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介词后+动名词结构一览

2011-05-15  伊人雪飘
    用法归纳由于to既可用作介词,也可用作不定式符号,所以许多学生在其后接动词时,弄不清到底该用动词原形,还是用动名词。本文根据新课标词汇(比考试大纲词汇范围稍广)对这类结构作了一次系统归纳,总结出介词to后接动名词的常考结构27个,并根据其结构特点,分为以下四类:
一、动词+介词to+动名词。这一种结构是考试中的大热考点,考生容易产生定势思维,想当然的认为“to”之后要跟"to do"不定式,所以,请特别重视下列含有“to"的动词短语。
1. admit to doing sth 承认做了某事
2. apply to doing sth 适用于做某事
3. object to doing sth 反对做某事
4. see to doing sth 负责做某事
5. stick to doing sth 坚持做某事
6. take to doing sth 喜欢上做某事,逐渐习惯做某事。
7. lead to通向
8. see to 负责
应用实例:
He admitted having stolen the money. 他承认偷了钱。
These methods apply to learning English.这些方法适用于英语学习。
He objected to being treated like a child. 他反对被当作小孩子看待。
Reporters should stick to investigating the facts. 记者应坚持调查事实。
Soon he took to sleeping late. 不久他就养成了睡懒觉的习惯。
二、动词+宾语+介词to+动名词
9.devote oneself to doing sth专心致力于做某事把……献给做某事;献身于做某事
10. limit sth to doing sth 把…限制在做某事的范围内
11. reduce sb to doing sth 使某人沦为做某事
12. give one’s life to doing sth 献身于做某事
13. give one’s mind to doing sth 专心做某事
14. have a dislike to doing sth 厌恶做某事
15. have an eye to doing sth 注意做某事
15. have an eye to doing sth
16. have an objection to doing sth 反对(反感)做某事
17. pay attention to doing sth 注意做某事
18. set one’s mind to doing sth 决心做某事
应用实例:
She applied herself to learning English. 她专心学习英语。
Hunger reduced them to stealing. 饥饿使他们沦落为盗贼。
She devoted herself to helping the poor. 她致力于帮助穷人。
I have a strong dislike to playing cards for money. 我极讨厌打牌赌博。
He has a strong objection to getting up so early.他很反感这么早就起床。
三、be+形容词(含过去分词)+介词to+动名词
19. be equal to doing sth 等于做某事,能胜任做某事
20. be used to doing sth 习惯于做某事
21. be opposed to doing sth 反对做某事
22. be reduced to doing sth使某人沦为做某事
23. be devoted to doing sth 把时间(钱,精力等)献给做某事
24. be limited to doing sth把……限制在做某事的范围内
应用实例:
This is equal to saying that he’s a cheat. 这就等于说他是个骗子。
She is used to living in the country. 她习惯于住在乡下。
I’m opposed to telling him the news at once. 我反对马上告诉他这消息。
This dictionary is devoted to explaining word usage. 这本词典是解释词的用法的。
四、其他结构+介词to+动名词
25. get down to doing sth开始做某事,认真处理某事
26. look forward to doing sth 盼望做某事
27. What do you say to doing sth? 你认为做某事如何?
应用实例:
It’s time we got down to doing some serious work. 我们该认真干点正事了。
We are looking forward to receiving his letter. 我们盼望收到他的回信。
五、to作介词(后接名词、动名词)短语一览
be / get / become used to 习惯于
be given to 喜欢;癖好
be related to  与…有关系
be addicted to 沉溺于;对…上瘾
be opposed to  反对
devote oneself to献身于;专心于
be devoted to 致力于;忠诚于
be admitted to 被…录取;准进入
be reduced to 沦为
reduce…to…使…沦为
be attached to附属于;喜欢;依恋
be adjusted to  适应
be known to  为…所知
be married to  和…结婚
be sentenced to被判处
be connected to  和…连在一起
be exposed to  暴露于;遭受
be compared to 被比喻成
compare… to…把…比作…
be engaged to 与…订婚
be / become / get accustomed to // accustomed to  惯于;有…习惯
be engaged to 与…订婚
get down to 着手做
lead to 导致
object to反对;不喜欢;不赞成
put one’s mind to全神贯注于
give rise to 引起
look forward to  盼望
stick to  坚持
pay attention to  注意
attend to 专心;注意;照料
see to  负责;注意
contribute to对…作贡献;有助于
make contributions to对…作贡献
apply oneself to 致力于
come close to几乎;将近
reply to 回答
add to 增加
add up to  加起来
in addition to除…之外
turn to转向;求助于
feel up to 能胜任于
look up to 尊敬
admit to承认
belong to 属于
take to 喜爱;开始
cling to 附着
fall to 开始
respond to 回答;对…作出回应
accustom oneself to 使自己习惯于
amount to等于
prefer… to…更喜欢
set an example to 给…树立榜样
refer to 谈到;参考;查阅
agree to sth. 同意某事 (比较:agree to do sth.  同意做某事)
prefer… to…更喜欢
take / make a trip to到…地方去
join…to…把…和 …连接起来
turn a blind eye to对…视而不见
turn a deaf ear to 对…充耳不闻
show honor to向…表示敬意
put an end to(bring… to an end) 结束
set fire to 放火烧……
drink (a toast) to 为……干杯
propose a toast to 提议……
happen to… 发生了……事
occur to sb. 想起;想到
total up to 总计达
be close to 几乎;将近
hold to 坚持;抓住
help oneself to 随便用……
hold on to  抓住;固守
do harm to 对……有害处
do wrong to 冤枉某人
date back to 追溯到
when it comes to… 谈到……时
come to 来到;达到;结果为  (比较:come to do sth逐渐做某事)
give an eye to着眼于
have an eye to doing 打算
the key to ……的答案
describe to  向……描述
treat sb. to sth. 请某人吃……
trust sth. to sb.把某物委托给某人
pay a visit to  参观……
access to 进入;取得的方法
be a stranger to  不习惯;对……陌生
on one’s way to 在去某处的路上;在达成某事的过程中
be kind to 对……和善
be important to 对……重要
be senior to   年龄长于……
be equal to  和……相等
be particular to ……所特有的(比较:be particular about 对……过于讲究;挑剔)
be subject to 服从;隶属;易遭\受\患
be familiar to 为  ……熟悉
be similar to 和……相似
be open to 对……开放
be loyal to  对……忠诚
be helpful to对……有益处
be useful to对……有用
be good to sb对某人好 (比较:be good for 对……有益处)
be bad to 对……不好
be bad for(比较:对……有害处)
be new to 对……不习惯;对……陌生
as to 关于;至于
next to(否定词前)几乎;
be due to do sth.预定要做某事
next to ……的旁边
due to 由于;归因于……
thanks to 多亏了;由于
owing to 由于;因……的缘故
in / with regard to 关于
in /with relation to 关于;就……而论
subject to 在……条件下;依照
be given to 沉溺于
be related to 与…相关
get down to着手做
lead to    着手做
object to  / be opposed to   反对
put one’s mind to全神贯注于
be equal to 胜任
devote oneself to献身于
give rise to 引起
look forward to 盼望
pay attention to  注意
be addicted to 沉溺于…  对…上瘾
according to 根据
access to 接近(某地的)方法
contribute to   为…作贡献
1. access to 接近,进入(某地的)方法; 通路
The only access to that building is along that muddy track.到那栋建筑的唯一通路是沿着那条泥泞的路走。
2. according to 按照,依照,视……而定
The work was done according to his instructions.那工作是依照他的指示做的。
3. be addicted to 沉溺于……,对……上瘾
He became addicted to the drug.他上了毒瘾。
4. belong to 属于
This dictionary belongs to me.这本词典是我的。
5. contribute to 为……做贡献,为……撰稿
Everyone should contribute what he or she can afford to society.人人都应该尽自己的能力为社会做贡献。
6. devote to 献身,致力于……
He has devoted his life to helping disabled people.他一生献身于帮助残疾人。
7. due to 因为,由于……而起
His lateness was due to the very heavy traffic on the motorway.他迟到是因高速公路上车辆过多所致。
8. be equal to 与……相当,有能力胜任……的
Bill is quite equal to running the office.比尔的能力足以管理这个部门。
9. get close to 靠近,接近
Today many people like to go out to get close to nature.如今许多人喜欢到户外去接近大自然。
10. get down to 开始做某事,认真处理某事
It’s time I got down to some serious work.我该认真干点正事了。
11. hold to 忠于……,坚持,遵循
Whatever your argument, I shall hold to my decision.不管你怎样争辩,我将坚持我的决定。
12. help oneself to 自取,自用(食物,饮料等)
Help yourself to a cigarette.请随便用香烟吧。
13. look forward to 盼望,期待
We are so much looking forward to seeing you again.我们非常盼望再见到你。
14. lead to 导致
This misprint led to great confusion.   这个印刷错误造成很大的混淆。
15. prefer…to…两者间更喜欢……
I prefer walking to cycling.我愿意步行,不愿意骑自行车。
16. pay attention to 注意
Pay attention to what the teacher is talking about!注意老师说的话!
17. refer to 提到,涉及到,关系到,参考,查阅
What I have to say refers to all of you.我要说的事和你们大家都有关。
18. relate to 与……有关,涉及……
Wealth is seldom related to happiness.   财富鲜于幸福有关。
19. see to 照看或处理某事物
Will you see to the arrangements for the next committee meeting?   你来处理下次委员会会议安排,好吗?
20.stick to 坚持,不改变或不放弃
We don’t want to hear your opinions; stick to the facts!   我们不想听你的想法,只讲事实!
21.turn to 转向,求助于,转而做
The more depressed he got, the more he turned to drink.   他情绪越低落越是借酒浇愁。
22.used to 习惯于……,适应……
She is quite used to working hard.她很习惯做艰苦的工作。
六、紧接在其他介词后的动词通常也必须用动名词形式:
1.He left without paying his bill.他没有付账就走了。
2.I apologize for not writing before.我此前未能写信,谨表歉意。
3.She insisted on paying for herself.她坚持要付她自己的那一份钱。
4.Before signing the contract,read the small print.在签署合约以前,请详读小号字印出的内容。
七、注意某些名词+介词+动名词的句型结构:
1.There is no risk of you being late.你不会迟到。
2.There’s no point in waiting.等待是毫无意义的。
3.There′s no point in taking your car if you can′t park.如果那里不能停放车子的话,你开车去就没多大意思了。
4.What′s the point of taking your car if you can′t park?如果无处停放车子,你开车去还有什么意思呢?
5.Is there any chance of his changing his mind? 他有可能改变主意吗?
6.Have you any objection to changing your working hours?你反不反对改变你的工作时间?
7.I am in favour of giving everyone a day off.我赞同给大家放一天假。
8.What can yon do besides typing?除了打字你还会做什么?
9.I have no objection to hearing your story again.再听一遍你的故事,我没有异议。
10.Touch your toes without bending your knees!试着不屈膝去够你的脚趾!
11.He is good at diving.他擅长跳水。
12.is fond of climbing.她喜欢爬山。
13.I’m not keen on gambling.I’m too afraid of losing.我对赌博不感兴趣。我太怕输了。
14.He was fined for being drunk in charge of a car.他因酒醉驾车被罚款。
15.I’m against saying anything./I’m for saying nothing.我反对说话。/我赞成什么都不说。
16.I’m tired of arguing.I’m fed up waiting.我厌烦争辩了。我等得腻味极了。(口语)
17.This is a tool for opening tins.这是一个开罐头的工具。
18.Do you feel like going out?你想出去玩吗?
19.After swimming I felt cold.游完泳我感到冷。
20.She disapproves of jogging.她不赞成慢跑锻炼。
21.What about leaving it here and collecting it later?先把它放在这里等一会儿再来取怎么样?
22.He is thinking of emigrating.他正在考虑移居国外。
23.I’m sorry for keeping you waiting.很抱歉,让你久等了。
24.They escaped by sliding down a rope.他们是从一根绳子上滑下来逃走的。
25.We had difficulty in finding a parking place.我们费了很大劲才找到一个停车位。
26.You should be ashamed of yourself for behaving so badly.你应该为你的行为无礼感到羞耻。
27.In spite of starting late, he arrived in time.虽然他动身很晚,却及时到了。
28. Aren’t you interested in making money?难道你对赚钱不感兴趣?
29.There’s no point in waiting.等待是毫无意义的。
八、某些动词+介词/副词(即短语动词)后面要求接动名词。
最常用的这类组合有 be for/against, care for, give up,keep on,leave off, look forward to, put off, see about, take to。
1.I don’t care for standing in queues.我不喜欢排队。
2.Eventually the dogs left off barking.狗终于不叫了。
3.I am looking forward to meeting her.我渴望见到她。
4.He put off making a decision till he had more information.他推迟到获得详情之后再决定。
5.He took to ringing us up in the middle of the night.他开始习惯在半夜给我们打电话。
九、 介词后面必须带动词的动名词形式,这一规则的唯一例外是except和but(介词)。在它们后面带动词原形:
a)I could do nothing except agree.我除了同意,没有别的办法。
b)He did nothing but complain.他只是抱怨,什么也不做。
但是如果but用做连词,即如果它引导从句,它的后面就可直接跟完整的不定式或动名词:
1.Being idle sometimes is agreeable,but being idle all the time might become monotonous.
2.To be idle sometimes is agreeable,but to be idle all the time might become monotonous.(译文:有时清闲无事是令人惬意的,但总是闲呆着就可能变得单调乏味了。) 

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