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2009年人教版高考英语高一重点及]难点归纳总结8

2011-05-29  todayissh...

in  the  extreme极度地, 非常地/in  an extreme 极度地, 非常地/to an extreme极度地, 非常地/to the  extreme 极度地, 非常地/extremes of fortune盛衰荣枯/extreme heat极热/extreme opinions偏激观点

18. climate[5klaimit]n.气候

例:He lives in a cold climate. 他住在寒冷地带。

[记忆技巧]比较记忆法;weather n. 天气,气候,气象,处境

[常用词组]political climate政治风气/arctic climate北极气候/coastal climate海岸气候/economic climate经济形势,经济气候/environmental climate环境气候/investment climate投资环境, 投资气候/mainland climate大陆气候/climate for learning学习风气

19. value [5vAlju:]n.价值, 估价, 评价, 价格, [数]值, 确切涵义//vt.估价, 评价, 重视

例:What is the value of your house?你的房子值多少钱?

In spite of this, many people are confident that 'The Revealer' may reveal something of value fairly soon.

尽管如此,很多人都相信那个`探宝器'很快就能探测到一些有价值的东西。

We never khow the value of water til the well is dry. [谚]井干方知水可贵。

He valued the ring at $80. 他估计这枚戒指值五万元。

He often values himself on [upon]his knowledge. 他时常夸耀自己的知识。

I don't put much value on what he says. 我不重视他所说的话。

[常用词组]good value[口](钱)花得值, 值得买/of no value没有价值的

/poor value[口](钱)花得不值, 不值得(花钱)买/put [set) little value on [upon]对...评价不高; 不怎么重视/put [set] much [a high] value on [upon]

对...给予高度评价; 重视/set a value on估价, 评价/set at no value认为没有价值; 毫不重视/value at估(某物的)价为/value oneself on [upon]

以...自豪; 以...夸耀自己

20. admire[Ed5maiE]v.赞美, 钦佩, 羡慕

例: I admire her for her bravery.我钦佩她的勇气。

We all admired her for the way she saved the children from the fire.

她把孩子们从大火中救出来,我们都钦佩不已。

Everybody admires him for his fine sense of humour.

人人都钦佩他那绝妙的幽默感。

I just admire to get letters, but I don't admire to answer them.

我只是喜欢收到信件,而不喜欢回信。

We all admired at his sudden success.

他的突然成功使我们感到惊讶。

21. [5peni]n. 便士, <美> 分

例:A penny saved is a penny earned.省一文等于挣一文。

I paid a pretty penny for that ring. 我花了一大笔钱买了那个戒指。

Please give me six pennies for this sixpence.

请给我把这个六便士的硬币换成六个一便士的硬币。

She had several coins in her pocket, but no pennies.

她口袋里有几个硬币,但是没有便士。

The penny dropped.目的已达到。话已听明白。

It won't cost penny.它一文钱不值。

22.bother[5bCTE]vt.烦扰, 打扰//vi.烦恼, 操心//n.麻烦, 烦扰

例:Don't bother me while I am taking my nap.

我小睡的时候不要打扰我。

We had a lot of bother finding our way to his house.

我们费了很大劲才找到他的家。

Gardening takes more bother than it's worth.

种花是很费工夫的, 真不值得。

Will it bother you if I turn the television on? 我开电视会不会吵着你?

I'm sorry to bother you, but can you direct me to the railway station?

劳驾,你能不能告诉我到火车站怎么走?

Don't bother about answering his letter.

你不必回复他的信。

We had a lot of bother in repairing the press machine.

修理这台印刷机费了很大劲。

[常用词组]bother (oneself) about (=bother one's head about)

为...而操心; 为...而费事

fame[feim]n.名声, 名望//vt.(常用被动语态)使闻名;传扬……的名

例:The reformer's fame spread all over the country. 这位改革者名震全国。The city is famed for its scenic spots. 该市以风景优美著称。

[常用词组]be famed for/以...出名/come to fame成名/ill fame丑名, 恶名

/undying fame不朽之名/peal sb.'s fame鼓吹某人的声誉

24. skip[skip]v.跳, 蹦, 急速改变, 跳读, 遗漏, 跳跃/n.跳跃

例:A newspaper reader can select what he is interested in and skip what he thinks is boring or irrelevant.

"报纸读者可以选择自己感兴趣的新闻,略过自己认为是枯燥的或无关的消息。"

He build up a big load of debts, then skipped town with all his merchandise. 他债台高筑,带着所有的货物匆匆离镇而去。

We skipped science class again. 我们又一次逃了自然科学课。

25. primary[5praimEri] adj. 第一位的, 主要的, 初步的, 初级的, 原来的, 根源的

例:A primary school is the first school you go to. 小学是你上的第一个学校。

[记忆技巧]比较记忆法:secondary adj.  次要的,二级的,中级的,第二的

26. hardship[5hB:d7Fip] n.困苦, 艰难, 辛苦

例:One of the worst hardships is having so little time to spend one's family. 花很少的时间在家庭里是最困难的事情之一。

[记忆技巧]比较记忆法:friendship 友谊;leadership 领导

27. scholarship [5skClEFip]n.奖学金, 学问, 学识

例:For a few, scholarships were sources of support.

有少数人,奖学金是他们接受教育的学费来源。

三、易混易错词语辨析

1. 辨析 alone 与 lonely:

alone 既可用作副词,也可作形容词,其意义为“单独,独自”。如:

He works (lives) alone. 他独自一人工作(单独居住)。

The house stands alone on the hill. 那房子独立在山上。

I was alone in the house. 我一人在屋里。

He lives on tea and cake when he is alone. 他一个人时常就吃点饼干,喝点茶。

alone 做副词用还有“只有;仅仅”的意思,相当于。如:

You can't live on bread alone. 你不能只吃面包,这样难以生活。

Time alone will show who was right. 只有时间才会证明谁是对的。

lonely 虽然是副词的形式,但只能做形容词用。指人时。意为“单独,独自”;指地方时,为“无人居住的,荒唐的”。如:

With all this friends away from him, he feels lonely. 他远离朋友们,感到很感伤。

Was there someone else on this lonely island? 这荒凉的岛上还有其他的人吗?

He lives alone but he doesn't feel lonely. 他独自一人生活,电脑他并不感到孤独。

2. 辨析 miserable, dismal, sorry, unhappy 与 wrethed:

意义都含“极不幸的”、“忧郁的”、“难过的”、“悲惨“。miserable指由于贫困、屈辱、愤怒或不幸等而引起内心极端痛苦的”,如:

the miserable life of the poor in the past. 过去穷人的悲惨生活。

dismal指“忧郁的”、“忧愁的”、“不愉快的”,如:

He felt dismal after reading  piece of bad news in the newspaper. 他读了报上的一条不好的消息后心情忧郁。

sorry指“心情不愉快的”、“难过的”或“遗憾的”,如:

I felt deeply sorry for him. 我为他深感难过。

unhappy指“心情不愉快的”、“难过的”或“遗憾的”、如:

He was unhappy when alone. 他独自一人时感到不快活。

wretched 指“由于受伤、疾病、愤怒等外表上显得极端沮丧、失望或可怜的”、“不幸的”、如:

What a wretched existence these people lead in the slums! 住在贫民窟里的这些人生活多可怜呀!

3. 辨析 threaten 与 menace:

都含“威胁”、“恐吓”的意思。threaten指“扬言将以伤害或惩罚迫使某人去做(或不做)某事”,menace强调“以态度或动作等表示将要迫害某人”。如:

I was threatened with a beating if I didn't obey.

They menaced her with a whip.

A man who drives fast is a menace to other people.

A tone of menace entered into the man's voice.

4. 辨析 cheerful, glad, happy 与 joyful:

这四个词都有“快乐”的意思。cheerful 作“愉快”解,常指乐观天性的自然流露,包括在不利的情况下保持愉快的心情。例如:

He always books cheerful even in defeat. 他总是高高兴兴的,即使输了也是如此。

glad 表示由于某一特定的事物或原因而“快乐”、“高兴”,一般只作表语。

I am glad to have this opportunity to speak here.我很高兴有此机会在此讲话。

happy 本意是“幸福的”,但也可泛指一般的:“快乐”,如:

We are leading a happy life. 我们过着幸福的生活。

joyful 意为“兴高采烈”或“令人欢欣”,如:

Let us sing some songs to celebrate this joyful occasion. 让我们唱歌来庆祝这令人欢乐的节日吧。

注意:glad 和 happy 后可连用不定式,而 cheerful 和 joyful 后面不用不定式。

 

Unit18 New Zealand

一、课文背景知识

“新西兰人分别来自许多不同的文化背景,同时以热情和友善而享誉国际,美丽的田园、清洁的环境、健康的生活方式以及多元文化社区使新西兰成为来自世界各地移民的理想国家。”

这既是广告词,更是新西兰的真实写照。1997年,在一项对全球高级管理人员进行的调查中,新西兰的奥克兰市在最喜欢居住的城市中名列第二;一项由全球最大的人力资源公司william M. Mercer 进行的全球生活素质最佳城市的研究报告中指出,新西兰的奥克兰市的生活素质排名全球第五,与悉尼、日内瓦、哥本哈根等齐名;另外,由加拿大 Fraser Institute 研究所、美国和新加坡并列为全球最自由的经济体,而新西兰则紧随其后,名列第二,第三到第十位分别是:美国、英国、爱尔兰、加拿大、澳大利亚、荷兰、卢森堡及瑞士。

新西兰很接近国际日界线,北岛的岛屿和镇,是全球、最先迎接新一天来到的地方。新西兰是南太平洋上一个景色如画的岛国,形状很象一只倒悬的长筒高根皮靴,距澳大利亚1600公里,新西兰主要由北岛和南岛组成,库克海峡将两岛分开,还有许多较小的岛屿,陆地总面积为270,500平方公里,面积大小与日本及英国相仿,但人口密度远低于后者。由于新西兰的大部分出口产品是农产品,人们通常认为新西兰是一个农业国家,实际上新西兰是一个高度城市化的国家,百分之八十五的人口生活在城镇里,大多数人就业在工业、商业或服务业。

新西兰拥有着许多令人激动的自然景观,从冰川到雨林,从峡湾到温泉,从火山到峡谷,从南阿尔卑斯山动人的景观到岛屿湾美丽的海岸线,更让人惊奇的是,将近三分之一的新西兰国土是国家公园或自然保护区,新西兰被誉为世界上最后一处“天堂”。

关于历史,波利尼夕亚定居者约在公元十世纪最先来到新西兰(毛利过名为“长白云之乡)。到公元十二世纪,全国受青睐的地区已分布了许多定居点:1642年,荷兰航海家阿贝尔.塔斯曼发现了长白云之乡,并以荷兰一个地区的名字命名这块土地为,他绘制了部分西海岸的区的地图,但并未在此登陆;1769年,英国海军舰长詹姆斯.库克及船员成为首先踏足新西兰土地的欧洲人,随后,捕捞海报和鲸鱼的人们也来到这里,新西兰的国家标志是不会飞的土生“几维鸟”,有时“几维”被用作新西兰的同义语。

新西兰最大的非欧洲人社团是本地的毛利人——新西兰最早的定居者和开拓者,毛利人是1000多年以前最早在新西兰定居的人,他们又叫做“塔加塔.胡奴阿”,即“大地之民”,欧洲人大约在1769年以后移居到此,毛利人的文化、艺术和传统是新西兰遗产中的重要部分。新西兰的教育体制被视为世界上最好的教育体制之一,他们通过学校、大学、技工学院和其他教育机构提供高质量教育,新西兰的教育体系源于英国的传统教育体制,全国实行同意的教育体系,教育经费开支占政府开支第三位。

二、疑难详解

1. It is made up of two large islands: North Island and South Island.这个国家是由两座大岛组成的;北岛和男岛。

[问]be made up of 和be made of (from)有何区别?

[答]be made up of 意为“由……组成”,表示由若干部分组成一个新的整体,be made of/from 意为“由……制成”,如:

Could are made up of water. 云是水构成的。

Desk are made of wood. 课桌是木制的。

be made into 意为“被制成……”如:

Some plants can be made into paper. 有些植物可以被制成纸张。

2. New Zealand is surrouded by the Pacific Ocean to the north and east , and the Tasman Sea to the south and west. 新西兰以北和以东由太平洋环绕,南面和西面是塔斯马海,

[问]表示方位的介词常用的有哪些?[答]介词to,to,in常用来表示地理方位,注意学会和掌握她们的用法。

a. A地位于B地境内以东(南、西、北):A lies/is in the east /south /west/north of B.

Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国的东部。(在中国境内)

b. A地位于B地境内以东(南、西、北): A lies /is in the east /south /west/north of B.

Britain is to the east of Ireland . 不列颠位于爱尔兰的东面,(不在同一境内)

c. A地与B地的东(南、西、北)部接壤:A lies/is on the east/south /west /north of B.

Wales lies to the west of England. 威尔士位于英格兰的西边。(两者相邻)

另外, lie on 还可表示“位于……之畔”。如:

Wuhan lies on the Changjiang River. 武汉坐落在长江之畔。

3. Other important cities are Auckland in the north ,Christ-church on the South Island and Queenstown, further in the south. 其他重要城市有北方的奥克兰, 南岛的克赖斯特彻奇和远在南方的昆士城。

[问]句中的further作何理解?它与farther有何区别?

[答]further在此用作副词,修饰介词短语 in the south, 表示“远在南方,深入南方内陆”, 又如:

Can you walk further into the forest? 你能再往森林深处走走吗?

farther 和further都是far 的比较级,可用作形容词或副词,都可以指空间或时间上的距离,意为”更远的(地)”,但farther比further更普遍些,如:

On the  farther/further side of the street there was a large shop

在街道的那一头有一家商店。

further还可以用于抽象意义,表示“进一步”,这时不能用farther, 如:

They want to get further information. 他们想得到进一步的信息。

4.  The North Island is famous for an area of hot springs, some of which throw hot water high into the air.北岛以温泉而著称,有些温泉将热水喷射到很高的空中。

[问]句中的some of which 是什么结构?

[答]some of which 是“代词(或名词)+介词 + 关系代词”在句中引导非限制性定语从句。当先行词为人时,关系嗲次用whom,当先行词为物时,关系代词用which,注意介词后不能用that。又如:

Here are a lot of stones, must of which will be used to build a bridge. 这儿有许多石头,其中多数将用来建桥。

There are about 100 teachers in our school, many of whom are women. 我们学校约有100名教师,其中许多是妇女。

5. Some of these heat near the earth's surface is used to make electricity. 接近地球表面的有些热能被用来发电。

[问]be used to do sth. 和be used to doing sth 有什么区别?

[答]be used to do sth 意为“……被用来做某事”,  其中to do sth. 是动词不定式作目的状语,如:

This piece of wood is used to keep rain water.   这块木版是用来挡雨水的。

Grass can be used to make paper. 草可以用来造纸。

 而be used to doing sth. 是“习惯于……”的意思,其中to 是介词,后接名词或动词ing形式,它是个表示状态的词组,若要表示由不习惯到习惯这一变化的动作,则换为get/become used to。这个结构可用于各种时态。例如:

Soon you will get/become used to living  in the countrey. 很快你就会习惯于乡村生活了。

I was not used to being called a lazy fellow. 我原来不习惯于人家称我为懒汉。

另外还要注意:在used to do sth 结构中, used to 是情态动词,表示过去常常做某事,侧重于和现在对照,意思是“过去常常……(但现在不)”,可以谈动作,也可以谈状态。例如:

They used to mod to each other when they met. 他们过去遇到时,总是彼此点点头。

因此,不要将实义动词use与used to 及be used to 混淆。试比较:

Coal is used to cook food. 煤用来生火做饭。 (实义动词,不定式为目的状语)

She is used to cooking food with coal. 她习惯于用煤生火做饭。

She used to cook food with coal.  她过去总是用煤生火做饭。

6. When they discovered it about 1000 years ago, they called it Ao-tea-roa, which means "land of the long white cloud". 大约1000 年前他们发现这里时, 他们称这里为Ao-tea-roa, 意思  “长白山之乡”。

[问]还有哪些动词像call一样后接名词或形容词做宾补?

[答]由“宾语+名词(作宾补)”这种结构一般是用在及物动词后面,常见的有:make, call, elet, consider, choose, name等,例如:

We elected Alice our monitor. 我们推选爱丽丝当班长。

She named her daughter Mary. 她给女儿取名为玛丽。

They called the baby Helen after their beloved teacher. 他们以他们敬爱的老师的名字海伦为他们的婴儿命名。

They called that an honor to their collective.  他们认为那是他们集体的光荣。

More than 125 years later, Canptain James Cook took possession of the island in 1769and from that time British people started to settle i nNew Zealand. 125多年以后,詹姆斯库克船长于1769年占领了这些岛屿,从此英国人开始在新西兰定居。

[问]take possession of 是什么意思?

[答]take possession of  意为“夺取,占有”等。例如:

At night they crossed the river and took possession of the village by surprise.  他们晚上渡河,突然夺取了那个村子。

The old couple took possession of the house about 20 years ago. 那对老年夫妻大约在20年前就拥有了那所房子。

By 1840 about 2000 Europeans, mainly British, had come to settle in New Zealand and the Maori signed an agreement with these settlers.

到1840年,大约有2000欧洲人,主要是英国人,来到新西兰定居,毛利人与这些定居者签订了一个协定。

[问]此句中的介词by是什么意思?

[答]by 在此表示“到(某时)为止”或“到某时”已发生某事或出现某种情况,谓语动词多用完成时态。句中的1840是过去时间,因此谓语动词用过去完成时had come, 又如:

By the end of last year we had produced 3000 computers. 到去年年底为止我们已生产出3000台电脑。

She had finished her work by the time I came home. 我回家时他已干完活了。

By next week we will have made a plan for our journey. 下周前我们会订出旅行计划。

9. Since the mid-1980s growing numbers of Asians have settled in New Zealand, and they make up about 6% of the total population. 自从80年代中期以来,定居在新西兰的亚洲人数不断增加,他们占新西兰总人口的6%。

[问]怎么理解growing numbers?  句中的make up 是何意?

[答]growing numbers 意为“不断增加的(人口)数量”,-ing作定语常表示正在进行的动词或正在变化的过程,又如:

a moving car 行驶的汽车;developing countries 发展中国家; a running machine 运转的机器。

句中的make up 意为“组成、构成”, 与make搭配的短语还有:make up  for 补偿,弥补;make up to接近,巴结;追求(某人);make up of 由……组成;make out of 用……制造出……,理解,了解;make known 使知晓;传达,等。

10. The happier events are marked with speeches, singing and dancing. 比较欢乐的活动则常有演讲、载歌载舞等活动。

[问]be marked with 是何意思?

[答]be marked with意为“标有……的记号”,如:

The paper was marked with my father's name and with the month and the year.试卷上标有我父亲的名字及年月时间。

Please mark the place on the map. 请在地图上标明位置。

[辨析]mark... with...意为“用……在……做记号”, mark sth. on =make a mark on sth. 意为“在……上做记号”。

He marked his dictionary with number. 他在词典上标上了序号。

Who made these dirty marks on my new shirt? 是谁把我的新衬衫弄脏了?

11. Many people will sleep and eat on the marae during these three days and share their memorites of the dead person.   这三天里许多人吃、睡都在麦利会堂,共同悼念亡人。

[问]句中的动词share怎么理解?

[答]share在此作及物动词,意为“分享、分担、共同具有”等,例如;

True friends must share everything. 好朋友必须分享一切。

Three boys shared a big cake. 三个孩子分吃了一个大面包。

The brothers shared the same tastes and interests. 兄弟俩有着相同的爱好和兴趣。

He shared his story with us.他给我们讲述了他的经历。

12. New Zealand is an important agricultural country, with cattle farming on the North Island, while the hilly South Island has more sheep farms. 新西兰是个重要的农业国,北岛有牛场,而多山的南岛则有更多的羊场。

[问]"with + 复合宾语”的构成及其在句中的作用是什么?

[答]“with +宾语”之后可接介词、名词、形容词、副词、动词不定式、-ing形式或过去分词等作宾补,一起构成复合宾语,例如:

There were rows of white houses with trees in front of them.这儿有一排排白色的房子,房前长着树木。

He left home with his wife a hopeless soul. 他舍家而去,撇下了绝望的妻子。

She always sleeps with the window open. 她总是开着窗户睡觉。

He was working there with only a shirt on. 他只穿着一件衬衣在那里干活。

With all this work to do, I don't know if I'll have time to go out.有这么多工作要做,我不知道我是否哟时间出去。

With so many people working, what is the family income?

这么多人干活,全家有多少收入呢?

He stood for an instant with hsi hand still raised.他仍然举着手站了一会儿。

"with+复合宾语”在句中主要作状语,表示原因、条件、方式、伴随状况等,同时还可用作定语,相当于一个定语从句。如:

With the food run out, the man had to come out of his hiding place. 东西吃完了,那人不得不走出躲藏处。(状语)

The old man sat in his chair, with a pipe in his hand. 那的老人坐在椅子上,手里拿着一个烟斗。(状语)

She saw a brook with red fowersand green grass on both sides.  她看到了一条小溪,两岸长着红花绿草。(定语)

A little boy wiht two of his front teeth missing ran into the dining room. 一个缺了两颗门牙的小男孩跑进了餐厅。(定语)

13. Some farmers have turned to keeping deer, and there are now about 4500 deer farms in the country. 有些农场主已转而养鹿了,这个国家现有大约4500个养鹿场。

[问]此句中turn to 作何理解?

[答]短语动词turn to 意为“转到”、“把……转向”,需要注意是是to为介词,后接名词、代词或动词的-ing形式,如:

Our talk soon turn to the development of industry. 我们的谈话很快就转到工业的发展上来了。

Soon after he became a doctor, he turned to teaching. 他当医生之后不久改行从事教学工作。

There was no one in the dark atreets for him to turn to for help. 黑暗的街上没一个人他可以寻求帮助。

与turn连用的短语还有许多,如:turn down减弱,降低,压低(力量、声音等) ;拒绝,不接受;turn in 把...上交(给)......,归还;turn on打开(煤气、自来水、电灯等);turn up 出现,来临,露面;把声音开大;把力量加大;turn away把…打发走;转过脸去;turn out 结果;结果是;turn over翻转;考虑 ;turn back 转回去,往回走;turn against 背叛;等等。

14. New Zealand wine is of high quality and is sold all over the world. 新西兰的葡萄酒质量高,销往世界各地。

[问]怎么理解of high quality 这类结构?

[答]"of high quality"这类“of +(adj.) + n. "结构常用来描写人或事物的特征,在句中可以作表语(如本句),也可以作定语。例如:The work The work I am doing is of much importance. 我正在做的事是非常重要的。(作表语)

Both of them are of middle height. 他们两个人都是中等个儿。(作表语)

This is an example of great success. 这是一个成功的典范。 (作定语)

I won't give you anything of little value. 不值钱的东西我就不给你了。(作定语)

15. In summer, people like to go sailing, swimming, horse-riding, and rock-climbing in the mountains. 夏天,人们喜欢去航海、游泳、骑马和去山里攀登岩壁。

[问]句中的go sailing 是什么结构?

[答]go sailing 属于go + doing的结构,作“去干某事”解,多指从事与体育、娱乐有关的活动,如:

go boating 去划船;go fishing  去钓鱼;go climbing 去登山;go swimming 去游泳;go shoping 去射击;go camping 去野营;go cycling 去骑车;go dancing 去跳舞;go hunting 去打猎;go shopping 去购物;go walking 去散步;go farming  去务农;go skating 去滑冰等。

三、本单元高考热点归纳与拓展

[概述]

1.重点单词和词组:

spring, heat,surface,mainly,take possession of,percent,make up,sign,agreement,refer to,wedding,conference,relaion,agriculture,cattle,export,go sailing seaside,region 等。

2.重点语法:

本单元的语法重点是学习的用法,先简要归纳如下:

(1) it 不仅可以用来代替前面提到过的事物,也可用来指人,例如:

I threw the ball to him and he caught it. 我把球传给他,他接住了。

it 指人时,用于中性词,当不清楚对方的性别或指婴儿是,就用 it 来代替。

(2) 在问题的答语中,用 it 来代替 this 或 that。如:

——"What's this?" ——"It's a computer."

——这是什么?——是一台电脑。

(3) it 可作为无人称代词使用,表示时间、天气、距离、度量等。

What a lovely day it is today! 今天天气真好!

(4) it 可用作形式主语,代替用作主语的不定式、-ing 形式后 that 从句,将真正主语放于句后,如:

It seems that he knows nothing about it. 他似乎对此一无所知。

(5) it 可用作形式宾语,当宾语是不定式、-ing 形式或 that 从句,并且跟有宾补时,必须用,来充当形式宾语,真正的宾语后置。

He found it difficult to work out this problem. 他发现很难算出这道题。

(6) it 可用于强调结构中,与 that、who 配搭;被强调的部分无论是单数还是复述,句子的谓语都应用单数形式。如:

It was we that (who) saw a new English film yesterday. 昨天是我们看了一场英语电影。

[经典解析]

例:1. The Parkers bought a new house but _____ will need a lot of work before they can move in.

    A. they    B. it    C. one     D. which

简析:本题考查 it 的替代用法。代词 it 用来替代可数名词 a new house,故答案为B。

[高考透视]可用来替代前面提到过的同一事物,one 也可替代上文中出现过的单数可数名词,它既可指人,又可指物,但强调数量上的“一个”。

例:2. With a lot of difficult problems _____, the newly elected president is having a hard time.

    A. settled    B. setting    C. to settle    D. being settled

简析:本题考查“with+复合宾语”的用法。“由于有很多有待解决的难题……”,应用一个表示被动的过去分词作宾补,故答案为A。

[高考透视]“ with+复合宾语”这一结构可在句中做状语或定语。作宾补用的过去分词强调宾语和宾补之间的被动关系,-ing 形式强调主动关系,不定式强调将来的动作,而形容词或副词、介词短语等表示宾语所处的状态。

例:3. _____ production up by 60%, the company had another excellent year.

    A. As    B. For    C. With    D. Through

简析:with 短语表示伴随,作状语。答案选C。

例:4. The mother didn't know ______ to blame for the broken glass as it happened while she was out.

    A. who    B. when    C. how    D. what

简析:本题考查“疑问次+动词不定式”在句中的用法。“妈妈不知道谁该受责备”,答案为A。

[高考透视]动词不定式与 who, what, when, where, how, which 等连用,字句中可充当主语、宾语、表语、宾补等。

例:5. —You haven't said a word about my new coat. Brenda. Do you like it?

       —I'm sorry I _____ anything about it sooner. I certainly think it's pretty on you.

    A. wasn't saying    B. don't say    C. won't say    D. didn't say

简析;本题考查动词的时态。“我当时没有说什么话”在此只是陈述过去的一件事实,并对过去的事情表示道歉,故用一般过去时。答案为D。

[高考透视]近几年的高考试题在设计上都力求给考生一个完整的语言环境,考生必须对语言环境以及其内在连词把握得准确、透彻。

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