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高考英语名词性从句讲解

2011-02-21  xxezmch
高考英语名词性从句讲解
来源:学大教育 时间:2010-12-22 作者:学大教育

【考情分析】

名词性从句是历年高考的重点和难点也是热点。名词性从句相当于名词,可用作主句的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。因此,名词性从句分为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位从句。引导名词性从句的连接词有:连接代词:who, whose, whom, what, which,有词义,在从句中担任成分,如主语、表语、宾语、或定语等;连接副词:when, where, why, how,有词义,在从句中担任成分,作状语;连接词:that, whether, if, as ifif (whether), as if虽有词义,但在从句中不担任成分;that 无词义,在从句中不担任成分,有时可省略。

今后对名词性从句的考查仍将集中在关联词的选用上,特别石堆what引导的名词性从句的考查。名词性从句与其他从句的混合考查将在今后高考中占据一席之地。易混句型的辨析,比如it作形式主语,主语从句后置的句型与强调句型的辨析将仍作为高考考查的重点。

【知识点归纳】

名词性从句的用法

在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Noun Clauses)。 名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

一、引导名词性从句的连接词

引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:连词:that(无任何词意);whether, if(均表示是否表明从句内容的不确定性);as if ,as though(均表示好像似乎)。

以上在从句中均不充当任何成分

连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which. Whichever, whomever

连接副词:when, where, how, why

不可省略的连词:

1. 介词后的连词

2. 引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。

That she was chosen made us very happy.

We heard the news that our team had won.

比较:

Whetherif 均为"是否"的意思。 但在下列情况下,whether 不能被if 取代:

1. Whether引导主语从句并在句首;

2. 引导表语从句

3. Whether从句作介词宾语;

4. 从句后有"or not"

Whether he will come is not clear.

大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用 it充当形式主语。

It is not important who will go.

It is still unknown which team will win the match.

二、具体分类

1.主语从句

作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。主语从句通常由从属连词thatwhetherif和连接代词whatwhowhichwhateverwhoever以及连接副词howwhenwherewhy等词引导。that在句中无词义,只起连接作用;连接代词和连接副词在句中既保留自己的疑问含义、又起连接作用,在从句中充当从句的成分。例如:

What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。

Who will win the match is still unknown. 谁能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。

It is known to us how he became a writer. 我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。

Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced. 英语晚会将在哪里举行,还没有宣布。

【典例1(2009·上海卷)It is immediately clear ____ the financial crisis will soon be over.

A. since       B. what          C. when         D. whether

【答案】D

【解析】考查主语从句的用法。该句的意思时:经济危机是否会很快结束是很明显的事情。是否whether表示,不能选when是因为从句中由soon这一实践状语。

【典例2(2008·山东卷)_____ was most important to her, she told me, was her family.

 A. It         B. This           C. What          D. As

【答案】C

【解析】she told me是插入语,可删除。what引导主语从句,在从句中充当主语。

有时为避免句子头重脚轻,常用形式主语it代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首,而把主语从句置于句末。主语从句后的谓语动词一般用单数形式。常用句型如下:

1It + be + 名词 + that从句

2It + be + 形容词 + that从句

3It + be + 动词的过去分词 + that从句

4It + 不及物动词 + that 从句

另注意在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时,谓语动词要用虚拟语气“(should) +do”,常用的句型有:

It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that …

It is a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc.) that…

It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that…

【典例】(2009·天津卷)It is obvious to the students ______ they should get well prepared for their future.

A. as             B. which               C. whether           D. that

【答案】D

【解析】考查名词性从句。本空格处应是一个主语从句的引导词,因该主语从句不缺成分,且句意完整,故应用不作任何成分的连词that

2.宾语从句

名词句用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。引导宾语从句的关联词与引导主语从句表语从句的关联词大致一样,在句中可以作谓语动词或介词及非谓语动词的宾语。

1) 由连接词that引导的宾语从句

由连接词that引导宾语从句时,that在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的文体中常被省去,但如从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的that不可省。例如:

He has told me that he will go to Shanghai tomorrow. 他已经告诉我他明天要去上海。

We must never think (that) we are good in everything while others are good in nothing. 我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人什么都不好。

注意:在demandordersuggestdecideinsistdesirerequestcommand等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动词后,宾语从句常用should+ 动词原形。例如:

I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工作。

The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once. 司令员命令部队马上出发。

2)用whowhom, which, whose, what, when, where, why, how, whoever, whatever, whichever等关联词引导的宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句,应注意句子语序要用陈述语序。例如:

I want to know what he has told you. 我想知道他告诉了你什么。

She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。

She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支持。

【典例1(2008·北京卷)The companies are working together to create _______ they hope will be the best means of transport in the 21st century.

A. which           B. that         C. what           D. who

【答案】C

【解析】create后为宾语从句,从句中they hope是插入语,可删除。因为从句中缺少主语,所以用what引导该从句。

【典例2(2009· 全国卷Ⅰ) Could I speak to         is in charge of International Sales please?

A. who                        B. what            C. whoever                           D. whatever

【答案】C

【解析】 考查名词性从句。题干中介词to后面为宾语从句,从句中缺少主语,因此填whoever

3)用whetherif引导的宾语从句,其主语和谓语的顺序也不能颠倒,仍保持陈述句语序。此外,whetherif 在作是否的意思讲时在下列情况下一般只能用whether,不用if

a. 引导主语从句并在句首时;b. 引导表语从句时;c . 引导从句作介词宾语时;d. 从句后有“or not”时;e. 后接动词不定式时。例如:

Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting question. 月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。

The question is whether she should have a low opinion of the test?

Everything depends on whether we have enough money. 一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。

I wonder whether he will come or not. 我想知道他来还是不来。

Can you tell me whether to go or to stay? 你能否告诉我是去还是留?

4)注意宾语从句中的时态呼应,当主句动词是现在时,从句根据自身的句子情况,而使用

不同时态。例如:

he studies English every day. (从句用一般现在时)

he studied English last term. (从句用一般过去时)

I know (that) he will study English next year. (从句用一般将来时)

he has studied English since 1998. (从句用现在完成时)

当主句动词是过去时态(could, would除外),从句则要用相应的过去时态,如一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时等;当从句表示的是客观真理,科学原理,自然现象,则从句仍用现在时态。例如:

The teacher told us that Tom had left us for America

5think, believe, imagine, suppose等等动词引起的否定性宾语从句中,要把上述主句中的动词变为否定式。即将从句中的否定形式移到主句中。例如:

We don’t think you are here. 我们认为你不在这。

I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做。

3.表语从句

在句中作表语的从句叫表语从句。引导表语从句的关联词与引导主语从句的关联词大致一样,表语从句位于连系动词后,有时用as if引导。其基本结构为:主语 + 系动词 + that从句。例如:

The fact is that we have lost the game. 事实是我们已经输了这场比赛。

That’s just what I want. 这正是我想要的。

This is where our problem lies. 这就是我们的问题所在。

That is why he didn’t come to the meeting. 那就是他为什么不到会的原因。

It looks as if it is going to rain. 看上去天要下雨了。

需要注意的,当主语是reason时,表语从句要用that引导而不是because。例如:

The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning .

【点拨】whether 可引导表语从句,但与之同义的if却通常不用于引导表语从句。

【典例1 (2009·山东卷)The little girl who got lost decided to remain ________she was and wait tor her mother.

A. where             B. what            C. how             D. who

【答案】A

【解析】remain是系动词,后加表语从句,由句意可知,从句缺地点状语,所以选A

【典例2(2008·天津卷)The last time we had grat fun was _______ we were visiting the Water Park.

A. where          B. how           C. when           D. why

【答案】C

【解析】was后为表语从句,此处whenthe last time相呼应,根据句意可排除其他选项。

4 同位语从句

同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容。同位语从句通常由that引导,可用于同位语从句的名词有advicedemanddoubtfacthopeideainformationmessagenewsorderproblempromisequestionrequestsuggestiontruthwishword等。例如:

The news that we won the game is exciting. 我们赢得这场比赛的消息令人激动。

I have no idea when he will come back home. 我不知道他什么时候回来。

The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 他想到可能玛丽生病了。

【典例】(2009· 重庆卷) We should consider the students’ request ________ the school library provide more books on popular science.

A. that            B. when         C. which          D. where

【答案】A

【解析】考查名词性从句。根据题意知,空格处是同位语从句的引导词,修饰中心名词request,且在句子中不充当成分,故用that。这句话的意思是我们应该考虑学生的这个要求,即学校图书馆应该多提供一些大众科学方面的书籍。

三、对比与用法

1.同位语从句和定语从句的区别:

that作为关系代词,可以引导定语从句,充当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省略; that引导同位语从句时,起连词的作用,没有实际意义,不充当句子成分,一般不能省略。

试比较下面两个例句:

I had no idea that you were here.(that引导同位语从句,不能省略)

Have you got the ideathatthis book gives you of life in ancient Greece?(that引导定语从句,作宾语,可以省略)

2that-从句作主语通常用it作先行词,而将that-从句置于句末。 

 it作形式主语的that-从句有以下四种不同的搭配关系:

a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句

It is necessary that… 有必要……

It is important that… 重要的是……

It is obvious that… 很明显……

b. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句

It is believed that… 人们相信……

It is known to all that… 从所周知……

It has been decided that… 已决定……

c. It + be +名词+ that-从句

It is common knowledge that… ……是常识

It is a surprise that… 令人惊奇的是……

It is a fact that… 事实是……

d. It +不及物动词+ that-分句

It appears that… 似乎……

It happens that… 碰巧……

It occurred to me that… 我突然想起……

It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure. 

 很清楚,整个计划注定要失败。

It's a pity that you should have to leave. 

 你非走不可真是件憾事。

3.否定转移

1) 将think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。

I don't think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。

I don' t believe he will come. 我相信他不回来。

注意:若谓语动词为hope,宾语从句中的否定词不能转移。

I hope you weren't ill. 我想你没有生病吧。

2)将seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。

It doesn't seem that they know where to go.

看来他们不知道往哪去。

It doesn't appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow.

看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。

【备考策略】

考生对于名词性从句的复习和应试关键要把握每个引导词的意义,因为在对于名词性从句的考查中,引导词在句子中都起作用,有意义,因此在分析句子结构,对比辨别名词性从句、状语从句、强调句式后,最后还是要选择引导词;另外还要注意以下几点:

1what 引导词的考查,尤其位于介词后引导的宾语从句以及引导名词性从句时的双重作用。

2Whetherif 的区别,尤其注意他们的不同之处。

3.名词性从句和其它从句的兼容结构测试。

4.句子语序和时态。

具体说:

1.掌握名词性从句的分类功能

名词性从句根据其在主句的功能作用又可分为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

(1) 若从句在句中作主语为主语从句

(2) 若从句在句中作宾语为宾语从句

(3)若从句在句中作表语为表语从句

(4) 若从句在句中作同位语为同位语从句

2.掌握连词的含义及分类

绝大多数名词性从句的连词都有其实在意义,称为有义连词,如what“……的内容when“……的时间where“……的地点why“……的原因how如何;怎样whoif, whether是否;没有实在意义的连词叫无义连词,无义连词只有that一个。

3.掌握名词性从句的语序

名词性从句用陈述语序。

4.掌握名词性从句和其它从句之间的关系

有些连词除引导名词性从句外还可引导其它从句,应掌握它们之间的关系。

(1) if ,whether"是否"时引导名词性从句;if如果时引导条件状语从句;whether无论是否;不管是否时引导让步状语从句。

(2) when“……的时间where“……的地方时引导名词从句;when……的时候引导时间状语从句,where“……的地方,且修饰行为动词时,引导地点状语从句;when, where从句作定语修饰先行词时引导定语从句。

【专题突破】

高考中考查名词性从句时,经常考查连接词的选用。解题时应先判断从句的类型,然后判断从句是否缺少成分以及意义是否完整,最后根据引导名词性从句的连词的特点确定特定的连接词。要求学生在做题中要注意如下几点:

1.分析结构,辨析名词性从句和状语从句;

2.理解句意,正确区别引导词;

3.按照句意,出现那个引导词意思,便选择那个引导词。

【专题巩固】

1. A warm thought suddenly came to me _______I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday .

 A. if                     B. when            C. that              D. which

2. See the flag on top of the building ? That was _______ we did this morning.

 A when                B. which             C. where              D. what

3 The government has announced that a modern city will be set up in _______is still a wasteland now.

 A. what                  B. which             C. that                D. where

4Many people wrote articles on _______Liu Xiang had failed to compete in the event .

 A. why               B. what                C. who          D. that

5The couple are spending their holiday on _______is described as one of the most beautiful islands.

 A. that               B. what                C. which                D. where

6The book is meant to _______needs it .

 A. who                B. whoever          C. whomever    D. whom

7. In his speech, Premier Wen Jiabao points out that creativity is_______it takes to keep a nation highly competitive.

 A. how              B. what           C. which                D. that

8The experience of the Chinese nation attests to a truth_______ a nation loses in times of disaster will be made up for by her progress.

 A. that what         B. what                   C. that               D. what that

9_______has recently been done to provide more buses for the people ,a shortage of public vehicles remains a serious problem .

 A. That             B. What                C. In spite of what   D. Though what

10.  _______is certain is _______prevention is more important than treatment.

 A. It; that         B. What; that          C. As; what              D. What; what

11. Nobody would stand out admitting the fact, for some reason, _______they lost the game.

A. that        B. which             C. what              D. why

12.—The patient looks much better. _______is it that has made him_______he is today?

—Perhaps the special medicine and his family’s patient care.

AWhat; that  BThat; that          CWhat; what           DWhat; which

13. After three hours’ climbing , they reached _______ they thought was the place they’d been dreaming of .

Awhat       Bwhich          Cwhere           Dthat

14. A plan has been put forward _______more graduates should go to work in the country

A. when       B. that           C. whether            D. how

15.It is pretty well understood _______controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today.

A. that             B. when          C. what           D. how 

16.(2009· 湖南卷) She is very dear to us. We have been prepared to do _______it takes to save her life.

A. whichever      B. however      C. whatever       D. whoever

17.(2009·陕西卷) The how- to book can be of help to _______wants to do the job.

A. who          B. whomever     C. no matter who   D. whoever

18.(2009· 安徽卷) A good friend of mine from           I was born showed up at my home right before I left for Beijing.

A. how          B. whom         C. when            D. which

19.(2009·江苏卷)Many young people in the West are expected to leave_______could be life’s most important decision—marriage—almost entirely up to luck.

A. as            B. that            C. which            D. what

20. (2009·浙江卷)—Is there any possibility ______ you could pick me up at the airport?

—No problem.

A. when        B. that            C. whether          D. what

【参考答案及解析】

1. C 句意:我脑海中突然出现一个温情的念头,用我的零花钱给妈妈买些鲜花作为她的生日礼物。本题考察名词性从句用法。I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday .A warm thought 的同位语从句。中间被suddenly came to me隔开,增加了试题难度。此外,部分考生由于对同位语从句和定语从句不分,故错选D为答案。

2. D 表语从句中缺did的宾语。

3. A “_______is still a wasteland now .”做介词in的宾语从句,从句中缺主语句意为:政府已经宣布一座现代化的城市将在这片现在仍是废墟的地方建成。

4. A“_______Liu Xiang had failed to compete in the event.”做介词on的宾语,宾语从句中不缺主干,故排除BC。另外that不引导介词的宾语从句(固定搭配除外),所以排除D

5. B “_______is described as one of the most beautiful islands .”宾语从句,从句中缺少主语,

6. B whoever在宾语从句中做主语,部分学生,因为只看到介词to,误认为要添whomever做介词的宾语。

7. B “_______it takes to keep a nation highly competitive.”做表语从句,从句中缺少takes的宾语,构成 it takes sth to do sth 结构。

8. A本题句子结构比较复杂,“_______ a nation loses in times of disaster will be made up for by her progress”a truth的同位语从句,同位语从句中_______ a nation loses in times of disaster为主语从句。本句共有两个从句,故有两个引导词。句意为中华民族的经验证明了一个真理,即,一个民族在灾难中失去的,必将从民族的进步中得到补偿。

9. C “_______has recently been done to provide more buses for the people”在句中做让步状语,D. Though what错误, 因为, 一个单一的从句不能用两个连词引导.句意: 尽管在为人们提供更多公交车这件事上, 投入了很多, 但是公交工具的缺乏, 仍然是个问题.

10.B “_______is certain”在句中做主语,主语从句缺少一个主语,需要用What; “_______prevention is more important than treatment .”系表语从句,句意与结构完整,只有that,可以这样用。

11.A“_______ they lost the game.”在句子中做the fact 的同位语从句,从句意思结构完整,结构完整。

12. C先将句子结构理清楚,it is _______that has made him _______he is today 就可以判断,第一个空是考察强调句型的特殊疑问形式;第二个空则是表语从句,表语从句中缺少he is的表语。句意:病人好多了,是什么使得他成为现在这个样子。

13. A考生误以为是地点状语从句,误选Cwhere。而reached是及物动词,后边接的是宾语从句,宾语从句除去插入语they thought,应该缺主语。

14.B 考察同位语从句,表达A plan的具体内容,has been put forward将名词与从句隔开,加大了难度。

15.C 主要测试主语从句。分析句子结构可知:句子属于形式主语格式;另外主句中缺少主语。双重作用的引导词只能是what。例如:It is still doubtful what he said at the meeting yesterday。昨天他在会上说的话仍然值得怀疑。

16.C 名词性从句的引导词。句意为:她对我们来说是非常宝贵,我们已经准备好做一切来拯救她的生命。

17.D 此处从句作介词to的宾语,是名词性从句,引导词作从句的主语,指人,意思是:无论是谁,选D

18.C 考查名词性从句,介词from后除了接代词或名词作宾语外,还可接介词短语或副词短语作宾语;由后面“I was born”可以推测from后面可以指时间,也可以指地点,再由所给的选项可得出答案。

19.D 考查名词性从句。宾语从句中缺少主语,因此选what

20. B考查同位语从句。此处是由what引导的同位语从句,表示你有没有可能来机场接我?。所以选B项。

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