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8年级上复习教案

2010-12-29  方中天山...
8年级上复习教案

Unit1 Will people will have robots?

Grammar:一般将来时态:

1.定义:一般将来时态用来表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态。可以表示自然规律,也可以表示对将来事情的一种主观推测。如:

I’ll be thirty tomorrow. (明天我就30岁了。)

They will go to the park next week. (下周他们打算去公园)

2. 一般将来时态常常和表示将来的时间状语连用,它们是: 1)以this 引导的短语:this evening(今晚) this afternoon(今天下午) this week(这周) this year(今年) this month (这个月)

2)以next 引导的短语:next week(下周) next year (明年) next month(下个月)

3)此外,还有:tomorrow(明天) tomorrow morning(明天早上) on Sunday (在周日)the day after tomorrow(后天) in the future(在将来)

4)例句:It will rain tonight. (今晚将会有雨)

Lily is going to go home this evening. (今晚丽丽将要回家。)

I shall go home next month. (下个月我要回家。)

3. 构成:一般将来时态有三种构成方式:

1)Shall +动词原形(shall 只能和第一人称单数I和第一人称复数we连用):

如: I shall do my homework. (我要做作业。)

We shall study English. (我们要学习英语。)

  含有shall 的一般疑问句,表示询问对方的意图或愿望。回答shall I …. ?问句时不能使用答语:Yes, I shall. 或者:No, I shall not. 可以回答为:Yes, please.(好的,请) No, thanks. (不,谢谢。)Yes, Let’s.(是的,让我们…)

如: Shall we go to the park? (我们去公园好吗?)

Yes, Let’s go. (好的,让我们走吧。)

2)Will +动词原形(will可以用于任何人称)

如: I will go home tomorrow. (我打算明天回家。)

3)Be going to +动词原形(一般表示计划或者根据某些现象预测不久即将发生的事情)

如: She is going to go home tomorrow. (她打算明天回家。)

We are going to have a party tomorrow. (明天我们要开个晚会。)

4)有时也可以用现在进行时态表示将来的动作,一般表示计划或者双方约定好的动作。

如:I’m coming by bus tomorrow. (明天我打算做公共汽车来。)

My mother is coming. (妈妈就要来了。)

5) 注:如果原来使用包含有am、 is、 are 的一般现在时态的句子,在变成一般将来时态时,要在助动词shall、 will、 be going to 的后面使用动词原形be.

如:I shall be here next year.(明年我将会在这里)

We will be at school tomorrow.(我们明天将会在学校.)

They are going to be good friends in the future.(他们将来会成为好朋友。)

6) 缩写: I will--- I’ll I am going to ---I’m going to he is—he’s we are --- we’re

1.Do you think there will be robots in people’s homes.

   There +be (is/was  are/were)  

There will be …=There is going to be …

There are few people in the park, are there?

2. Books will only be on computers, not on paper.在电脑上,通过电脑。

on的意思是“以…方式”.eg: on the radio, on TV,

on the telephone

3. Will people use money in 100 years?一百年以后。

 用how soon提问:  How soon will he be back?

 He will be back in two days.

In表示以现在为起点的将来一段时间之后,常用于将来时。

after“(一段时间)之后”,常用于表示过去的时态中。但若表示将来某一时刻之后,要用after而不能用in.

Eg: Mr. Brown will fly to Beijing in 3 hours.

   After half an hour, the boys went to play soccer.

   She will finish the work after 6 o’clock.

4. (P2) more  fewer, less

People will use the subways less..

There will be less pollution.

一、less是little(小;少)的比较级:

1. He spends less time (in) doing experiments. 他做实验花时间较少。

2. Such problems are of less importance. 这样一些问题比较不重要。

3. The value of Y is no less than ten. Y值达到10.(表示多的意思)

4. She says less but does more. 她说话较少,但做事较多。

二、“less+形容词或副词”构成劣等比较,作“较不…”,“更不…”解。

1. It is less cold than it was yesterday. 天气不如昨天那样冷。

2. He studies English less hard than before. 他学英语不如以前那样努力。

5. What do you think Sally will be in five years?

6.(3a)  I’ll live in Shanghai, because I went to Shanghai last year and fell in love with it.

7.because I don’t like living alone.

alone  adj. 单独的;独自的。只作表语。强调独自一人。

 I was alone in the house.

        adv. 只有;仅仅;单独地。

She lives alone in that large house.

  lonely 只作形容词,“孤独的;寂寞的”,可作表语,定语。通常指人在心灵上的“寂寞和忧郁”,带有强烈的感情色彩。修饰地点名词时,强调“偏僻的;荒凉的”之意。

The old writer lives _____ in a ____ mountain village, but he doesn’t feel _____.

lone:指人孤独,指物是单独一个,是形容词作定语。

There is a lone tree in the garden.在花园里有惟一的一棵树。

8. I might even keep a pet parrot.

Even. adv(加强语气);甚至(……也);连(…..都)(后接比较级);甚至(比…..)更;还.

He doubts even the facts.他甚至怀疑事实。

Even if we achieve great success in our work, we should not be conceited.即使我们在工作中取得了巨大的成绩,也不应该自满。

9.wear a suit

 Suit  1)n.请求;恳求His father granted (答应)his suit.

2) n.(一套)衣服;套;副;组

   What a beautiful suit it is!

3)vt. 适合;中…的意

  Any time will suit me.

10. one day

   One day :强调过去或将来的某一天。

     One day he lost a nice bag.

     One day people will have robots in their homes.

   Some day强调将来总有一天,(日后)某一天。

     Some day people will fly to the moon for vacation.

11. I think + 从句可用任何时态。

  I think Lin Wei wrote that.

 I think that France will win the next World Cup.

12. What will the weather be like tomorrow?

   What’s the weather like today?

13(reading).Some scientists believe that there will be such robots in the future.

such  adj. 这样的,如此的。

I have never met many such people.

       pron.这样的人或物。Such are the results.

 Such修饰名词,so修饰形容词或副词。

Such用于 such +a/an +adj.+ n.和 so用于so+adj. +a/an+n.搭配中时,它们可以进行同义改写。

Eg: so nice a coat= such a nice coat.

当名词前有many,much,few,little时,须用so而不用such.

Eg: I never want ____ a boring holiday again.

   There are ____ many people standing at the door.

 

 

Unit 2 What should I do?

Grammar:  Should和could的用法

1.提出建议:

 should 意为“应该” , 可表示劝告、建议、义务、责任等。 如:

   We should protect the environment. 我们应该保护环境。

     You  shouldn’t talk loudly in the library.

2.征求意见

 should 也可用于征求意见,此时一般用于第一人称疑问句中;could 用于请求,带有一些试探性,因而更加委婉。

Should I open the window?

Could I borrow some money from you?

3.推测情况

 should 用来表示较大可能实现的猜测,意为“可能的,但又未必可能。”could 用来表示可能性不在的猜测。

     They should be at home by now, I think.

     One day I could become a millionaire, but the chances are very small.

拓展;     should (would)like to do sth. 表示“想要、愿意做某事”,常用于口语中。如:

   I should (would) like to go with you . 我愿意和你一起去。

  Would you like to go with me?  你想和我一起去吗?

  (3)        Should have done 表示对过去动作的责备、批评。 如:

   You should have finished your homework.

  你应该已经完成作业了。(事实上你没有完成。)

1.  keep out 不让…进入

keep away避开;不接近

keep (on)doing sth.  继续做某事

keep up with跟上;不落在后面 

keep sb. doing sth. 让某人持续做某事

 

(P9) enough money    argue with

out of style (out of fashion) ----in style

2. write sb. a letter = write to sb.

  call sb .up

  a ticket to a ball game

 talk about it on the phone

surprise sb.  ( to one’s surprise  , in surprise)

3.(3a)  pay for    ask …for …  get a tutor

4.You could borrow some money from your brother.

brrow sth. from….  lend sth. to sb.

5. He doesn’t have any money, either.

either   adv.同样地(不);也(不)

         He doesn’t like math, and I don’t ,either.

      adj.(两者中)任一的。

 There is a path on either side of the road.

      pron.两者之一。 Either of the two words is correct.

Eg: Either his parents or he ____(live) in London.

6. Everyone else in my class was invited except me.

 except  prep. 除;把…除外。

We all succeeded except Tom.

 except“除…之外(不再有)”,指从整体中排除except 后跟的人或物。

besides“除…之外(还有)”,指在原来的基础上加上besides后跟的人或物。

but“除…这外”常与含否定意义的词连用。

Eg: We’ve had nothing but trouble with this car.

   Li Lei also went to the park besides you.

   We all went to the zoo except Li Lei.

7.I’m very upset and don’t know what to do.

  “疑问词+不定式”,在句中作know的宾语。此结构可转换为对应的宾语从句。

  = I’m very upset and don’t know what I should do .

8.(P14)  get on=get along相处;进展

 get on/along …with

get on…with sb.与某人相处…

get on…with sth.某事进展…

eg: I get on well with my neighbors.

I’m getting on with my work.

9.  have a fight with sb.= fight with sb. (fight against sb.)

   He fought with(against) me yesterday.

10.(reading)The tired children don’t get home until 7 pm.

11. but now parents seem to push…

  Seem v. 像是,似乎;(近)appear

  1)seem + (to be)+表语(adj,n,prep.)

  He seems(to be ) happy.

2)It seems/seemed + that 从句

3)seem to do

Tom seemed to know that. = It seemed that Tom knew that.

 

 

Unit3 What were you doing when the UFO arrived?

1.The boy was walking down the street when the UFO landed.

 While the boy was walking the street, the UFO landed.

When兼指“ 时间点和时间段”

while 只指“时间段”,从句的谓语动词只用持续性动词。

Eg: Newton was playing under an apple tree ____ an

apple fell onto his head.

2. What was the girl doing when the UFO took off?

take off 起飞。 反义词是land 降落;

       脱下(衣帽等)反义词是put on

take after (面貌、言行等)像(自己的父母等长辈)

take one’s time从容不迫,慢慢地

take a day off休息一天   take back收回,退还

take away拿走     take down写下;拿下

3.(3a)You can imagine how strange it was.

Eg:  How clever the boy is !

     How time flies!

     What an interesting book it is!

     What bad news!

4. What happened while Linda was on the phone?

happen:偶然发生,具有不可预测性,主语一般是某物/某事,表示“某人发生了什么事”用“sth. happen to sb.”

happen还可表示“碰巧”,常用“sb.+happen+to do sth.”和“It happens + that 从句”

take place指事先计划好或先布置而发生,指某种确定事件。

happen 和take place都没有被动语态。

Eg: What happened to him?

   Great changes have taken place in my hometown.

   I happened to know him brother.= It happened that I knew his brother 

 

Unit4 He said I was hard-working.

引述别人的话时,一般采用两种方式:一是引用别人的原话,把它放在引号内,称为直接引语;二是用自己的话加以转述,被转述的话不放在引号内,称为间接引语。间接引语在大多数情况下是一个宾语从语。直接引语变成间接引语时,要注意以下几点:人称变化、时态变化、宾语从句要用陈述句语序。

  1.直接引语是陈述句,变成间接引语时,由连词that 引导。例如:

  She said, "I am very happy to help you."→

  She said that she was very happy to help you.

  2. 直接引语是一般(选择/反意)疑问句,变成间接引语时,由连词whether或if 引导。例如:

  He asked me, "Do you like playing football?"→

  He asked me if/whether I liked playing football.

  注意:大多数情况下,if和whether 可以互换,但后有or not,或在动词不定式前,或放在介词后作连接词时,一般只用whether。例如:

  She asked me whether he could do it or not.

  He hesitated about whether to drive or take the train.

  3. 直接引语是特殊疑问句,变成间接引语时,由相应的疑问词who, whom, whose, how, when, why, where 等引导。例如:

  My sister asked me, "How do you like the film?"→

  My sister asked me how I liked the film.

  4. 直接引语是祈使句,变成间接引语时,把动词原形变成动词不定式,并在动词不定前加tell, ask, order 等的宾语。例如:

  The captain ordered, "Be quiet."→

  The captain ordered us to be quiet.

  注意:此种情况的否定句,在动词不定式前加not。

  My teacher asked me, "Don't laugh."→

  My teacher asked me not to laugh.

  5. 一些注意事项

  (1)直接引语是客观事实、普遍真理等,变成间接引语时,时态不变。例如:

  They told their son,"The earth goes round the sun."→

  They told their son that the earth goes round the sun.

  (2)直接引语变间接引语时, 指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等要作相应的变化。如:this/that→ these/those, now→then, today→that day, yesterday→the day before, last year→the year before, ago→before, here→there等。例如:

  He said, "I haven't seen her today."→

  He said that he hadn't seen her that day.

  注意:如果转述时就在原来的地方,就在说话的当天,就不必改变指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等。

  (3)间接引语一般要用陈述句的语序,即主、谓、宾的顺序。例如:

  He asked Lucy, "Where did you go?"→

  He asked Lucy where she went.

  Tom said, "What do you want, Ann?"→

Tom asked Ann what she wanted.              

 

1. Lana said that she wasn’t mad at Marcia anymore.

1)  be mad at\with sb.= be angry at /with sb.

2)not…anymore= not …any more 用于非正式文体中,表示(过去曾…)现在不再…,相当于not …any longer

She doesn’t live here any longer.

3)not…any more= no more

  He is no more angry.

 2.Lana said she would bring some drinks and snacks to Marcia’s house.

   bring 带来,拿来

 take带走;拿走

 fetch“去取”,相当于 go and bring back sb./sth.

 carry携带;搬运。

3.You were supposed to meet at the bus stop this morning to return it.

be supposed to +do sth.= should

be not supposed to do sth.= be not allowed to do sth.

4. I said that was OK and that I was sure she would get over it.

 get over克服;恢复 How did you get over that problem?

go over复习   look over检查   turn over翻转;翻倒

注意;get over 是“动词+介词”,宾语只能放在之后。

而为look over, turn over“动词+副词”,当宾语为代词时,只能置于中间。

5.in good health身体健康

  be in good health=be healthy;

be in poor healthy=be unhealthy

in a hurry 匆忙   in silence沉默

be strict in对。。。要求严格   do well in擅长

in surprise惊讶地   in all总的来说

in a word总之   in general一般来说

hand/turn in上交

6. influence  n. vt.

  have an influence on …对…有影响

n. 影响(力);作用。 My advice has no influence on his actions.

vt.影响 What we read influences our thinking.

n. 有影响力的人,可数名词His mother said I was a bad influence on her son.

 

Unit5 If you go to the party, you’ll have a great time!

1. If you go to the party, you’ll have a great time.

  If引导的条件状语从句,当主句是一般将来时、祈使句或含有情态动词的句子时,从句一般要用一般现在时代替将来时。Eg: We’ll go to the park, if the weather___ fine.

2. If you do, you’ll be sorry.

be sorry遗憾,难过,对不起

 be sorry to do sth.遗憾做某事  I’m sorry to hear that.

 be sorry about sth.对某事感到遗憾

     You must be sorry about it later.

 be sorry+that从句  对。。。感到遗憾

    I’m sorry that you say so.

4.If you become a professional athlete, you’ll be able to make a living doing something you love.

  make a living (by)…以…谋生,by后面可接名词、代词、doing 形式,有时by也可省略。

The young woman makes a living by singing.

3. take away拿走

run away逃跑   far away 遥远

stay/keep away from 远离    go away走开;离开

right away立即;马上

 

 

 

Unit6  How long have you been collecting shells?

1.How long have you been collecting shells?

collect vt. 收集;搜集My hobby is collecting stamps.

收藏品collection   收藏者collector

2. How long have you been skating?

  I have been skating since nine o’clock.

  I’ve been skating for five hours.

 Since 是完成时的标志,后可接时间点,也可接时间状语从句。主句动词必须是延续性的且从句用一般过去时。

含Since的句式可以和含 for的句式互相转化。

如;It is ten years since we met last time. = We haven’t seen each other for ten years.

2.students are skating to raise money for charity.筹钱;筹款。

 Raise vt.“举起,抬高”常指靠人力而为之事;还表示“提高,养育;筹集”。

 Please raise your hand.

 Raise the rent.

 rise常表示“太阳、月亮升起;河水上涨“,一般靠自然力量而为之。

 The sun rises in the east.

 The river is rising after the rain.

3. My mom says I have to stop, because we’ve run out of room to store them.

  run out of “用完;用尽” 表主动,主语一般是人。

 Tom has run out of all the money.

  run out 常用物作主语。 Their food ran out.

  room un.“空间”   cn.“房间”

eg: The table takes too much room in this room.

4. the first Jews probably came to Kaifeng more than a thousand years ago.

thousand 是基数词“千”,在表示确切数字时,不能用复数。

There are two thousand students in our school.

thousands of “成千上万”

Thousands of trees must be planted every year.

注意:some,several,many 等可用来修饰thousands of.

用法相同的还有:hundred,million,billion.

5.For a foreigner like me, the more I learn about Chinese history, the more I enjoy living in China.

“The+比较级,the+比较级”“越。。。,就越。。。”

Eg: The busier he is, the happier he feels.

   The more , the better. 越来越好。

 

 

 

 

Unit 7  Would you mind turning down the music?

1. Would you mind turning down the music?

 1) Would you mind doing sth. “你介意做某事吗?”

  回答时用yes或no,表示“不介意,不在乎”时用no,后面跟句子,意为“允许对方做某事”

若不介意,答语通常用“Not at all./Certainly not./Of course not”等

若介意,答语通常用“I’m sorry,but I do./ You’d better not.”等

否定形式为Would you mind not doing sth.

2) turn down 把。。调低;关小 反义词:turn up

turn on 打开  turn off 

 by turns轮流地   take one’s turn依次(做某事)

 

Reading:

1.…but there are other places where talking loudly is not allowed.

allow sb. to do sth.允许某人干某事

allow doing sth.允许做某事

be allowed to do sth. 被允许做某事

allow sb. sth.= allow sth. to sb.给某人某物;让某人得到某物。

2.…it is better to keep your voice down in public places.

1)It’s better to do sth.= had better do sth.

2)keep…down “控制,抑制”

keep off (使)离开,(使)不接近

keep out不让。。。进入  keep on继续(做某事)

3)noise“噪音”  make a noise 发出噪音

     There is so much noise in this restaurant, I can hardly here you talking.

Voice“嗓音”,指人说话声或唱歌的声音,也可指鸟鸣声.

     I didn’t recognize her voice on the telephone.

Sound 含义最广,可指一切听到的声音。

    Sound travels slower than light.

Shout 指人或动物的叫喊,也指予以警告或引起注意而发出的叫喊。Suddenly, the patient raised a shout of pain.

4. Put out扑灭;熄灭

  put up举起;张贴   put off 推迟;拖延

  put away 把。。。收拾好  put down放下  

put on穿上    put up with 忍受  put aside放在一边

 

 

 

Unit 8   Why don’t you get her a scarf?

1.Why don’t you get her a scarf?

  Why don’t you +动词原形=why not+动词原形

Why don’t you have a cup of tea?=Why not have a cup of tea?

Self-check

2.Later, the same gift may be given away to someone else.

give away 赠送,分发

give up放弃;中止    give in 屈服 

give out分发;发出(气体、光、热等)

give back归还  give sb. a hand帮助某人

3. In the USA, some people ask their families and friends to give money to charity rather than buy them gifts.

rather than 用法小结

rather than 是一个并列连词,用法比较复杂,现归纳如下:

1). rather than 与would 连用时,构成“would rather...than...”句式,意思是“宁愿……而不愿……”,表示主观愿望,即在两者之中选择其一。例如: She'd rather die than lose the children. 她宁愿死也不愿失去孩子们。

2). rather than 不与would连用时,表示客观事实,意为“是……而不是……;与其……不如……”。它连接的并列成分可以是名词、代词、形容词、介词(短语)、动名词、分句、不定式、动词等。

He is an explorer rather than a sailor. 与其说他是一个海员,不如说他是一个探险者。

You rather than I are going to go camping. 是你而不是我要去要野营。

注意:rather than 连接两个名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词应与rather than 前面的名词或代词在人称和数上保持一致。

3. Instead, making a meal is enough.

instead作副词,是“代替”、“顶替”的意思。如:

Mr. Wang is ill, I will take his class instead.

instead of为介词短语,它后面可跟名词、代词、动名词、介词短语或形容词等。如:

(1)I will clean the window instead of him.

(2)We will skate instead of playing football.

二者有时可以进行转换:Jack went swimming instead of playing tennis.=She didn’t play tennis. She went swimming instead.

4. (reading)This kind of contest encourages people in China to speak English.

encourage sb. to do sth.鼓励某人干某事。

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