家有学子 / 语法 / 初中英语语法总结(一)




2010-12-17  家有学子
       1.宾语从句:1.主句若是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况用适当时态。He says (that) he will have a walk soon.

  The teacherasks who is the cleverest in the school.

  I want to know who came here late this morning.


  He wondered if I would come. She told me that her son had got well.

  She said that she liked watching TV. We thought Jim was wrong.


  Mr. Li said the moon is smaller than the earth.


  Could you tell me when you will get back to Wuhan?(不是will you)

  Do you know which sweater she is wearing? (不是is she)

  2.状语从句:1主句若是一般将来时、祈使句或含不表过去的情态动词等,则if(如果), unless(除非),when(当…的时候), as soon as(一…就…),before, after, until, till, as(当…的时候)所引导的状语从句用一般现在时。

  You may take a rest when you finish doing your work.

  I will call you up if I leave for Shanghai next week.

  Wait for your brother at the bus station until he arrives.


  I would give the money to the charity if I had a million dollars.

  When he got to the park, his classmates had left.

  My son ran towards me as soon as he saw me on the street.

  3.定语从句:关系代词who只指人,which只指物。that既可指人又可指物。whose 后必须跟有名词,既指人,也可指物。关系词作主语时,不可省略,作宾语时可省略。whom只指人,只作宾语。关系副词where指“在那里”,when指“在那时”。

  She is a girl who/that is beauti l and kind-hearted.

  She is a girl (who/whom/that) I know very well.

  That boy whosehair is very long is my brother. (所属)

  The girl whois tall is my sister. / I own a bike whoseprice is high.

  I bought a watch (which/that) I paid 100 yuan for. (指物)

  I prefer a place which/thatis clean and quiet.

  I prefer a place whereI can live a quiet life. (在这儿)

  I shall never forget the day whena boy helped me find my dog.

  4.wish和hope:1wish可接to do sth. /sb to do sth. /that从句.

  I wish to spend my summer holiday in Qingdao.

  I wish youto join my party this Sunday.

  I wish (that) I could be a scientist.

  2hope接to do sth. 或that从句. 但不接sb to do sth.

  I hope to receive a letter from you some day.

  I hope (that) everything goes well. /I hope you will get well soon.

  5.thanks for和thanks to: Thanks for your helping me with the work.


  Thanks to your suggestion, I didn’t make such mistakes.


  6.感官动词用法之一:see, hear, listen to, watch, notice, feel等词,后接宾语,再接动词原形/ 动词ing, 分别表示全过程和正在进行。句中有频率词时,以上的词也常跟动词原形。

  I heard someone knocking at the door when I fell asleep. (正进行)

  I heard someone knock at the door three times. (听的是全过程)

  I often watch my classmates play volleyball after school. (频率词)


  We saw him go into the restaurant with his wife. →

  He was seen to go into the restaurant with his wife.

  7.感官动词用法之二:look, sound, smell, taste, feel可当系动词,后接形容词。He looks . It sounds good. The flowers smell beauti l. The sweets taste sweet. The silk feels soft. I felt tired.

  这些动词不用于被动语态。The sweets are tasted sweet.是错误的。

  注意:如果加介词like, 则后不可接形容词,而接名词或代词:

  He looks like his mother. That sounds like a good idea.

  It smells like a flower.   It tastes like salt.

  8.find和think部分用法: + 宾语 + 宾语补足语。(代替宾从)

  宾补有以下情况:1.名词短语,John found his son a clever boy.

  2.形容词短语,Mrs. Smith thinks her husband kind of lazy.

  3.有时宾补后可接带to不定式,I found it hard to fool the girl.

  9.would like/want/feel like: 1 would like,和want类似:◇都可接名词短语:I would like/ want another three desks. ◇都可接带to 不定式:I would like/ want to go out for a walk. ◇都可接sb,然后再跟带to 不定式: I would like you to give me a hand.

  2 feel like: ◇后也可接名词短语:Do you feel like some tea?

  ◇后若接动词,须用动词ing形式:Do you feel like having a walk? I don’t feel like drinking tea.【feel like常用于疑问句或否定句中。】

  10.词序易错的短语:1 形容词修饰不定代词或不定副词,形容词在后面。Is there anything delicious in the fridge?

  Nothing serious.   There is something wrong with the computer.

  I want to go somewhere warm.

  2 else修饰疑问词和不定代词、不定副词,也放在后面。

  What else can you see in the picture?   Who else is in the room?

  Do you have anything else to say?   Where else can you see it?

  3 enough修饰形容词和副词,enough 放在后面。

  This sweater is cheap enough. Nemo is old enough to work.

  He ran fast enough to catch up with the dog.

  11.对“评价”、“天气”的提问之区别:1What do you think of …?=

  How do you like …? “你对…怎么看?”(How…?句中有like,是动词。) 2What’s the weather like in…? = How is the weather in…?“…的天气什么样?”(What…?句中有like,是介词“像”。)

  12.take, cost, pay, spend区别:

  1 It + take + sb + some time + to do sth.

  It took us half an hour to cut down the tree.

  2 物+cost+sb+钱: The bag cost me thirty yuan. (cost, cost, cost)

  若cost后无sb, 则译作“价钱是”:The bag costs 30 Yuan.

  3 人+ pay +sb + 钱+ for sth: I paid the seller 200 Yuan for the bike. (pay, paid, paid). (pay后所加内容可视具体情况取舍。)

  4 人 + spend + 时间/ 钱 + on sth / (in) doing sth.

  The girl spent two hours (in) searching the Internet.

  The girl always spends much money on her clothes.

  spend 有时可指“度过”:spend holiday/ weekends/ winter

  13.双宾结构:pass/ give/ teach/ offer/ lend/ send/ sell/ call/ show/buy/

  ask/ tell/ build等可加双宾结构。即后接sb + sth.

  其中pass, give, offer, lend, send, sell, show等可接sth + to sb.

  buy, build等可接sth + for sb.

  另外,若sth是代词时,不用双宾结构。Please pass it to me.


  Keep care l when you are listening to the teacher. (连词)

  Keep care l when listening to the teacher. (介词)

  类似的,while, than, before, after, as, since, until等。

  如:I’ll wait until I hear from her. (连词)

  I’ll wait until next Friday. (介词)

  15.动词ed与动词ing作形容词用法之一: 1. 动词ed作形容词:表示被动或已发生,常作定语。The boy named Peter is my friend.


  He’s eating fried chicken. 他在吃炸鸡。There is no time left.

  I have read a novel writtenby Lu Xun.我读了一部鲁迅写的小说。

  He lives in a house builttwenty years ago.

  2. 动词ing作形容词:表示正进行或功能,常作定语。

  the ing boy, a running bus, the rising sun, a bus running on the road, the boy ing in the corner (正进行)

  a sitting room, the sleeping car, the bathing suit (功能)

  16.动词ed与动词ing作形容词用法之二:和心理感受有关,但ed修饰人,ing常修饰物。I felt surprised at his words.

  How exciting the film is! / I want to go to a place which is relaxing.


  To be a teacher is my dream.   Working hard brings you success.

  Taking care of our environment is very important.

  To plant trees makes me happy. (谓语用单数)

  Reading books gives you knowledge. (谓语用单数)

  Listening and writing are both difficult. (谓语用复数)

  18.later / after / ago /before: 1later“…时间后”结构:时间段+later

  常用于一般过去时。They went to Beijing five days later.

  (later单独在句尾,常用于将来时:I’ll see you later.)

  2after“…时间后”结构:after+时间段,常用于一般过去时,和1相同。They went to Beijing after five days.

  (after也可加句子:I’ll send you an e-mail after I get home.                   He found out the information after he had searched the Internet for thirty minutes.)

  3ago“…时间前”结构:时间段+ago, 用于一般过去时。The Greens moved to Shanghai four weeks ago.

  (since +时间段+ago,主句用现在完成时)

  4before 单独放在句尾,常用现在完成时:“以前”

  I have been to London before. He has seen the film before.

  (若是时间段+before, 则常用过去完成时,译为“…时间前”:

  I had seen the film two weeks before.   We had found out the answer to the problem an hour before.)


  20.月:January, 一月;February, 二月;March, 三月;April, 四月;

  May, 五月;June, 六月;July, 七月;August, 八月;September, 九

  月;October, 十月;November, 十一月;December, 十二月。

  21.星期:Sunday, 星期日;Monday, 星期一;Tuesday, 星期二;

  Wednesday, 星期三;Thursday, 星期四;Friday, 星期五;

  Saturday, 星期六。Sunday为第一天,Saturday为最后一天。

  22.“也”:either, 用于否定句的末尾。also, 通常挨着动词,少用于句尾。too, 通常在句尾,前常有逗号。as well, 只用于句尾。


  23.带to不定式用法之一:带to不定式有逻辑宾语在前时,to后动词用及物动词,不及物时需加介词。The apples are too tall for the boy to reach. /The zoo is not a good place for animals to live in.

  24.(a) little / (a) few: 1few,little“几乎没有;少”否定词。few加可数名词复数, little加不可数名词。2a few“一些”肯定词,加可数名词复数; a little“一些;一点”也是肯定词,加不可数名词。3另外,在too, very, so等词后用few, little; 在only, just, still等词后用a few, a little. 而quite a few/ a little译为“很多”

  25.及物动词+副词:put on/off/away/up/down/out; break off/down;

  turn on/off/up/down; get back;   use up; give away/out/up/back;   try out/on; ring/call up; let down; clean up/out; set up; think up;   hand in/out; fix up; work out; ;dress up;pick up;   help out;

  keep off/out/down   cut down; write down; wake up(叫醒);

  take off/away; sell out; look up/over; eat up; throw away/off


  26.as……as用法:1和…一样… His room is as big as mine.

  He runs as fast as I /me. 2as…as possible/sb can “尽可能…”

  We went there as soon as possible.我们尽可能快地去了那儿。 Listen to the teacher as carefully you can.   3有些短语有几个意思:as soon as 和…一样快;一…就…;as much as和…一样多;多达;as long as和…一样长;长达;只要;as well as和…一样好;和…一样;as far as远达;就…来说;

  27.prefer用法:prefer sth/doing sth to sth/doing sth比起…更喜欢…

  prefer to do sth rather than do sth宁愿…也不愿…

  prefer to do sth / prefer doing sth 更喜欢做某事

  28. some-, any-, every-用法:1some-“某~,一些~”,用于肯定的陈述句中。I have something to tell you. Maybe somebody has taken it. 若用于疑问句中表示期待对方肯定的回答或表示请求或建议. Why not ask somebody to help you? Shall we give him something to eat? What about some milk? Could you please lend me some chairs? 2any-, 在疑问句中仍译为“某~,一些~”Do you have anything to say?Is anybody in the house?在肯定句和否定句中译为“任何~”You may put the box anywhere in the room. He is taller than any other student in the class. We don’t have anything to eat this morning.   3every-“每~”,强调所有,既包括此也包括彼。Is everybody here?-No,Tom and Lucy have asked for leave. The glass was broken, and the water went everywhere.

  29.动词时态和形式:八个时态:一般现在时、现在进行时(am/is/are + v.ing)、一般将来时(will/shall/be going to+动词原形)、一般过去时、过去进行时(was/were +v.ing)、现在完成时(have/has + v. 过去分词)、过去完成时(had + v. 过去分词)、过去将来时(would + v. 原形)   六个形式:原形;过去式;过去分词;第三人称单数(加s/es);现在分词(v.ing);带to不定式。

  30.if/whether区别:if 如果(引导条件状从) / 是否(引导宾从)

  whether无论(引导让步状从) / 是否(引导宾从)

  都译为“是否”时,whether可接or not, 也可接带to不定式。

  if 则不可。另外,if可接any-单词,常不接some-单词。

  If you have any water, please give me some.

  31.因为:because, 常是对why的回答,语气最强。

  since, 位置:Since…,…. Since it’s already late, I must go now.

  for, 位置:…,for….语气最弱。I drove carefully, for it’s snowing.


  32.表推测:must, may, might, can, could, can’t


  There is the door bell, it must be Tom.

  may / might“也许”一般用于肯定句, may比might可能性大。

  She is coming to us. She might be our new teacher.

  can / could“可能”could比can语气更委婉。但can多用于否定。

  You could be right, but I don’t think you are.

  The light in the office is off. The teacher can’t be there now.

  33.so与such区别:so是副词,后跟形容词/副词,so tall/slowly…

  such是形容词,后跟名词短语。such bad weather / good news…;

  such a beautiful girl / an important lesson / a heavy stone…;

  such kind boys / new desks / friendly people / amazing movies…;

  若名词前形容词是many, much, few, little时,不用such, 而用so.

  so many flowers / much rain / few friends / little water…

  也常有“so / such …that…”句型,译为“如此…以致于…”。

  34.so的另两个用法:1so + be/情态动词/助动词+主语,“…也”

  上下文所指不是同一个人或物。The twins are working, so am I.

  I will stay up tonight, and so will Peter.

  以及对话形式:A: I woke up late this morning. B: So did I.

  2so + 主语 + be/情态动词/助动词,“的确…是”上下文所指是同一个人或物。A: We have lunch at school. B: So you do.

  又如:A: Bruce can work out the problem. B: So he can.

  35.neither/nor用法之一:neither/nor+ be/情态动词/助动词+主语

  “…也不”上文是否定句。She didn’t get well, nor did her brother.

  或对话形式:A: Jim hasn’t had breakfast. B: Neither have I.

  36.keep, make, get,have用法:

  1keep + sb/sth doing sth “让…一直做…” I’m sorry for keeping you waiting so long.   keep + doing sth “坚持做某事”

  2make + sb/sth do sth让…做某事I’ll try to make you understand what I mean.     I feel sorry that I have made him wait for long.

  3get + sb/sth to do sth.让…做某事。He got Peter to buy him a pen.

  4have + 宾语+ 动词原形 /ing /过去分词

  Have him do it, please.让他做它吧。We had the machine working.

  我们让那台机器一直工作着。We had the machine repaired.我们让人修理了那台机器(让那台机器被修理了)。

  5也都可接形容词:keep safe/busy,   keep the door closed/open,

  make us happy, get the door closed, have everything ready.

  37.used短语:used to + 动原,“过去常常”He used to smoke.

  be used to 译为“被用来…”,后接动原。It is used to cut things.

  be used to 译为“习惯于…”,后接动词ing或名词/代词.

  如:He’s used to working late. / We are all used to following others.

  be used for + 目的(名词或动词ing)如:

  English is used for business./Knives are used for cutting things.

  38. through/past/across: 都可作介词,“穿过”前常有位移动词。

  He climbed through the window and saw what he could take away.

  He went past me without saying any words.

  He swam across the river. 【through,内部; past,旁边; across,表面。】

  位移动词+ past 相当于动词pass; 位移动词+across相当于cross.

  39.the number of / a number of: 前者“…的数量”;后者“许多的”

  都跟可数名词复数。前者作主语,谓语用单数;后者作主语,谓语用复数。The number of the trees is two thousand. 用单数is.

  A number of trees have been cut down.用复数have.

  40.延续性动词:How long,since,for,(以上见84)until/till等所在肯定句中的主句谓语要用延续性动词。

  How long may I keep this novel?   I’ve lived here since 2002.

  Let’s wait until he comes back..   但否定句中可用短暂性动词:

  I haven’t seen you for a long time.


  1All boys/All of the boys are from China. all 接可数复数,谓语也用复数。All of the water is polluted. 若接不可数,谓语用单数。

  2Each boy/Each of the boys has a different bag.   each接名词单数或接of + 限定词+复数,后谓语都用单数。

  3Both of the twins are clever. 后面谓语用复数。

  4None of the students has/have been there before.

  none +of +限定词+复数, 谓语用单、复数都可。另见88

  5-When shall we meet, Saturday or Sunday?

  -Either day is OK. / Either of the days is OK.    谓语用单数。

  6-When shall we meet, Saturday or Sunday?

  -Sorry, I have to look after my mother these two days. That is, neither time is OK. / neither of the days is OK. 谓语用单数。

  all/each/none分别指三者或更多中的“都”/ “每一个”/“没有一个”。both/either/neither两者中“都”/“任何一个”/“没有一个”


  The building is twenty meters tall./ The street is forty meters wide.

  The fish is five kilos heavy./ This baby is only six months old.


  They dug an eight-meter-deep hole. /. I bought a 10-kilo-heavy fish.

  It’s a piece of 2-meter-thick ice. / They built a 50-meter-wide street.

  It’s a two-month holiday. (此处计量中的形容词long可省略。)

  43. Must I / May I / Need I …? 用法:1Must I …?我必须…吗?

  A: Must I finish the work? B: Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t.

  2May I …?我可以…吗?A: May I go out for a walk now?

  B: Yes, you can. / No, you mustn’t/can’t.

  3Need I…?我有必要…吗?

  A: Need I clean the house?   B: Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t.

  44.hundred/thousand/million/billion: 前有具体数字,不加s及of. 否则加s, 加of. 如:thousands of trees; many millions of people.

  nine hundred people, ten thousand students等。但前若有several,后常不加s和of:several million pounds

  45.反意疑问句(QT)部分用法:1something, nothing, anything, everything作主语,QT主语用it.

  Something is wrong, isn’t it? / Nothing is difficult, is it?

  2I think Lucy can do well in the exam, can’t she?

  I don’t think he will come here on time, will he?


  3祈使句的QT一般用will you? 而Let’s …用shall we?

  Get up now, will you? Don’t be noisy, will you?

  Be quiet, will you?   Please don’t talk, will you?

  Let us do it now, will you? Let’s do it now, shall we?

  4There be句型,QT主语用there.

  There is a man working in the field, isn’tthere?

  There used to be a meeting on Friday, didn’tthere?

  There won’t be a movie in the theatre, willthere?

  46.put on, wear, dress, in: 1put on,“穿上”后接物。表行为,是短暂动词。You should put on your coat when you leave.

  2wear,“穿,穿着”后接物,表状态,是延续性动词。He always wears the yellow sweater in winter. /I like wearing beautiful clothes.

  3dress, “给…穿衣”后接人。You can dress yourself, baby.

  Lucy is dressing her little brother now.

  be dressed in后常接具有某种特征的衣物。

  The lady is dressed in a white skirt / white. 可直接加表颜色的词。

  4in, “穿着”后接具有某种特征的衣物,表状态,是介词,不可作谓语,可作状语。The woman in a white skirt is my teacher.

  Do you know the girl in a red coat? I’ve seen the boy in yellow.

  47.虚拟语气部分用法:在非真实条件句中要用虚拟语气,即if 从句中用一般过去时,而主句动词用would/should+动词原形,表示与现在相反的主观设想,也可以表示在说话人看来实现的可能性很小的情况。(注意:虚拟语气中的be动词都要用were.)

  If there were no air, people would die. (与现在事实相反)

  If I got rich, I would travel around the world. (可能性很小)

  48.other/others/the other/the others/another:

  1如果不特定指出哪一个,是泛指,“另一个”要用another, 后加可数名词单数。If you are still thirsty, you may have another cup of tea. (没特定指出哪一杯茶,是泛指。cup是单数。)

  another也可+数字+可数复数:The meeting will last another two hours. / We need another six desks.

  2如果只有两个或只有两部分,就给出了范围,其中另一个或另一部分是特指 (other前有the.),有如下用法:


  Mrs. Green has two sons, one is interested in math, the other (one / son) is good at science. 【只有两个,用the other, 不加s, 后面名词可省略。】 又如:This pair of shoes is strange. One is blue, yet the other is green. 这双鞋子很怪,一只蓝色,而另一只绿色。

  第二种,只有两部分:此种情况下the other后接可数名词复数,或不接名词而只在the other后加s. Two fifths of the students in our class are boys, the other students are girls / the others are girls. Two children went, but the others stayed. (其他孩子都留下了。)


  Lei Feng liked helping other people / others.

  Have you any other questions?

  Alice didn’t like that dress, so she asked to see some others.


  He is taller than any other boy in his class. (划线中boy用单数) =

  He is taller than all the other boys in his class. (划线中boy用复数)


  49.how long/how often/how soon/how far: 1how long 是对长度或时间段提问。How long is the river? -It’s 5,000 kilometers long.

  How long have you lived there?   -For five months. / Since 2002.

  2how often是对频率提问,如:never, sometimes, often, usually, always, once a week, twice a day, three times a year, every day等。

  How often do you watch TV?   -Every two days. / Twice a week.

  【若只有次数,则用how many times 提问:

  How many times do you watch TV a week? -Twice. / only once.】

  3how soon 是对“in + 时间段”提问:

  How soon will you return to Beijing?   -In a week./ In two days.

  4how far是对时间段’s + walk/ride/drive或计量表达提问。

  -How far is it from your home to the school?

  -Five minutes’ walk. /An hour’s ride. /Thirteen minutes’ drive.

  或者说:It’s about 20 kilometers (far) away. (问和回答不同。)

  50.分数表达:二分之一: half a/an 或a half. 如:

  half an hour= a half hour半小时 It’s half past seven.(省略冠词)


  三分之一: a /one third 三分之二: two thirds

  四分之一: a/one fourth 或a/one quarter

  四分之三: three fourths或three quarters.

  五分之一: a/one fifth   五分之二: two fifths 其它类推。


  Two fifths of the students are on time. (指名词复数时,谓用复) Two fifths of the land is polluted. (指不可数时,谓用单)

  51.到达:1get to + 地点 get to Shanghai/London/China

  接地点副词时,不带to. get there/home/here.

  2arrive in+大地点(Beijing/Zhengzhou),arrive at+小地点(school/hospital), arrive只作不及物动词。所以也可单独用:Please ring me up when you arrive.

  reach只作及物动词,后直接加地点:reach Beijing/England

  但常不说reach home/there/here.

  52.感叹句:What + 名词短语+主语+谓语!

  What lazy boys (they are)! What hard work! What good news!

  What a good idea!   What bad weather (it is)!   What a pity!

  How +形容词 / 副词+ 主语+ 谓语!

  How hard the work is!   How fast he runs!   How rude you are!

  How carefully they are listening!   How bad the weather is!

  53.because/ instead / out等与加of的区别:

  1because 后接句子,because of 接名词或代词。

  He didn’t come because he was ill. / because of his illness.

  2instead是副词,单独在句尾。instead of 还要接名词或代词。

  We didn’t have rice, we had noodles instead. / instead of it.

  3out 副词,可单独用,但若接地点,先加of.(也可作介词,

  “向…外”,可不加of. 一般不要求掌握。)

  He went out early.或He went out of the house early.

  54.too much, too many与much too:

  much too“过于”,加形容词或副词原级。much too big/slowly等。

  too much“太多的”,加不可数名词。too much work/rain等。

  too many“太多的”,加可数复数。too many books/people等。

  55. alone / lonely: 1alone,“独自一人;单独”不含感情色彩。

  可当形容词,但只在系动词后作表语:Jack is alone. 杰克是单身。

  The old woman is alone in the house. 那位老妇一个人在屋里。

  可当副词,修饰动词:She lives alone. 她独居。

  Can you move the stone alone? 你能独自搬动那块儿石头吗?

  Dick is walking on the beach alone. 狄克独自在海滩漫步。

  (注意:不可说very alone. 但可说very much alone. 是特例)

  2lonely, “孤独的;寂寞的”带有伤感色彩。只当形容词。

  可在系动词后作表语:The old man is lonely.这位老人是孤独的。

  He has many relatives, but he feels lonely. 他有很多亲戚,但感到孤独。(lonely 和心理感受有关,而alone和心理感受无关。)

  也可在名词前作定语:a lonely person一位孤独的人

  a lonely village一个偏僻的村庄 (alone不可作定语)

  56.belong to与be: This suit belongs to me /Lucy /my brother. (人)

  This suit is mine /Lucy’s /my brother’s /hers. (某物是某人的)

  57.by常见用法:1“通过”I study English by memorizing grammar.    You can know it by looking it up in a dictionary. He travels by bike.

  2“截止到”Will you finish the task by tomorrow?

  The train had left by the time he got there.

  3“被”This novel was written by Lu Xun.

  4“经过”He passed by me without noticing me.

  5“在……旁边”Sit by me.   They are playing by the river.




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