【翻译完毕】木工指南——基本连接方式 - 技艺精华区 - 中国木工爱好者

2011-04-09  竺言小聚
木工指南:基本连接方式
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Close isn't really good enough. A perfect fit is what counts.
“差不多”还不够好,我们要的是精准的结合。

When building furniture, there are many ways to construct joints. The simplest are those that use mechanical fasteners, like nails and screws. While these are sometimes appropriate, they're not often used in first-class work, especially in visible areas. What's preferred is a direct joint between parts, bonded with glue.
做家具的时候,有很多连接构件的方法。最简单的就是使用机械连接件,比如顶子、螺丝。虽然这办法有时候适用,但在高级木作尤其是看面上却很少使用。人们更喜欢构件之间直接通过胶水来连接。

Of course, the type of joint you need depends on a variety of factors, like the nature of the materials being joined, the function of the joint, strength and appearance requirements, what machinery and equipment are available, and your own level of skill. Whole books are devoted to this discipline–and most are far from comprehensive because the possibilities are almost endless. In light of this, joinery can certainly seem intimidating to the beginner. But it doesn't have to be. By mastering two primary joints, the edge joint and the mortise and tenon, you can build an astounding array of furniture.
当然,选用哪种连接方式取决于多种因素,包括所要连接材料的性质、连接点的功能、强度和外观的要求、可用的工具装备以及你的技术水平。有很多书整本都在讲这些内容,但大多都讲得不全面,因为有几乎无数种可能的情况。鉴于此,连接方法的内容对于新手来说往往很吓人。但实际上大可不必,只要掌握两种主要的连接方法——边的连接和方榫连接——你就能做出很多种家具了。

Edge Joints
边的连接
The first requirement of a good edge joint is that the two mating surfaces must fit together perfectly. This means there are no discernible gaps. Second, the mating surfaces must be either on the edge or the surface of a board. End grain is not a candidate for edge joining because of its open cellular structure. When glue is applied to these cells, they act like straws, pulling the glue deep into the wood instead of leaving it near the surface where the bond takes place. When end grain must be joined to edge or face grain, the joint of choice is the mortise and tenon. More on this later.
做好边的连接的第一个要求就是对接的两条边必须能完美地拼合。这意味着拼合处不能有可见的缝隙。第二,拼合的部位必须要么是板子的侧边,要么在板子的大面上。板子的端头(木纹截断面)不能用这种方法连接,因为这个面上的孔状结构太多了。当胶水涂到这些小孔上时,它们就像吸管一样把胶水吸到木材的深处而不是让胶水留在胶结面附近。当一块板子的端面必须和另一块板子的侧边或板面连接时,就要选用方榫连接,这会在后面讲到。

For edge joining, the mating surfaces must be flat and square to both faces of the board. To achieve this, first scribe a straight reference line on one surface, using a long straightedge. Then clamp this board to the side of your worktable and use a bench plane to flatten the edge. Check your progress relative to your reference line frequently. And check for square frequently with a combination square.
对于边的连接,对接面必须平整、方正(和相邻两面垂直)。为了达到这个要求,先在板子的一侧用长靠山画一条参考线,然后把板子加在工作台的侧面,用台刨(手动的)刨平这条边。刨的过程中要经常根据刚才画的参考线检查刨削的进度,并用组合直角尺检查是否方正。

Once you're satisfied with the edge on the first board, repeat the same process on the mating board. When you've flattened this edge, lay the two boards together on a flat surface and check for fit. Usually some additional work will be required to get a perfect joint. When you've achieved it, just spread glue on both mating edges (Photo 1) and clamp the boards together until the glue sets (Photo 2).
刨好第一块板子的结合边后再用同样的方法去刨另一块板子。两块都刨好后将他们放在一个平面上试拼一下,通常你还需要修整几次才能达到完美的拼接效果。修整好之后,只需在对接的两边涂上胶水(如图1),并用夹钳固定好这两块板子知道胶水固化(如图2)。

1-A simple edge joint requires only the proper fit of the parts and a thin coat of glue. Be sure to spread the glue evenly.
图1.简单的边连接只需两条边能紧密拼合并在上面涂薄薄一层胶即可,胶水一定要涂匀。
1.jpg

2-Pull the edge joint tight with clamps. Make sure that both boards are aligned correctly, so that the surface is flat.
图2.用夹钳加紧对接的木板,确保两块木板对齐,这样才能保证拼出来的是一个平面。
2.jpg

Doweling
圆木榫连接
One common problem with edge joining is that the glue often acts as a lubricant between the boards. This can cause the boards to slip when clamped, which makes it difficult to achieve a flat joint. There are three common solutions to this problem: dowels, joining plates and splines. Because the last two require some fairly specialized equipment, dowels are the best choice for the beginner. All you need for the job is a drill and a doweling jig.
边连接的一个常见问题是胶水常常在两板之间起到润滑剂的作用,使得用夹钳固定的时候板子容易相对滑动,导致很难保证连接处的两边在一个平面上。一般有三种方法来解决这个问题,圆木榫、饼干榫和木楔。因为后两种都需要一些特殊装备才能搞定,所以圆木榫就成了新手的首选。使用圆木榫只需准备电钻和圆榫打孔模具即可。

For standard 13/16-in.-thick stock, 1/4-in.-dia. x 1-in.-long dowels are a good choice. Start by laying out the dowel locations every 6 in. to 8 in. along the joint. Next, install the 1/4-in.-dia. bushing in your doweling jig and center the hole in the jig bushing over your first mark. Tighten the jig in place and bore a hole in the edge (Photo 3). Make sure that the hole is deep enough to allow a 1/16-in. space at each end of the dowel for excess glue. Repeat the same procedure for all the holes along the joint.
对于标准的13/16英寸厚的木料,应该选用直径1/4英寸、长1英寸的圆木榫。先在要对接的边上每隔6~8英寸画一个圆榫定位标记。然后在圆榫开孔模具上装上1/4英寸直径的轴套,将模具上的孔对准你画的标记。固定好打孔模具,并在要对接的边上钻孔(如图3)。在两块板上都要保证孔的深度超过圆榫的长度1/16英寸,以便给多余的胶水留有空间。重复上述操作,打完所有的孔。

3-Using small dowels helps with edge joint alignment. Bore the dowel holes with a doweling jig and an electric drill.
图3.用圆木榫来协助对齐接口。用电钻和圆榫开孔模具来打圆榫孔。
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Keep in mind that birch dowel stock, in 36-in. lengths and in diameters from 1/8 in. to 1 in., is commonly available at hardware stores and lumberyards. When using this material, it's a good idea to cut a narrow groove down the length of each piece to create an escape route for excess glue. You can use the corner of a sharp chisel to scratch the side of the dowel. You also should slightly bevel both ends of the dowel with a piece of sandpaper. This bevel makes aligning the dowels in their mating holes easier. You can also buy readymade dowels from mail-order suppliers.
记住,你通常能在五金店或木料场买到36英寸长、直径1/8至1英寸的桦木圆榫料。使用圆榫的时候,最好在每个圆榫上沿长度方向切出一条凹槽,以便让多余的胶水可以顺着凹槽挤出。你可以用凿刀的刃角刮出这个凹槽。你还应该用砂纸给每个圆榫的两端倒个角,这样能让圆榫更容易对准榫孔。你也可以买现成的圆木榫。

Once your dowels are cut to size, spread a thin layer of glue in all the dowel holes and along the edges of the mating boards. Then gently tap the dowels into the holes (Photo 4). Next, align the mating board so the exposed dowels meet their corresponding holes (Photo 5) and use clamps to pull the joint tight. Tighten the clamps slowly to allow any excess glue to escape and leave the joint clamped until the glue sets.
做好圆榫后,在要对接的两边和榫孔内都涂上薄薄一层胶水。然后轻轻地把圆榫敲到一侧的榫孔中(如图4),接着对准另一块板子,让凸出的圆榫对准相应的榫孔(如图5),并用夹钳夹紧。要慢慢紧固夹钳,以便多余的胶水能被挤出来,在胶水固化前一直保持夹持状态。

4-Once the holes are bored, spread glue in the holes and along the board edges. Then gently tap the dowels into place.
图4.钻好孔后,在对接边和榫孔里刷胶,然后轻轻地把圆榫敲进榫孔。
4.jpg

5-Position the mating board so its holes align with the dowels in the first board. Then squeeze the two boards together.
图5.对准另一块板子,第一块板子上的圆榫头对准第二块板子上的榫孔,然后把两板挤在一起。
5.jpg

Mortise And Tenon
方榫连接
As mentioned earlier, the mortise-and-tenon joint is the best way to join end grain to long grain. The tenon is the male portion of the joint that is cut on the end of one board. It's designed to fit into an identically sized slot, the mortise, in the mating board.
就像前面提到的,当一块板的端头需要和另一块板的侧面连接时,方榫连接是最好的方法。方榫头是这个连接中凸出的那部分,它是在一块板的端头上切出来的。方榫头插到另一块板子上的一个合适大小的槽里面,也就是榫槽。

Beginners often avoid this joint because the skills required seem out of reach. But if you take care in layout and cutting, you can easily achieve good results. Of course, it's always a good idea to practice on some scrap wood first. The tools you'll need are a combination square, marking gauge, drill, doweling jig, backsaw and sharp chisel.
新手通常不愿意做这种连接,因为做它所需的技术看起来遥不可及。但是如果你仔细划线并切割,你可以轻松地做好它。当然,最好还是在下脚料上先练习练习。做方榫所需的工具有:组合直角尺、划线器、钻、圆榫开孔模具、夹背锯和锋利的凿刀。

To lay out the joint, begin by marking the tenon shoulder line. This represents the length of the finished tenon, which is usually 1 in. to 1 1/2 in. long. Use a square and pencil to extend this shoulder mark to both sides and edges of the board (Photo 6).
在划线的时候,先画好榫头的肩线,也就是标识榫头长度的线。榫头通常长1~1.5英寸。用直角尺和铅笔画肩线的延长线,使之延伸到相邻的两个侧面上。(如图6)

6-Begin laying out a tenon by marking a shoulder line on all four sides of the board. Use a square and a sharp pencil.
图6.给榫头划线的时候,先在木料的四周画好肩线,使用直角尺和削尖的铅笔划线。
6.jpg

Next, set up your marking gauge to scribe the tenon width on the center of the board end. For 13/16-in.-thick stock the tenon is usually 3/8 in. thick with 7/32-in. shoulders on both sides. But a 5/16-in.-thick tenon with 1/4-in.-thick shoulders is also perfectly acceptable. Scribe these guide lines across the end grain and down the two edges till they meet the shoulder line (Photo 7). Clamp the board in place with the joint end pointing up and use a backsaw to cut along the guide lines
(Photo 8). Be sure your saw kerf always stays on the waste side of the line, and stop cutting when ou reach the shoulder mark.
接下来调整好你的划线器,在木材端头的中间画榫头宽度线。对于13/16英寸厚的木料,通常的厚度是榫头3/8英寸,两肩各7/32英寸。但也可以做成榫头厚5/16英寸,两肩各1/4英寸。将宽度线延伸到木料的两侧,直到与肩线相交。(如图7)将木料榫头方向朝上固定好,用夹背锯沿着榫头宽度线切割。(如图8)一定要让锯片在宽度线以外(不能伤到榫头),一直切到肩线。

7-Use a marking gauge to mark the tenon lines on the edges and the end of the board. Center the tenon on the end of the board.
图7.用划线器在木料端头和两个侧面画好榫头线,把榫头定位在端面的中央。
7.jpg

8-Clamp the board upright and use a backsaw to cut along the layout lines. Be sure to cut on the waste side of the line.
图8.将木料竖着夹紧,用夹背锯沿标划的线切割。一定要让锯在标线的榫头以外部分切割。
8.jpg

Next, clamp this board flat on your worktable and use a backsaw to cut along the waste side of the shoulder line (Photo 9). When this cut is complete, the waste should fall from the side of the tenon. Repeat the same process for the other side of the joint. Then use a sharp chisel to pare the sides of the tenon (often called the cheeks) down to the guide lines (Photo 10).
接下来,将木料平方在工作台上并夹紧,用夹背锯沿肩线外侧切割(不能伤到榫肩)(如果图9)。切好之后,废弃的小木块就会自己从木料上掉下来。再另一面也这样切,然后用锋利的凿刀削掉榫头侧面(通常成为榫脸)多余的部分,直到与榫头宽度线契合。

9-Once the cheek cuts are made, lay the board flat and make the shoulder cuts. Again, stay on the waste side of the line.
图9.切出榫脸之后,将木料放平来切榫肩。再次提醒,在标线的废料侧切割。
9.jpg

10-Use a sharp chisel to remove the saw marks on the cheeks and to cut the tenon to the finished dimension.
图10.用锋利的凿刀削去榫脸上的锯痕,并把榫头尺寸最终修整到位。
10.jpg

Most tenons also have shoulder cuts on the top and bottom edges. To cut these, first lay out the guide lines using a marking gauge. Then cut along the length of the tenon using a backsaw (Photo 11). and finish by cutting along the shoulder line on both edges (Photo 12).. Set the tenons aside for the moment and begin working on the mortises.
大多数榫头除了在长边方向有榫肩,在两个短边方向也有榫肩。为了切出这两个方向的榫肩,先用划线器画出引导线,然后用夹背锯沿榫头长度方向切割(如图11),最后沿两个短边的肩线切割(如图12)。榫头就算做好了,下面来做榫槽。

11-Lay out the top and bottom shoulder cuts. Then clamp the board upright and make the long cuts with a backsaw.
图11.画出两短边的榫肩切割线。然后将木料竖直固定,用夹背锯切割。
11.jpg

12-Lay the board on its edge and make the shoulder cuts on the tenon with a backsaw. Cut on the waste side of the line.
图12.将板子侧面朝上放平,用夹背锯切榫肩。一定要在榫肩线的废料侧切割。
12.jpg

Use the marking gauge and square to mark guide lines for the mortise in the mating board (Photo 13). Because cutting a mortise requires accurately removing a great deal of stock, a drill and doweling jig are your tools of choice. Just insert a bushing in the doweling jig that matches the width of your mortise. Then clamp the jig onto the board with the hole centered between your layout lines. Slide the drill bit into the bushing and bore a series of overlapping holes until all the waste is removed (Photo 14).
在另一块板上用划线器和直角尺画出榫槽线(如图13)。因为做榫槽需要精确地挖掉一大块木头,最好选用电钻和圆榫开孔模具来作为工具。在模具上安装一个和你要做的榫槽一样宽的轴套,然后将模具固定在板子上,确保模具孔的中心对准榫孔的中心。用钻头在轴套里沿榫槽打出一系列互相重叠的孔,一直打到榫槽边缘(如图14)。

13-Use a square and a marking gauge to lay out the mortise. Double-check that the mortise and tenon widths match.
图13.用直角尺和划线器画出榫槽线。再次检查,确保榫头和榫槽的宽度契合。
13.jpg

14-Use a doweling jig and drill to bore overlapping holes within the mortise layout lines. This removes most of the waste.
图14.用圆榫开孔模具和钻在榫槽线以内打连续孔,这样可以剃掉大部分要剃掉的木头。
14.jpg

For the best results, set the hole depth on your drill bit by attaching the collar that comes with the jig to the bit. The hole should be 1/16 in. deeper than the length of the tenon. This provides some space for excess glue that would otherwise keep the joint from closing completely. Once all the holes are bored, square the ends and the sides of the mortise with a chisel (Photo 15).
最好用钻头限位器控制打孔的深度。孔的深度应该比榫头长度多1/16英寸,这个富余的空间可以容纳多余的胶水,否则多余的胶水将会阻挡榫头就位。所有孔打完后,用凿刀将榫孔边修方正。(如图15)

15-Use a sharp chisel to square the ends and sides of the mortise. Work carefully to get absolutely flat surfaces.
图15.用锋利的凿刀将榫槽修整方正。仔细地把每一面都整平。
15.jpg

Next, test fit the joint. The tenon should be snug in the mortise, but you shouldn't have to force the parts together. If the joint is too tight, carefully pare the tenon cheeks with a sharp chisel until the fit is correct. If you need to remove just a bit of stock, use sandpaper. Once you're satisfied with the fit, apply glue to all the mating surfaces, and slide the pieces together. Clamp the assembly securely until the glue has dried.
接下来,试拼这个连接。榫头应该能正好插进榫孔中,而不需要用太大的力量。如果连接偏紧,用凿子小心地削一削榫头的榫脸部分,知道它们能刚好拼合。如果只是需要很小量的修整,可以使用砂纸。当你对拼合的合适程度满意之后,在榫头和榫槽上都涂上胶水,将榫卯拼接起来并用夹钳夹好直到胶水固化。

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