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高考英语词汇用法详释(11)

2011-02-15  Trudge

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sad[sAd] adj.悲伤的;使人悲伤的:We were sad about [at, over, with] her death. 我们为她的死感到悲伤。/ He was sad to hear the news. 他听到这个消息很伤心。

safe[seIf] adj.安全的,平安的:They were safe from attack. 他们很安全,未受到攻击。/ We’re safe in accepting the offer. 我们接受这个提议不会有错。

safety[5seIftI] n. [U]安全,保险:They ran to safety, away from the fire. 他们跑到安全的地方,远离了大火。/ We are now in safety. 现在我们安全了。

sail[seIl] n.(常用单)航行 [C]帆,帆状物v.开航,驾(),航行()The ship sails for Shanghai tomorrow. 这船明天开往上海。

sailor[5seIlE] n.[C]海员,水手,水兵:a bad (good) sailor 晕船(不晕船)的人

sale[seIl] n.[U,C]卖,出售;销量,销售额;减价出售,拍卖:He got $1000 from [for] the sale of his house. 他卖房子得了1000美元。

【短语】for sale 待售,出售的 / on sale (有货)售卖,上市;减价时

salt[sR:lt] n.[U]vt.加盐于,用盐腌:Please pass me the salt. 请把盐递给我。

same[seIm] adj.同一的,同样的 pron.同样的事:Do whatever you want, it’s all the same to me. 你想干就干啥,我无所谓。/ He likes to read in bed, and it is the same with me. 他喜欢在躺床上看书,我也一样。

【用法】1.其前通常要加定冠词。2.表示“与…一样”,要用 the same as,不能用 as same asthe same with [like]3.It’s the same with意为“…也一样”,与“so+助动词+主语”意思相似。4.The same to you 为口语常用语,意为“你也一样”,主要用于回答祝愿。

sand[sAnd] n. [U]沙,沙子 (复数)沙地,沙滩:The children were playing on the sand(s). 孩子们在沙滩上玩。

sandwich[5sAnwIdV] n.[C]三明治,夹心面包:He made some cheese sandwiches. 他做了一些干酪三明治。

satisfaction[7sAtIs5fAkF?n] n.[U]满意 [C]乐事,趣事:I find great satisfaction in his improvement. 我对于他的进步极为满意。

satisfy[5sAtIsfaI] v.满足,使满意,使相信:Are you satisfied with the service? 你对这服务满意吗?

Saturday[5sAtEdI] n.星期六:She doesn’t work on Saturdays. 她星期六不工作。

save[seIv] v.救,挽救;节省,存钱;免去,省去;保全,保留:He saved the boy from drowning. 他救起了这个男孩,使他免于溺死。/ Save me some milk.=Save some milk for me. 给我留点牛奶吧。

【用法】用于save sb (from) doing sth 表示“免去某人做某事”:/ If you do it tonight, it will save you from having to get up early. 你如果今晚做这事,明天早上你就不必早起了。

say[seI] v.(said, said)说,讲;(被动)据说:It’s said that he knows your father. 据说他认识你父亲。

【用法】What do [would] you say to? 意为“你说…怎么样呢?”,其中的to 为介词:What do you say to playing tennis? 打打网球怎么样?

scene[si:n] n. [C,U] (戏剧、电影等的)一场,场景;布景;风景,景色;(事件或事故的)发生地点:The sunrise was a beautiful scene. 日出是一幅美景。/ The criminal fled the scene. 罪犯逃离了现场。

school[sku:l]n.[C]学校,学院 [U]上学,上课:There will be no school tomorrow. 明日学校放假。/ Did you take history at school? 你在学校上过历史课吗?

science[5saIEns] n.[U,C](一门)科学,学科;(统称)科学,科学研究;(统称)自然科学,理科:computer science 计算机科学 / The chief sciences are chemistry, physics and biology. 主要的自然科学是化学、物理和生物。

scientific[saIEn5tIfIk]adj. 科学的,合乎科学的:a scientific method 科学方法 / He has a scientific mind. 他有科学头脑。

scientist[5saIEntIst] n.[C]科学家:Scientists have discovered a new virus. 科学家发现了一种新病毒。

scold[skEJld]v.责骂,申斥,斥责:His mother scolded him for getting his clothes dirty. 他妈妈因他弄脏了衣服而责骂他。

score[skR:] n.[C]二十;得分 vi.记分, 刻痕, 得分:What is the score now? 现在比分是多少? / Jack got a low score on the test. 杰克测验得分不高。

【用法】表示“二十”时,其复数形式通常不加词尾-s,且其后一般不接介词of,如three score eggs 60只鸡蛋。当其后的名词前有the, these, those 等表示特指的限定词修饰时,或当其后接的是us, them, you 等人称代词时,则score 后必须要有介词ofthree score of these eggs 这些鸡蛋中的60只。另外,scores of(许多)是习语,其中的score用复数。

scream[skri:m] v.尖声叫, 尖声喊叫n.[C]尖叫声, 喊叫声:She screamed out that there was a thief under the bed. 她尖叫道床下有小偷。

sea[si:] n.[U]海,海洋 [C]许多,大量:I don’t like to travel by sea. 我不喜欢乘船旅行。

【用法】构成专有名词时,其前通常要用定冠词:the Red Sea 红海

search[sE:tF]v.& n.[C,U]搜索,搜寻:The police searched the city. 警察搜遍了全城。/ The police searched for the thief. 警察搜找那个小偷。

【短语】in search of 搜找 / in one’s (the) search for 搜找

season [5si:zn] n.[C]季,季节:Spring is a lovely season. 春天是怡人的季节。

【短语】in season 当令,及时,正是时候 / out of season 不当令,在淡季

seat[si:t]n.[C]座,座位vt.使坐下:Which are our seats? 哪些是我们的座位? / He seated himself at the writing table. 他在写字台前坐下。

second[5sekEnd]n.[C]秒;片刻;第二者;第二人adj. 另一个;又一个num. 第二:We’ll have to do it a second time. 我们得再做一次。

secret[5si:krIt] n. [C]秘密, 秘诀adj.秘密的,隐秘的:We have no secrets from you. 我们对你毫无隐瞒。

【短语】in secret 秘密地,偷偷地 / in the secret 知道秘密

secretary[5sekrEtrI]n.[C]秘书;书记:He was secretary of this Party branch. 他是这个党支部的书记。/ She’s private secretary to the Minister. 她是部长的私人秘书。

see[si:]v. (saw, seen)看,看见;了解,领会:I saw her crying under the tree. 我看见她在树下哭。/ I’ve never seen the word used that way before. 我从来没有看见这个词这样用过。/ I see little of Mr Smith. 我很少见到史密斯先生。

【短语】see about (doing) sth 负责处理(安排)某事 / see off 为…送行 / see sb out 送某人出门(到门口) / see through 看穿,识破;帮助渡过(困难等);进行到底

seed[si:d]n.[C]种子,萌芽v.结实,播种:Plants develop from seeds. 植物由种子发育而成。

seek[si:k]v.(sought, sought)寻找,探索:He has sought to explain it. 他一直想对此作出解释。/ He sought out his friend in the crowd. 他在人群中找到他的朋友。

seem[si:m]vi.像是,似乎:It seems as if he is happy. 他好像很高兴。/ It seems that he has caught a cold. 他似乎感冒了。/ It seems like a good idea. 那似乎是个好主意。/ He seems to know everything. 他似乎什么都懂。

seize [si:z]v.抓住, 逮住, 夺取:He was seized with a slight fever. 他突然有点发烧。/ She seized the gun from him. 她从他手里夺过了枪。

seldom [5seldEm]adv.很少,不常:The children are seldom ill. 这些孩子很少生病。

【用法】在正式文体中可放在句首,其后用倒装语序:Seldom does he read in his free hours. 他空余时间很少看书。

sell[sel](sold, sold) v.出售,卖:He sold me his camera.=He sold his camera to me. 他把照相机卖给了我。/ He sold his car at a low price. 他低价卖掉了他的汽车。

【短语】sell out 卖完

send[send]vt.(sent, sent)送,寄,派遣:Please send him my best wishes.=Please send my best wishes to him. 请代我向他问好。/ He sent his son to post the letter. 他叫他儿子去寄信。/ The sound of the gun sent the birds flying away. 枪声把鸟吓飞了。

【短语】send up发射 / send out 发出(光亮等);生出(长出)某物

【比较】1.send sb to do sthsend for sb to do sth:前者表示派某人做某事,后者表示派人请某人做某事。2. send sb to do sth send sb (sth) doing sth:前者表示派()某人去做某事,后者表示使某人或某物很快地或失去控制地做某事。

sense[sens]n.[C]官能,感觉,意识 vt.感到,理解,认识:Can you make sense of this poem? 你能看懂这首诗吗? / I sensed that I had made a serious mistake. 我意识到自己犯了个严重的错误。

【短语】in a sense 在某个意义上 / make sense 有意义,讲得通,有道理

sentence[ 5sentEns]n.[C]句子,判决vt.审判,判决:A sentence usually contains a subject and a verb. 句子通常包括主语和动词。/ The sentence was twenty years in prison. 判决是20年徒刑。

separate[5sepEreIt]v.分开adj.[5sepErEt]分开的,分离的,个别的,单独的:Separate the longer ones from the shorter ones. 把长的与短的分开。/ Our children have separate bedrooms. 我们的孩子有各自的卧室。

September[sEp5tembE]n.九月:School begins in September. 九月开学。

serious[5sIErIEs] adj.严重的,严肃的,认真的:He was serious about (doing) his work. 他对待()工作很认真。/ I’m serious. 我是认真的。

servant[5sE:vEnt] n.[C]仆人,用人;公仆,公务员:A politician should be a servant of the people. 政治家应该是人民的公仆。

serve[sE:v] v.服务,服役:Let those who can serve as teachers. 能者为师。/ We must serve the people heart and soul. 我们必须全心全意地为人民服务。/ She served us (with) fruit and tea.=She served fruit and tea to us. 她用水果和茶招待我们。

service [5sE:vIs]n. [C,U]服务,服役:My car is at your service. 我的汽车随你使用。/ Will you do me a service? 帮我个忙好吗?

set [set]v. (set, set)(太阳等)下落;放置;摆设;规定;确定;使(做事) n.[C]一套,装置:When we arrived there, the sun had set. 我们到达那儿时,太阳已落山了。/ What he said set us thinking. 他的话使我们思考起来。

【短语】set about 开始或着手做某事(后接名词或动名词) / set out 动身;开始;想要(后接不定式);安排,摆设;陈述,解释

【比较】set sb to do sthset sb (sth) doing sth:前者表示使某人做某事,后者表示使某人()开始做某事或处于做某事的状态。

settle[5setl] v.安放;使定居;安排;解决;决定:The affair wasn’t so easily settled. 这事不是那么容易解决的。/ He settled to sell his car. 他决定把汽车卖掉。

【短语】settle down (使)安静下来;(使)舒服地坐下;安居下来;习惯于某种生活;安下心来 / settle for 勉强接受 / settle in 定居于;(使)习惯于 / settle up 结账,付清

seven[5sevEn]num.七,七个:at sixes and sevens 乱七八糟

several[5sevErEl] adj.几个 pron.几个:I’ve read it several times. 我已经读过好几遍了。

【用法】通常不与 only 连用,遇此情况可改用 a fewI have only a few friends. 我只有几个朋友。

sew[sEJ]v.(sewed, sewn / sewed)缝制,缝纫:I like sewing. 我喜欢缝纫。

sex[seks] n.[C,U]性;性别:This is a school for both sexes. 这是一所男女兼收的学校。/ There is a lot of sex in the book. 这本书有很多性描写。

shade[FeId] n.[U]阴凉,树阴 [C]遮光物,帘 v.遮住(光线)They sat in the shade. 他们坐在阴凉处。/ I shaded my eyes with my hand. 我用手遮在眼睛上挡住光线。

shadow[5FAdEJ] n.[C]影子,阴影:The shadows of the trees grew longer as the afternoon went on. 随着下午时光的延续,树影会越来越长。

shake[FeIk]v.(shook, shaken)摇动,摇,颤抖,震动:He stood up and shook hands with me. 他站起身来同我握了手。/ He didn’t reply, but just shook his head. 他没有回答,只是摇头。

shall[FAl] v.aux.将要,会;(用于疑问句中征求意见)要不要,…好吗;(用于陈述句中表示允诺、告诫、威胁、命令、规定、必然性)Shall we all go to the film tonight? 我们今晚都去看电影吗?/ You shall have an answer by tomorrow. 到明天你可以得到答复。

【用法】其主语通常为第一人称;若表示说话者的意图、警告、命令、决心等,此时主语的行动受讲话者支配,那么则用于第二、三人称;用于问句中,征询对方对于主语行动的意见,主语可以是第一人称,也可以是第三人称;在条约、规定、法令等文件中表示义务或规定,也用于第三人称。

shame[FeIm] n.[U]羞愧,惭愧 [C]惋惜的事,可耻的事 vt.给…带来羞辱,使难为情:It’s a great shame to treat him like that. 这样对待他太不像话了。/ To my shame, I never thanked him for his kindness. 令我感到惭愧的是我对他的好意从未表示过感谢。

【用法】汉语说“感到羞愧”,说成英语可以用 feel shameHe felt shame at having told a lie. 他因说了谎而感到羞愧。但不能用 feel shameful(因为 shameful的意思是“可耻的,丢脸的”)

shape[FeIp]n.[C,U]形状;体形;形式v.使成形,塑造:Childhood experiences often play a big part in shaping one’s character. 童年经历在形成一个人的性格方面往往起重要作用。

share[FZE] n.[C]共享,一份,份额,参股v.分享,共有:Let’s share the cake (with her). 我们(与她)一起分吃这块蛋糕吧。

【比较】share sthshare in sth:前者可用于具体的事物,也可用于抽象的事物;后者主要用于抽象的事物。

sharp[FB:p]adj.锋利的adv.整;锐利地;急速地:I need a sharp knife. 我需要一把锋利的小刀。/ The lecture started at three o’clock sharp. 讲座于3点整开始。

shave[FeIv] v.(),刮() n.[C]理发,刮胡须,修面:My father shaves every day. 我父亲每天都刮脸。

she[Fi:] pron.她:I love her and she loves me. 我爱她,她也爱我。

sheep[Fi:p](pl.sheep) n.[C]羊,绵羊:a black sheep 败类,害群之马 / Sheep feed on grass. 羊吃的是草。

sheet[Fi:t]n.[C]()片,()张,薄片;被单,被褥:She wrote her name and address on a sheet of paper. 她把名字和地址写在一张纸上。

shelf[Felf]n.[C]架子,搁板:Put it on the luggage shelf. 把它放在行李架上。

shine[FaIn]v. (shone, shone)照耀,发光:Make hay while the sun shines. ()趁太阳好垛干草。

ship[FIp] n.[C]船,海船,舰v.装上船:They crossed the Pacific by ship. 他们乘船横渡太平洋。

shirt[FE:t]n.[C]衬衫,衬衣:How much is that shirt? 那件衬衫多少钱?

shock[FRk] vt.使震惊,使受电击 n.[C,U]震动;震惊;撞击;电击:He was shocked to hear her talking like that. 听到她这样讲话他感到震惊。

shoe[Fu:]n.[C]鞋,鞋子:Your shoe laces are undone. 你的鞋带散了。

shoot[Fu:t]n.[C]射击,发射v. (shot, shot)射击,投射:He was shot three times in the leg. 他的腿中了三枪。

【比较】shoot sb (sth)shoot at sb (sth):前者指打中某人(某物),后者指向某人(某物)射击(但不一定打中)

shop[FRp]n.[C]商店,店铺vi.买东西,购货:We usually shop on Sundays. 我们常在星期天去商店买东西。/ I’ve got some shopping to do. 我要买些东西。

shore[FR:] n.[C]岸,滨:We went to the shore for the summer. 我们去海滨度假。

short[FR:t] adj.短的,矮的;缺乏的:Don’s cut it too short. 不要把它剪得太短。

【短语】(be) short of 缺少 / for short 为了简短,简称 / in short 总之

shot[FRt] n.[C]射击,开枪,开炮,射击声;射门;投篮;击球:The policeman fired a warning shot. 警察鸣枪示警。/ His shot went wide. 他没射进球门。

should[FJd] v.aux. (shall的过去式)将,会;应当,应该;可能;(表建议、命令、决定、必要等)应该,必须:You shouldn’t leave so soon. 你不应当这么早就走。/ They should be given a chance to try. 应当给他们尝试的机会。

【用法】1.后接动词原形,表示应该要做某事;后接动词完成式,表示本来应该发生某事(但实际未发生)或可能已经发生了某事:He should leave. 他应该离开。/ He should have left. 他可能已经离开了。/ He shouldn’t have left so soon. 他本不该那么快就离开的。2.should表示推断时,语气较肯定,通常是指非常可能的事(因为暗示有一定的事实依据或合乎常理),而与之相比 may, might, could等表示推测时,则语气较不肯定,尤其是might, could

shoulder[5FEJldE] n. [C]肩膀:She looked over her shoulder. 她回过头来看。

【短语】shoulder to shoulder 肩并肩

shout[FaJt] v.& n.[C]喊,高声呼喊:Don’t shout at me. 别冲着我喊。/ He was too far away and I had to shout to him. 他离得太远,我只好大声喊他。

show[FEJ] v.(showed, shown)给…看,出示,显示;表明,显示 n. [C]展览会:Please show me your photo.=Please show your photo to me. 请给我看看你的照片。/ He showed me how to do it. 他教我如何做此事。

【短语】on show 展出 / show off 炫耀 / show sb (a)round 陪某人参观,带某人到处看看

shower[5FaJE] n.[C]阵雨,淋浴:He was caught in a shower. 他被淋雨了。

shut[FQt] v.(shut, shut) 关闭,关门,禁闭:Shut up! 闭嘴!/ Please will you shut the door? 请你关上门好吗?

【短语】shut off 关掉,切断(电源等);停止供应(煤气,水等) / shut up 闭嘴,住口

shy[FaI] adj.害羞的,羞怯的:Don’t be shy. 别害羞。/ He was not shy of [about] offering suggestions. 他并不怯于提建议。

sick[sIk]adj.生病的;恶心的;厌烦的:She is sick with a cold. 她患感冒。/ I’m really sick of housework. 我的确厌烦做家务事。

【辨析】illsick:两者均可表示“生病的”,前者主要作表语,后者则可用作表语或定语。另外,the sick 可用作名词,表示“病人们”,但ill不这样用。

side[saId] n.[C]边,旁边;面,侧面:There are trees on both sides of the road. 路的两边都种有树。/ He painted all four sides of the box. 他把箱子的四面都漆了。

【短语】on the side of 在…一边 / side by side 肩并肩 / take sides 支持(偏袒)某一方

sigh[saI] v.& n.叹气,叹息:We heard him sigh. 我们听到他叹气。

sight[saIt] n.[U]视力;看见;视野 [C]情景,风景:He had good sight.=His sight was good. 他的视力好。

【短语】at first sight 第一次见到 / at sight 一看见 / catch sight of 看见,望到 / in sight 在视线范围内,可以看见 / lose sight of 看不见;忽略 / out of sight 在视线范围之外,看不见

sign[saIn] n.[C]符号,标记;身体的示意动作,手势;标志牌,指示牌;迹象,征兆 v.签名;打手势:A cloudy sky is not always a sign of rain. 阴天不一定是下雨的预兆。/ The policeman signed (to / for) me to stop. 警察示意我停下。/ Has he signed (to, on) the cheque? 他在支票上签名了吗?

silence[5saIlEns] n.[U]安静,沉默:Silence means [gives] consent. 沉默意味着同意。/ They walked on in silence. 他们默默向前走去。

silent[5saIlEnt] adj.无声的,无对话的,沉默的:You’d better keep silent. 你最好什么也别说。/ History is silent about [upon] this person. 历史对这个人没有记载。

silk[sIlk] n.[U]丝绸:The dress was (made of) silk. 这连衣裙是丝()的。

silly[5sIlI] adj.傻的:You are silly to do so.=It’s silly of you to do so. 你这样做真蠢。/ Don’t be silly, that insect can’t hurt you. 别傻了,那虫子不会伤你的。

silver[5sIlvE] n. [U]银,银币,银餐具adj.银制的,银的;银()色的:a silver ring 银戒指 / silver hair 银发 / It’s made

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