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小学英语26个字母及其组合的发音

2011-01-27  小美225
英语字母发音规则
要想学好英语口语,应该学一些语音知识,以下是我总结的一些有关语音的知识,
1 元音:
[i:] [i] [A] [e] [[:] [[] [a:] [Q] [R:] [R] [U:] [U]
[ei] [ai] [aU] [EU] [Ri] [i[] [Z[] [UE]
1) [i:] 字母组合:ee ea e ie
three tree green sheep meet beef see seek
eat tea meat leave lead teacher team mean speak clean please
he she me
piece receive ceiling
2) [i] 发音字母 i y e
sit picture it is list six mix fix fit pig big build miss
myth many twenty happy dictionary
defect decide delicious
3) [] 发音字母 a
bag hand and ant happy hat map mad bad black back glad flag shall man
4) [e] 字母组合 ea e a
head bread pleasure
elephant electric remember sell shell lesson better bed desk hotel yes
many any
5) [ε:] 字母组合ir ur ear ur or
girl shirt skirt thirty thirteen third bird
turn burn murder nurse turtle Thursday burger
learn earn earth heard
term her nerd serve
work worm work world
6) [ε] 字母组合 er or ou ar o a e u
teacher leader remember player speaker farmer powder
doctor actor mayor author tractor
delicious gracious pleasure
familiar collar dollar
together tomorrow today shallop lesson Washington control polite around account ago elephant manta banana Canada Japan china
men listen
famulus Saturday
7) [a:] 字母组合 ar a
car farm card arm garden
fast class last glass plant aunt calm
8) [] 发音字母 u o ou oo
up supper lunch fun gun hunt cup bus
come mother dose brother love above
trouble rough flourish
blood flood
9) []字母组合 al or au our ar aw
small wall talk tall hall ball call walk
short more lord horse for forty sport door floor store
author caught autumn
four mourn court bought
warm quarrel quarter
draw saw flaw
10) [] 发音字母 o a
hot lost lot fox box mop hop loss collar not
want wash
11) [u:] 字母组合 oo o u
food moon room gloom broom doom goose tooth
shoe do two
true truth blue full
12) [u] 字母组合 oo ou u o
look good foot book
should could
put full bull pull push
woman wolf
13) [ei] 发音字母 a ay ea ai ey
name cake late gate plane April
play say may way
great break
rain paint plain
they grey
14) [ai] 发音字母 i y
bike fine find die nine light night high
my try fly eye
15) [au] 字母组合 ou ow
house out flour ground account count sound loud around mouse
flower down now cow how town
16) [εu] 发音字母 o ow oa
home cold go no phone host ghost
know low below grow blow show flow
boat coat goal
17) [] 字母组合oy oi
boy toy joy
oil soil voice choice
18) [iε] 字母组合 eer
beer deer ear idea near here fierce
19) [] 字母组合ear air
pear bear chair air fair care there where
20) [uε] hour tour poor flower shower
2 容易混淆的元音
[A] [e]
bad bed hand head man men land lend pan pen sad said
[i:] [ei]
real rail greet great mean main read raid
[e] [ai]
bet bite red write said side head hide
[aU] [R:]
house horse loud lord south sauce cloud clause now nor count corn
[aU] [Q]
found fond down done gown gone town ton
3辅音
1)
pen pear play pig pour pull push
2) [b] book big boot bike bread break
3) [t] tree two ten ton town twenty city
4) [d] door dull desk dose do dog dictionary
5) [k] king kite key look cook book kitchen sky (发音字母k)
card cat cream correct climb come account accept (发音字母c)
fox box oxygen x-ray (发音字母x)
school schedule schema (字母组合ch)
6) [g] girl good goal goat grade long language
7) [m] man make moon morning move come comb
8) [n] pen ten nine fine night noon moon clean
9) [N] uncle bank English think thank junk
sing king morning evening
10) [l] long land lend lord fly flag black
world cold could goal soul
11) [r] read red right run room write
12) [f] five fly fine flag frog fog roof knife life wife
cough laugh rough physic photo phone
13) [v] very evening even every voice vest
of
14) [s] six sit student same seat kiss miss case scarf (发音字母s)
license city cease cedar ceiling celebrate (发音字母c)
licence piece juice science lance space ace (字母组合ce)
15) [z] zoo zebra zero zap
close nose hose suppose pause those whose
16) [W] think thank three thirty tooth mouth
17) [T] that this those these though
18) [F] sheep shoulder ship shoe she brush wash
nation attention station
social special
sure
19) [V] pleasure
20) [h] hot hop home house horse how who
21) [w] when what where window wind wood
22) [j] yes year yell you your yolk yellow
23) [tF] child chicken china chair lunch ouch teach (字母组合ch)
catch watch match (字母组合tch)
24) [dV] age language cabbage vegetable stage bridge
joy enjoy join July June junk
25) [tr] tree country try treat track trunk
26) [dr] dry dream drop drive drink
27) [ts] students boots boats goats nuts
28) [dz] goods woods moods hoods
4容易混淆的辅音
[v] [w]
vest west vet wet vine wine very well
[s] [W]
sink think mass math miss myth sort sought
[z] [T]
close cloth breeze breathe
[n] [N]
thin thing sin sing ran rang ban bang win wing
5 字母,组合音节发音规律
1)a [ei] [?] [[] [a:] [R]
late private grade bake grape nation station page
active hand bank fan parent family glad flag
accept about above formative machine cinema
fast last glass class past father
wash what watch want
2)e [i:] [e] [i] [[] 不发音
appreciate extremely secret she me he
letter left message generate pebble
decide pretty previous result restore
problem prosperous student confident
active table late wife store lecture
3)i [ai] [i]
high price library ice cream wife size line
fist pick chicken piano fiancé city unit
4)o [[J] [J:] [Q] [[] [R]
lode host cold note okay old home
lose do who whose prove
love some other mother honey company
today tomorrow together control collect
lost hot mock office soft honest
5)u [ju] [u] [Q] [[]
university refuse unique universe huge
put push pull full bull
but brush bucket duck bubble
support suggest
6)c [k] [s]
country camp camera courage cable
city ceiling celebrate cell cease
7)g [g] [dV] [N]
girl grade glass glade bag flag
village vegetable bridge gentleman gym
long song sing morning evening
8) l [l] 读音不同
listen learn language collect English gorilla
world cold soil tall sell cool animal
9) n [n] [N]
moon night noodle number
uncle hungry angry young
10) r [r] [[](美语发音)
right read write grade progress
card board door floor form north
11)y [j] [i] [ai]
yellow year yell young yolk
university country pretty happy
dyke dying fly buy by my
12)ar [a:] [[] [R:]
farm card garden mark
dollar
warm quarrel quarter
13) ea [i:] [e] [ei] [i[]
cease season breathe feature meat please
bread breast breath meadow weather
great break
idea realize
14) ear [[:] [i[]
learn earth earn heard
hear near clear ear fear
15) er [[:] [[] [i[]
deserve serve her person
teacher driver anger singer
serious experience mysterious fierce
16) ere [i[] [Z[]
here mere fere sere
there
17) ir [[:] [ai]
shirt girl skirt
admire desire
18) oo [u:] [u] [Q] [R:]
room tool cool moon noon goof food
good foot stood wood wool cook wood book
blood flood
door floor
19) or [ R:] [[:] [[]
short form corn born for
work world worm word worst
tractor doctor actor sector senior senator
20) oor [ R:] [J[]
door floor
moor poor boor
21) our [J[] [R:]
hour tour flour bourn lour
pour court four mourn
22) ou [au] [Q] [[]
house mouth mouse sound found
enough trouble touch
delicious gracious prosperous
23) ow [[J] [au]
window meadow know show low
now town how down cow
24) se [z] [s]
nose suppose gose lose pose rose
mouse house
25) th [W] [T]
thank think thought cloth
clothes that this then than
26) sion [F[n] [V[n]
propulsion tension progression passion
protrusion provision conclusion television
27) tion [F[n] [ tF[n](不常见)
station nation translation attention
question
6关于语音的几个概念:
Phonics 是一种(方法), 是教育学习者从字母排列中去拼读出单个字来.
AHD表示美语发音,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language(简称AHD)
KK音标是一套(注音符号系统),是由John Samuel Kenyon 和 John Albert Knott两位美国学者共同编著的发音词典A Pronouncing Dictionary of American1956中用于标注美式发音的符号系统, 这是一套最常用的也是最权威的注音法,从此人们把美语标准发音惯称为KK音标。
DJ是根据英国学者Daniel Jones编的英语发音字典 (English Pronouncing Dictionary, 1963)中的标音而来.
英式读音根据的是English Pronouncing Dictionary 《英语正音辞典》。它们代表了被称为“Received Pronuciation”(RP)(标准读音)的读音,这在受过教育的英国人尤其是南部英格兰人中通用。
1888年国际语音协会 (International Phonetic Association) 的语言学家便制定出一套可国际通用的语音符号叫国际音标符号 (IPA—International Phonetic Alphabet),希望以一个符号代表一音,并避免各人使用一套自己的符号所产生的不便。
国内的英文字典里最常见的音标为英式发音的国际音标 (DJ) 和美式发音的KK音标,前者乃根据Daniel Jones编的英语发音字典 (English Pronouncing Dictionary, 1963),后者则是根据John S. Kenyon & Thomas A. Knott二氏的美语发音字典 (A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English, 1956)。值得一提的是,KK音标所使用的符号均从前面提到的国际音标符号 (IPA) 而来,Kenyon & Knott二氏仅将其中适用于美式英语的符号截取出来。
音素: 音的最小单位,英语中有48个音素.
音节: 由元音和辅音构成的发音单位.
元音: 发音响亮,是乐音,口腔中气流不受阻碍,是音节的主要组成部分.英语中有20个元音. 辅音: 发音不响亮,是噪音,口腔中气流受到阻碍,不是音节的重要组成部分,英语中有28个辅音.
开音节: 1)辅音+元音+辅音+不发音e kite cake name bike make take home plane shine
2)辅音+元音 he hi go no do be tree three hello
闭音节: 1)辅音+元音+辅音 sit bed bad bag hot hop let mad map head
2)元音+辅音 it is of in on up out ant
重读音节词尾的字母组合oo发音素[u:]的音。如:too(太;也),zoo(动物园),room(房间)等
; II. 在辅音字母f, l, m, n, s前的字母组合oo也发音素[u:]的音。如:roof(屋顶),sch
ool(学校),soon(不久),goose(鹅)等.有一个特例词要特别注意,它就是:wool[u](羊毛);
III. 在字母t前的字母组合oo发音素[u:]的音。如:boot(靴子),tooth(牙齿),特例词:foot[
u](脚); IV. 字母组合oo在字母d和k前发音素[u]的音。如:good(好),book(书),look(看)
,特例词:food[u:](食物); V. 在复合词的非重读音节中的字母组合oo发音素[u]的音。如
:bedroom(卧室),classroom(教室)等; VI. 在字母l和d之间的字母组合oo发音素[]的音。
如:blood(血),flood(洪水)等. [笨笨猪]谢谢你讲得这么详细,你能为我归纳出一个巧记
方法吗? [聪明猴]Let me try!(我试试看!)可以这样记: oo读长还是短,记住口诀就简
单。 d, k之前读短[u],food一词是特例; t前读长[u:],foot需要特殊记; 复合词中
要读短,其余多数读长[u:]; l, s, d间读作[],例外还要特殊记

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