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单数可数名词前何时不用冠词

2011-03-01  素雨2018

 英语中单数可数名词出现时,通常要在前面加冠词或有其它限定词词对其加以修饰。但在某些情况下,单数可数名词可以单独出现,既不需要加冠词,也不需要用其它限定词修饰。
  1.连系动词turn,go(变成)后作表语的单数名词前习惯上不加冠词。如:

  The young man has turned writer.这位年轻人已成了作家。

  2.用作同位语、宾语补足语、主语补足语或表语的单数可数名词,如果表示头衔或独一无二的职务时,其前往往不加冠词。如:

  (1)I would make him king over the earth.我将让他成为世界之王。

  (2)He is head of the workshop.他是这个车间的车间主任。

  (3)In 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the USA.1860年亚伯垃罕·林肯当选为美国总统。

  (4)Henry, captain of the team, is respected by all of us.亨利,这个队的队长,受到我们大家的尊重。

  3.介词by后跟单数名词,表示手段、方式时,其前通常不加冠词。如:by bike/bus/train/plane/land/sea…,by phone/mail/radio/letter/hand…

  My sister goes to school by bike every day.我妹妹每天骑车去上学。

  4.在表示“用…材料”时,介词in 后的单数名词前不用冠词。如:

  She wrote this composition in pen/pencil.她用钢笔/铅笔写了这篇作文。

  5.表示季节、球类、一日三餐等名称的单数可数名词不表示具体的某一事物,而只表示一个抽象概念时,其前不加冠词。如:

  He always has breakfast at 7:00 in the morning.他一般在早上7点吃早饭。

  6.称呼语,如:father,mother,cook,nurse,teacher等名词前不加冠词。如:

  Shall we hand in our exercise-books now,Monitor? 班长,我们现在交练习簿吗?

  7.用在“表示类型的名词+of”这一结构的单数可数名词前,一般不加冠词。如:

  Is this kind of radio made in China? 这种收音机是中国制造的吗?

  8.由介词或连词连接的的两个相同的、成对的或关系密切的单数可数名词前—般不加冠词。如:year after year, side by side, step by step, year by year, arm in arm, hand in hand, face to face, shoulder to shoulder…

  He would talk to his son face to face.他将当面和儿子谈。

  9.单数可数名词被用来表示国籍时,通常前面不加冠词。如:

  Are you American? No,I am Chinese. 你是美国人吗? 不,我是中国人。

  10.在go/come to…和in/at…的搭中。表示不确切地点的名词前通常不加冠词。如:

  My father is in hospital.I must go to look after him. 我父亲在住院。我得去照顾他。

  11.当单数可数名词作表语又被enough,no,more than等修饰时,意义抽象化,通常不加冠词。如:

  (1)He is teacher enough to work out the problem.他学识渊博,足可以解出这道题。

  (2)He is more animal than man.与其说他是人,不如说他是畜生。

  12.man表示“人类”或凡指“男性”,woman凡指“女性”,word表示“消息”时,其前一般不加冠词。如:

  (1)Man will conquer nature.人定胜天。

  (2)Man is stronger than man. 男性比女性强壮。

  (3)Word came that he would come to our school.有消息说他要来我们学校。

  13.表示种类的kind/sort/type/variety of+单数可数名词时,其前通常不加冠词。如:

  (1)This kind of book is very interesting.这种书很有趣。

  (2)A new type of car has been invented.已经发明了一种新型的汽车。

  (3)Some new kinds of computer are on show.正在展出一些新型的电脑。

  (4)There are many different varieties of bee.有许多不同种类的蜜蜂。

  14.在though或as引导的让步状语从句的表语是单数名词且构成倒装语序置于句首时,其前不能用冠词;否则,该用冠词。试比较:

  Young girl though she is,she knows a lot.

  Though she is a young girl,she knows a lot.

  尽管她年轻,却懂得很多。

  He looked at me and,heavy and strong man as he was,he thought it wiser to speak me fair.他朝我望着,尽管身强力壮,他还是觉得对我说得礼貌一点好。

  15.在独立主格结构中,单数可数名词前不加冠词。如:

  (1)The teacher came in, book in hand.老师手里拿着一本书进来了。

  (2)He was sitting in the chair, pipe in mouth.他坐在椅子上,嘴里噙着烟斗。

  16.表示时间的名词与at/after/before/from/till/towards/until构成短语时,单数可数名词前不加冠词。如:

  At daybreak,/at dawn拂晓, at sunrise太阳升起时, at noon在中午, at dusk天黑时, before sunset太阳落山前, after sunset日落后, towards dark天快黑时,at night 夜里, from dawn to dusk从早到晚。

  17.有些名词前不用冠词表示抽象概念。如:

  At/in school上学,at table就餐,at work在工作, at war在交战, in hospital住院,in prison坐牢,in/at church做礼拜,in bed在睡觉, in class在上课, go to school上学, leave college大学毕业。

  18. 在一些习语中,单数可数名词前不加冠词。如:

  on earth究竟,in fact事实上, in place of代替,take place发生,in line一致, for example例如,take part in参加,on foot步行, lose heart灰心, by chance偶然, in line排队, make use of利用, catch fire着火, on fire着火…。

  19.在交际英语的省略句中,单数名词前不用冠词。如:

  (1)–Nice day, isn’t it? 天气很好,是吧?

  –Yes, it is.是的。

  (2)–Let’s go for an outing.咱出去郊游吧?

  –Good idea.好主意。

  针对性练习:

  1. I often have conversations with John over telephone, while keeping in touch with Tom by letter.

  A. 不填;the B. 不填;a C. the; 不填 D. the; a

  2. When he left college, he got a job as reporter in a newspaper office.

  A. 不填;a B. 不填;the C. a; the D. the; the

  3. She is newcomer to chemistry, but she has already made some important discoveries.

  A. the; the B. the; 不填 C. a; 不填 D. a; the

  4. This is best kind of pen you can get here.

  A. the; the B. the; a C. the; 不填 D. a; the

  5. The differences between are gradually being eliminated.

  A. the town and the country B. town and country

  C. a town and a country D. a town and the country

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