lily of valley 2011-05-20

The Campbell–Stokes Sunshine Recorder 坎贝尔-斯托克日照计

Before the dawn of the computer age scientists who wished to record the amount of sunshine in any given place had to be inventive.以前,在计算机时代的科学家谁愿意在任何地点记录的日照量的曙光,必须创造性。 A variety of sunshine recorders were invented, with the Campbell-Stokes Recorder quickly becoming the most popular.阳光的录音机发明了各种各样与坎贝尔斯托克斯记录迅速成为最流行的。 In fact many are still in use to this day.事实上,很多仍然在使用到今天。

It looks to modern eyes like a prop from the set of the latest Harry Potter film.它看起来像一个道具现代眼光从最新的哈利波特电影布景。 It is quite easy to imagine Albus Dumbledore fussing around the crystal ball at the center of the contraption.这是很容易想象艾伯斯围绕在精巧中心水晶球大惊小怪。 However, its roots are very much of this world – albeit the Victorian one.但是,它的根是非常这个世界 - 虽然维多利亚之一。

It was invented in 1853 by the Scottish Gaelic scholar Iain Òg Ìle, known in English as John Francis Campell.它发明于1853年由苏格兰盖尔学者伊恩噩岛英文名:约翰弗朗西斯坎贝尔。 Perhaps unsurprisingly he was also the Secretary to the Lighthouse Commission at the time.不出所料,他或许也是秘书灯塔委员会的时间。 It was adapted and improved in 1879 by Sir George Gabriel Stokes (pictured left) a Cambridge University based physicist and mathematician known for his work in fluid dynamics, mathematical physics and, importantly, optics.它适应于1879年和改善乔治爵士加布里埃尔斯托克斯(图左)剑桥大学的物理学家和数学家,他在流体动力学,数学物理,更重要的,光学的工作而闻名。 As president of the Royal Society and Commission he also investigated the causes of railway disasters during that period.作为英国皇家学会和委员会主席,他还研究在此期间铁路灾害的原因。

Campbell's idea was straightforward but brilliant.坎贝尔的想法是简单,但辉煌。 A glass sphere would be placed in to a wooden bowl.一个玻璃球会被放在一个木碗。 The sun would burn a trace on the bowl as it the earth circled it - the above is a picture of the original now housed at the Science Museum in London.太阳会灼伤痕迹上的碗,因为它在地球上空盘旋了 - 上面是一个原始图片现住在伦敦科学博物馆内。 It worked and would measure the amount of sunshine in a single day with some accuracy.它的工作措施,并会在与一些准确性一天的日照量。 The downside, obviously, was the number of bowls which would have to be used to collect a significant amount of data – a year's worth for example.缺点很明显,是数碗,将有被用来收集大量的数据 - 一年例如价值。

The genius of simplicity was evolved further.简约的天才是进一步发展。 Stokes went on to refine the design.斯托克斯又继续完善设计。 Instead of having the sphere within a bowl he created metal housing which kept the sphere rigid.而不必在一个碗里球,他创造的金属外壳从而保持刚性球体。 There were now two main parts – the glass sphere and a rounded metal plate placed behind the sphere.现在有两个主要部件 - 玻璃球和一个圆形金属板后面的球体上。 A piece of calibrated heat-sensitive recording paper is then fixed to the curved holder behind the globe.一个校准的热敏记录纸,然后固定在背后的全球弯曲持有人。 The upgrade (as it were) was hugely successful and the Campbell-Stokes Recorder is probably still globally the most used sunshine measuring instrument (or heliograph).升级(因为它是)是巨大的成功,坎贝尔斯托克斯记录很可能还是全球使用最多的阳光测量仪(或日像仪)。

You have probably figured out how it works.你可能已经找到了它的工作原理。 The hours of bright sunshine are recorded by the rays of the sun passing through the sphere, which undergo focus and burn a hole through the card placed behind it.日照记录的时间,通过球体,并且经过了重点和烧透卡背后放置一个洞,通过太阳的光芒。 The card itself is calibrated so that the hours and minutes of the day are measured across it.该卡本身校准,使时间和天分钟穿过它衡量。 At dawn and dusk, however, the sun will usually leave a scorch mark rather than a burn and so the readings at those times of day are somewhat difficult to read at times.在黎明和黄昏,然而,太阳通常会留下烧焦的标志,而不是燃烧,所以在一天的时间读数有些难以阅读倍。

If the sun shone all day there will be an unbroken line across the recording pane.如果太阳照耀着所有每天将有一整个完整的记录窗格线。 If there are sunny phases followed by cloudy then there would be a series of tiny dots and short lines showing when the sun was shining and nothing when the sun was hidden.其次,如果有晴天多云分阶段然后会有一个小点,并显示在阳光明媚,没有太阳时隐短线系列。 The person recording the length of sunshine in a single day would simply add up the length of the burn marks to measure the sunshine.记录的人在一天的日照长度会简单地加起来的烧伤痕迹日照长度来衡量。

The Campbell–Stokes Recorder comes in a variety of sizes, some quite large, but is typically around 4 inches in diameter.坎贝尔斯托克斯记录进来的各种尺寸,一些相当大,但大约是4英寸直径一般。 As the sun moves throughout the season the sphere stays where it is.作为整个赛季太阳的移动球停留在哪里。 Instead, the placement of the cards is changed – there are three overlapping sets of grooves to allow this adjustment.相反,卡位置是改变了 - 有三个重叠设置的沟槽,使此调整。

Noon is placed at the center of each card and it is usually read in tenths.中午是放置在每张卡的中心,通常是在十分之阅读。 The whole set of equipment must face south so that the maximum amount of sunlight may be recorded (north in the southern hemisphere).该成套设备必须朝南,使阳光最高金额可能会被记录(北南半球)。 It must be out of the range of shadow from buildings or foliage as, self evidently, a shadow falling across the sphere would negate the results.它必须是出于从建筑物或树叶的阴影范围内,自显然,一个影子在球会否定的结果下降。

A further modification has been in place since the exploration of the Polar Regions began.另一项修改已实施以来,极地地区的勘探开始。 Here, instead of one sphere there are two.在这里,而不是一个领域,都有两个。 A second, facing north, takes in to account the fact that the sun will remain in the sky for twenty four hours a day.第二,面对北方,需要到帐户的事实,太阳会在天空中仍然二十四小时的一天。

The greatest advantage of the Campbell-Stokes Recorder is that it is incredibly easy to use – a young child properly instructed could record the sunshine from one of these marvellous contraptions.该坎贝尔斯托克斯录像机的最大优点是它非常容易使用 - 一个年轻的孩子适当指示可以记录从这些奇妙的玩意儿之一的阳光。 Plus it is a truly global device – it can be used anywhere in the world.再加上它是一个真正的全球性设备 - 它可以用在世界任何地方。 Relatively inexpensive it also has another major advantage – no moving parts whatsoever.它也有相对便宜的另一大优势 - 没有任何运动部件。 It is one of the most low maintenance pieces of scientific equipment you could hope to come across.它是科学设备的维修件最低档希望你能遇到一个。

There are, however, inevitably downsides.有,但是,不可避免的负面影响。 We have already mentioned the issue at dawn and dusk.我们已经提到在黎明和黄昏的问题。 This means that the recorder is only able to measure bright rather than visible sunshine.这意味着,录音机只能措施,而不是可见的阳光明亮。 A little aqueous precipitation and the card can become bent out of shape, making it difficult to take the day's reading later on.一点点水沉淀和卡可以成为弯曲变形,因此很难采取一天的阅读以后。 The sphere also has to be cleaned and when this is forgotten the readings will inevitably be wrong.球体也必须清洗,当这个被遗忘的读数将不可避免地是错误的。 Finally there are those pesky things in the sky – clouds.最后,还有在天空中那些恼人的东西 - 云。

However, the Campbell-Stokes Recorder remains in use throughout the world.不过,坎贝尔斯托克斯记录保留在世界各地使用。 As well as still displaying the brilliance of its creators it is, in itself, a thing of beauty.以及静态展示了其辉煌的创造者是,本身就是一种美的东西。 And yes, before you ask – you can still buy them, for around US $2,000.是的,在你问 - 你仍然可以购买他们大约2000美元。

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