的就是我与此事没有关系。

    What I want to know is where we shall go and whether she will join us. 我想知道的是我们要去什么地方以及她是否加入我们。

表语从句位于主句的连系动词之后,在非正式文体中引导词that可以省略。如:

    The fact is that he didn’t notice the car until too late. 事实是他注意到车时已经太晚了。

    What surprised me was that he spoke English so well. 使我感到吃惊的是他英语讲得那么好。

    All I can say is that I have nothing to do with it. 我能说的就是我与此事没有关系。

    What I want to know is where we shall go and whether she will join us. 我想知道的是我们要去什么地方以及她是否加入我们。

    此外,表语从句还可由as if (好像)引导。如:

    It looked as if it was/were going to rain. (虚拟语气)

    Now let’s do some translation:

    这就是她昨天请一天假的原因。

    That is why she had a day off yesterday.

    我的想法是,个人的权利应该得到充分尊重。

    My idea is that individual rights should be fully respected.

    问题在于上帝是否真的存在。

    The question is whether the God really exists.

    我想知道的是,他是如何在这么短的时间内完成这个项目的。

    What I want to know is how he managed to complete the project in such a short time.

形容词后的that 从句

    that 引导的名词性从句还可以用在一些形容词后面。这种句型一般都用人作主语,所用的形容词都是表示思想状况或感情色彩的形容词,如certain, sure, positive, afraid, convinced, anxious, disappointed, worried, glad, happy, sorry, amazed, surprised, aware, doubtful, confident等等。如:

    I am sure/certain that he’s at home now. 我肯定他现在在家。

    He became angry that you made the same mistake. 你犯了同样的错误,他生气了。

    He remains confident that he will win. 他仍然自信他会赢

    She is aware that I can’t help her. 她知道我帮不了她的忙。

    I am glad that you’ve come. 你来了我很高兴。

He appeared/seemed surprised that I said “no”. 我说不,他似乎很吃惊。

    I am afraid that I can’t promise you anything. 恐怕我不能向你保证什么。

We were rather disappointed that you were not able to come yesterday. 昨天你没能来我们有点失望。

    I am a bit worried that she will not be able to make it. 我有点担心她做不成这件事情。

what 从句的小结

1.意思是“所….的事/物”, 相当于the thing(s) that…, that which…, 或those which… 可以用于以下情况:

    (1) 引导主语从句。如:

    What she saw frightened her. 她看到的事情吓了她一跳。

    What was once regarded as impossible has now become a reality. 曾经被认为不可能的事情,现在已经变成了事实。

    What I’m afraid of is their taking him to that place. 我怕的是他们带他到那地方去。

    What we are worrying about is just her innocence. 我们担心的是她的幼稚。

    But what hurt our feelings most was the personal comment of the judge. 最伤我们感情的是法官的私下评论。

    What will be, will be. 要发生的事总是要发生的。(谚语)

    What is gone is gone. 过去的事就过去了。

    (2) 引导表语从句。如:

    That’s what I hope. 那就是我希望的。

    I should like to be a teacher. That’s what I want to be. 我想当老师,那是我想干的事。

    Times are not what they used to be. 时代不同了。

    He’s not what he was a few years ago. 他不是几年前的他了。

    Your health is not what it ought to be. 你的身体应该更好。

    (3) 引导宾语从句,包括介词宾语。如:

    He could not express what he felt. 他不能表达他的感受。

    Well, I’ll do what I can. 好吧,我尽力。

    I can’t do what you’ve just asked of me. 我不能做你刚才要求我的事。

    And having got what he wanted, he took his hat and went away. 得到了他要的东西,他拿上帽子就走了。

    As a friend of yours, I want to tell you what I hear. 作为你的朋友,我想告诉你我所听到的。

    The father began to criticize what the boy had done. 父亲开始批评男孩所做的事。(注意时态)

    She was not happy at what he had said. 她对他说的话不高兴。

    Don’t poke your nose into what doesn’t concern you. 不要多管闲事。

    The city is different from what it was ten years ago. 这座城市和十年前不同了。

    It was a small place then compared to what it is now. 和现在比起来,它那时候是个小地方。

    The father began to criticize what the boy had done. 父亲开始批评男孩所做的事。(注意时态)

    She was not happy at what he had said. 她对他说的话不高兴。

    Don’t poke your nose into what doesn’t concern you. 不要多管闲事。

    The city is different from what it was ten years ago. 这座城市和十年前不同了。

    It was a small place then compared to what it is now. 和现在比起来,它那时候是个小地方。

    I don’t care about money or what people call position. 我不在乎金钱或者别人所谓的地位。

    Philip was depressed by what he had gone through. Philip经历过的事情使他很消沉。

    They paid fifty percent of what they were able to earn to the state. 他们能挣来的东西,百分之五十交给了国家。

2.用作插入语,指代后面的成分。这和非限定性定语从句正好相反,非限定性定语从句指代的是前面的成分。如:

    Then I discovered, what was news to me, that his wife was     Mary’s niece. 后来我发现,他妻子原来是Mary的侄女,这对我是个新闻。

    He never joined in the usual sports of the boys, and, what is remarkable, never went out in a boat on the river. 他从来不参加男孩子通常做的体育活动,更奇怪的是,他从来不坐船出去到河上面去。

    He’s an interesting speaker, and, what is more important, he knows his subject thoroughly. 他讲话生动有趣,更重要的是,他对课题了如指掌。

He went to the meeting and, what was worse, insisted on speaking. 他去参加了会议,而且更糟糕的是,他坚持要发言。

    It is a useful book, and, what is more, not an expensive one. 这是本很有用的书,再说也不贵。

    You’ll have nobody but yourself to blame, and, what’s more, you’ll get no sympathy from anybody. 你怪不着别人,只能怪你自己;还有,你得不到任何人的同情。

    We invited a new speaker and, what’s more, he was happy to come. 我们请到了一位新的发言人,而且他很乐意来。

3.引导让步状语从句,等于“不管什么…”。注意状语从句的语序。如:

    Do what she would, she could not invent a reason for not going. 不管她会做什么,她都编不出不去的理由。状语从句把实义动词放在句首,句子倒装。=No matter what she would do, …

    Come what may, you’ll always keep it secret. 无论怎样,你都要保守秘密。=No matter what may come, ….

    Jack has made up his mind that, come what might, he would stay there. Jack已经拿定主意,无论如何他也要呆在那里。=…no matter what might come, …

    Say what he will, in his heart he knows that he is wrong. 不管他怎么说,内心里他知道自己错了。= No matter what he will say, …

练 习

关于名词性从句我们就讲到这里。Now let’s do some exercises related to this part:

一、选择最佳答案填空

    1.______ he always serves the people very well is known.

    A. What     B. That       C. Which       D. Who

    2.______ you have done might do harm to other people.

    A. What     B. That       C. Whether      D. Which

    3.I don’t care ____ she has no money. I care____ she is honest or not.

    A. if…if          B. whether…whether

    C. if…whether   D. whether…if

    4. They found at last ____ they had been looking for.

    A. that     B. what    C. where     D. which

    5. He will be here on time. But I’m not sure _____ he drives or takes the train.

    A. whether    B. if     C. when      D. how

    6. The reason why he was late is ___ he got up too late.

    A. that    B. because    C. as     D. for

    7. I want to know ____ the leather coat belongs to.

    A. who    B. which    C. that     D. whom

    8. Can you tell me ___ the hospital is?

    A. where   B. who    C. that     D. whether

    9. We all know ____ she will be our English teacher.

    A. which   B. what    C. that     D. who

    10. I wish _____ he would pass the examination.

    A. how    B. whether    C. when    D. that

二、把两个单句合成主从复合句

    model: Does he live there? Could you tell me?

    →Could you tell me whether (if) he lives there?

    1. Can Mike write a little Chinese now? I want to know.

    →I want to know whether/if Mike can write a little Chinese now.

    2. Did Jenny try to explain why she was late? Can you tell us?

    →Can you tell us if/whether Jenny tried to explain why she was late?

    3. Did the monkey want to eat bananas? Do you know?

    →Do you know if/whether the monkey wanted to eat bananas?

    4. Do you like sports? I ask you.

    →I ask you if/whether you like sports.

    5. Does she play basketball? Do you know?

    →Do you know if/whether she plays basketball?

    6. Has the whole street been cleaned? I don’t know.

    →I don’t know if/whether the whole street has been cleaned.

    7. Were there a lot of people in the street? Can you tell me?

    →Can you tell me if/whether there were a lot of people in the street?

    8. Are they preparing for the sports meet? Do you know?

    →Do you know if/whether they are preparing for the sports meet?

    9. Had John told Mr. Smith about his past? Could you tell me?

    →Could you tell me if/whether John had told Mr. Smith about his past.

    10. Has anybody ever been into some of the pyramids? Please tell me.

    →Please tell me if/whether anybody has ever been into some of the pyramids.

强调

Hello, everyone. 英语的强调主要有两种:一是强调非谓语(包括主语、宾语、状语等);二是强调谓语动词。

一、强调非谓语

其基本句型是:“It + is/was + 被强调的成分 + that/who + 其她成分”。It 没有实意,只起语法作用,引导被强调的部分。当被强调的是人时,可用who(m)/that, 其他情况用that。

例如:

It was I who/that met Jack yesterday. 是我昨天碰到了Jack.

(强调主语)

It was Jack that/whom I met yesterday. 我昨天碰到的是Jack。

(强调宾语)

It was yesterday that I met Jack. 是昨天我碰到了Jack.

(强调时间状语)

这几句话复原为非强调句就是:I met Jack yesterday.

It is people, not things, that are decisive. 决定的因素是人,不是物。

(强调主语)

It is because the book is very important for my present job that I bought it. 是因为这本书对我目前的工作很有用,我才买了它。

(强调原因状语)

It was in the supermarket that I gave the book to him. 是在那家超市里我给了他那本书。(强调地点状语)

1.强调主语:

It was John who broke the window. 是John打破了窗子。

原句:John broke the window.

It is this overpass that will be pulled down. 将被拆掉的是这个天桥。

原句:This overpass will be pulled down.

It is the people who/that are really powerful. 真正有力量的是人民。

原句:The people are really powerful.

2.强调状语:

(1)强调时间状语。

例如:

It was at that moment that he changed his mind.

是在那一刻他改变了主意。

It is every day that Professor Smith goes swimming.

史密斯教授是天天去游泳。

It was not until Saturday that he began to prepare for the examination. 他直到星期六才开始为考试作准备。

注意:这句话的原句是He did not begin to prepare for the examination until Saturday. 变成强调时间状语,注意 “not” 位置的变化。

(2)强调地点状语。

例如:

It was in the library that I met Jack yesterday.

是在图书馆我昨天碰到了Jack.

原句:I met Jack in the library yesterday.

It might have been on the bus that I lost my purse.

可能是在公共汽车上我丢失了钱包。

原句是:I might have lost my purse on the bus. 强调地点状语,也可改为:It was on the bus that I might have lost my purse.

It was under the tree that I was sitting then. 当时我正坐在那棵树下。

3.强调宾语。

例如:

It was Tom’s bike that she borrowed, not mine.

她借的是Tom的自行车,不是我的。

It is his dog that he’s sold, not his car. 他已卖掉的是他的狗,不是车。

It was a cat that your dog was running after. 你的狗追的是只猫。

4.强调宾语补足语:

例如:

It was wonderful that we considered his plan.

我们认为他的计划是绝妙的。

It is Lincoln that they named the aircraft carrier.

他们把那艘航母命名为林肯号。

It was captain that the team chose him. 那个队选他当的是队长。

It was white that Tom was painting the fence.

汤姆当时正在把篱笆涂成白色的。

这句话的原句是: Tom was painting the fence white.

类似的结构有:color the sun red, color the tree green, paint the wall pink 等,这里,颜色作宾语补足语。

It is a fine player that we believe Jane.

我们相信Jane是一个出色的选手。

It is the Buckingham Palace that the British Queen’s office building is called. 英国女王的办公大楼被称作白金汉宫。

It is Cadillac that this car is named. 这辆车被命名为卡迪拉克。

二、强调谓语动词

用“助动词do + 动词原形”来强调谓语动词。

注意:谓语动词只有两种时态能强调,即一般现在时和一般过去时。在一般现在时中,do有人称的变化,第三人称单数用does,一般过去时do 变成did。其他时态的强调通过重读谓语动词来体现。

例如:

You’re quite wrong?she does like you. 你错了,她真的喜欢你。

Do come in. 快进来。

用“助动词do + 动词原形”来强调谓语动词。

1.强调一般现在时动词谓语:

例如:

I work hard. → I do work hard.

She loves you. → She does love you.

My father smokes a lot. → My father does smoke a lot.

2.强调一般过去时动词谓语:

例如:

I called you in the morning.

→ I did call you in the morning.

I attended the meeting yesterday.

→  I did attend the meeting yesterday.

I handed in the paper yesterday.

→ I did hand in the paper yesterday.

He wrote a letter to me yesterday.

→ He did write a letter to me.

He came to see you yesterday.

→ He did come to see you yesterday.

三、其他表示强调的方式

1.把要强调的部分放在句首:

例如:

That film?what do you think of it?

Asleep, then, were you?

2.用某些特殊的词来表示强调,如really, certainly, definitely, very等。在口语中,such 和so 都常用于强调句。

如:

Thank you so much.

It was such a lovely party.

I really enjoyed it.

This is the very book that I am looking for. 我要找的就是这本书。

练习

把下列句子改成强调句,强调黑体词部分;然后把第1-8句和第10句改为强调动词谓语的句子。

1)Mary gave me the news.

→It was Mary who gave me the news.

2)We went to the Great Wall the day before yesterday.

→It was the day before yesterday that we went to the Great Wall.

3)I want you to repair the bike for me.

→It is the bike that I want you to repair for me.

4)The days begin to get longer in February.

→It is in February that the days begin to get longer.

5)We held a meeting in the room yesterday.

→It was a meeting that we held in the room yesterday.

6)I met Mr. Li in the bookshop.

→It was Mr. Li that I met in the bookshop.

7)My parents began to learn to read and write after liberation.

→It was after liberation that my parents began to learn to read and writed.

8)I joined the party in 1985.

→It was in 1985 that I joined the party.

9)She will be waiting for me at the gate.

→It is at the gate that she will be waiting for me.

10)Li Hong and Zhang Ming cleaned the classroom this morning.

→It was Li Hong and Zhang Ming who cleaned the classroom this morning.

把下列句子改为强调动词谓语的句子。1)Mary gave me the news.→Mary did give me the news.2)We went to the Great Wall the day before yesterday.→We did go to the Great Wall the day before yesterday.3)I want you to repair the bike for me.→I do want you to repair the bike for me.4)The days begin to get longer in February.→The days do begin to get longer in February.5)We held a meeting in the room yesterday.→We did hold a meeting in the room yesterday.6)I met Mr. Li in the bookshop.→I did meet Mr. Li in the bookshop.7)My parents began to learn to read and write after liberation.→My parents did begin to learn to read and write after liberation.8)I joined the party in 1985.→I did join the party in 1985.9)She will be waiting for me at the gate.

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