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初一至初三全程英语知识点总结及练习(初二)

2011-06-15  寂寞守望

初二年级(上)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

 

1. on time

2. best wishes

3. give a talk

4. for example

5. short for

6. a waste of time

7. go on a field trip

8. go fishing

9. I agree

10. next week

11. the day after tomorrow

12. have a picnic

13. have some problems doing sth.

14. go the wrong way

15. hurry up

16. get together

17. in the open air

18. on Mid-Autumn Day

19. come over

20. have to

21. get home

22. agree with

23. in the country

24. in town

25. all the same

26. in front of

27. on the left/right side

28. next to

29. up and down

30. keep healthy

31. grow up

32. at the same time

33. the day before yesterday

35. last Saturday

36. half an hour ago

37. a moment ago

38. just now

39. by the way

40. all the time

41. at first

 

II. 重要句型

 

1. have fun doing sth.

2. Why don’t you…?

3. We’re going to do sth.

4. start with sth.

5. Why not…?

6. Are you going to…?

7. be friendly to sb.

8. You’d better do sth.

9. ask sb. for sth.

10. say goodbye to sb.

11. Good luck(with sb)!

 

III. 交际用语

 

1.Welcome backto school!

2.Excuse me. I’m sorry I’m late, because the traffic is bad. 

3.It doesn’t matter.

4.Happy Teachers’ Day !

5.That’s a good idea.

6.What are you going to do

7.Where are we going ?

8.What are we going to do ?

9.I’m good at…

10.It’s not far from…

11. Are you free tomorrow evening?

12.Would you and Lily like to come over to my home for Mid-Autumn Festival?

13.I’m glad you can come.

14.Thanks for asking us.

15.How about another one?

16.May I have a taste?

17.Let me walk with you.

18.What do you have to do?

19.Do you live on a farm?

20.Which do you like better, the city or the country?

21.Which do you like best, dogs, cats or chickens?

22.Shall we go at ten? Good idea!

23.---Let’s make it half past one. ---OK.

24.---Why not come a little earlier? ---All right.

25.Excuse me. Where’s the nearest post office, please?

26.It’s over there on the right.

27.I’m sorry I don’t know.

28.You’d better…

29.Thank you all the same.

30.Which bus do I take?

31.Go along this road.

32.What day was it yesterday?

33.I’m sorry to hear that.

34.I hope you’re better now.

35.Why did you call me?

36.I called to tell…

 

IV. 重要语法

1.be going to的用法;

2.形容词的比较级、最高级;

3.形容词和副词的比较

4.一般过去时

【名师讲解】

1. on the street / in the street

表示“在街上”时,on the street in the street 都可以,在美国多用on the street, 在英国多用in the street. 例如:We have a house in the street. 我们在街上有座房子。I met him on the street. 我在街上遇见了他。

2. would like / like

would like like含义不同。like 意思是“喜欢”,“爱好”,而 would like 意思是“想要”。试比较: I like beer.=Im fond of beer.  我喜欢喝啤酒。Id like a glass of beer= I want a glass of beer. 我想要一杯啤酒。Do you like going to the cinema?  你喜欢看电影吗?Would you like to go to the cinema tonight?  你今晚想去看电影吗?

3. another / the other

(1)another 通常用于三个或三个以上或不确定数量中的任意一个人或 物体。 例如:

May I have another apple, please? 请在给我一个苹果好吗?

This coat is too small for me. Please show me another这件外套我穿太小,请再给我拿一件看看。

(2)the other 通常指两者中的另一个。例如:

He has two rulers. One is short. The other is long. 他有两把尺子,一把短的,另一把长的。 I have two brothers. One works in Xian . The other works in Beijing. 我有两个兄弟,一个在西安工作,另一个在北京工作。

4. have to /must

(1)have to must 都可以用来谈论义务,但用法略有不同。如果某人主观上觉得必须去做而又想去时,常用must。如果谈论某种来自“外界”的义务,常用have to。例如:I must stop smoking. 我必须戒烟。(自己想戒烟)They have to work for the boss.他们不得不为那个老板工作。(条件逼得他们去工作)

(2)have to 可用于多种时态,must 只能用于一般现在时。例如:

Ill have to get up early tomorrow morning.明天早晨我必须早早起床。We had to work long hours every day in order to get more money.为了多挣钱,我们不得不每天长时间地工作。

(3)用于否定句时,mustnt意思是“决不能”,“禁止”,而dont have to意思是“不必”,相当于neednt。例如:You mustnt be late again next time.下一次你决不能再迟到。You dont have to go there today. You can go there tomorrow.你今天不必到那里去了。你可以明天去。

5. hear sb. or sth.doing sth. / herar sb. or sth. do sth.

hear sb. or sth.doing sth.意思是“听到某人或某物在做某事”,而hear sb. or sth. do sth.意思“听到某人或某物做过某事”。试比较:I hear him singing an English song.听见他在唱英歌曲。

I heard him sing an English song.我听见他唱一首英文歌。

类似hear 这种用法的还有see, watch, listen, feel等感官动词。

6. any /some

anysome 都可以同不可数名词和可数名词的复数形式连用,但some一般用在肯定句中;any用在疑问句和否定句中。试比较:I want some money. 我想要点钱。Have you any money? 你有钱吗?I dont have any money. 我一点钱也没有。

some 有时也用于疑问句,表示说话人期待一个肯定回答或鼓励人家说“是”。例如:

Would you like some more beer?请你再来点啤酒好吗?

Could I have some rice, please?请给我来点米饭好吗?

7. hear /listen to

listen to hear 都有“听”的意思,但含义有所不同。Listen to强调“听”的动作,hear 强调“听”的结果。例如:Listen to me ,please! Im going to tell you a story. 请听我说!我给你们讲个故事。

Listen! Can you hear someone crying in the next room? 听!你能听见有人在隔壁房间里哭吗?

I listened, but heard nothing.我听了听,但什么也听不见。

hear 后面如果接宾语从句,常常表示“听说”。例如:

I hear some foreign students will visit our school.我听说一些外国学生将要访问我们学校。

I hear there is going to be a film in our school this evening.我听说今晚我们学校要演一场电影。             

8. Let’s… /Let us…

Lets Let us 都表示“让我们……”, 如果us 包括听话人在内,其含义相同,附带问句用shall we. 如果us 不包括听话人在内,其含义不同,Let us…的附带问句要用will you。例如:Lets go shopping, shall we? 我们去购物好吗?

9. take/ bring/ carry /get

这四个动词都有“拿”和“带”的意思,但含义有所不同。take意为“带走”,“拿走”,bring意为“带来”,“拿来”, get表示“到别的地方把某人或某物带来或拿来”,carry不强调方向,带有负重的意思。试比较:

My parents often take me there on holidays.我父母常常带我到那里去度假。

Im going to take you to Beijing.我准备带你去北京。Bring me a cup of tea, please.请给我端杯茶来。

Ill bring the book to you tomorrow.明天我把那本书给你带来。The waiter carried the me to the table服务员把肉送到桌上。The monkey carried the bag on her back.猴子把那个包背在背上。She went back to get her handbag.他折回去拿他的手提包。Let me get the doctor.让我去请医生吧。    

10. far away /faraway

(1)far away是一个副词短语,意思是“很远”。例如:Some are far away. Some are nearer.有些离得很远,有些离得近一些的。The village is far away from here.那个村子离这儿很远。

(2)faraway是一个形容词,意思是“遥远的”,可以在句中作定语。例如:

He lives in faraway mountain village.他住在一个遥远的小山村。

11. find / look for

findlook for 都有“找”的意思,但含义不同。find 强调“找”的结果,而look for 强调“找”的过程。请看下列例句:He is looking for his bike.他在找他的自行车。Im looking for my watch, but cant find it.我在找我的手表,但是找不到。I hope you will soon find your lost ring.希望你尽快找到丢失的戒指。

另外,find还有“发现”;“感到”等意思。例如:I found a wallet in the desk.我在课桌里发现了一个钱包。

I find this book very interesting.我觉得这本书很有意思。

12. in front of /in the front of

In front of 表示在某物的前面,不在某物的范围内。In the front of 表示在某物的前部,在某物的范围内。试比较:My seat is in front of Marys.我的座位在玛丽座位的前面。

He is sitting in the front of the car with the driver.他和司机坐在小车的前部。

【考点扫描】

 

1. be going to的用法;

2. 形容词的比较级、最高级;

3. 形容词和副词的比较

4. 一般过去时

5. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;

6. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。

 

【中考范例】

1. (2004年烟台市中考试题)

  In the exam, the ________ you are, the ________ mistakes you’ll make.

  A. carefully, little  B. more carefully, fewest  C. more careful, fewer  D. more careful, less

【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是形容词和副词的比较以及他们的比较等级的用法。第一个空应填形容词careful的比较级,因为它在句中作表语,第二个空应填few的比较级,因为它修饰的是复数可数名词。

2. (2004年河北省中考试题)

  Bob never does his homework _________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes.

  A. so careful  B. as carefully as  C. carefully  D. as careful as

【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是形容词和副词的用法比较。该空应填副词,因为它修饰的是动词does。该题用的是not as+副词+as的结构,所以答案应是B

3. (2004年重庆市中考试题)

  That day I saw some parents _________ at the back of the classroom, ________ to the teacher.

  A. sitting, listened   B. sat, listened C. sitting, listening   D. sat, listening

【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是see sb. doing sth.的句型结构和分词作状语的用法。第一个空stting在句中作saw的宾语补足语,第二个空listening做伴随状语。

4. (2004年杭州市中考试题)

  You ________ open the door before the train gets into the station.

  A. don’t have to  B. mustn’t  C. needn’t  D. may not

【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是几个情态动词否定式的用法区别。dont have toneednt的意思都是“不必”,may not的意思是“可以不”,只有mustnt表示“不许”,“禁止”。

初二年级(中)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

 

1. give a concert

2. fall down

3. go on

4. at the end of

5. go back

6. in ahurry

7. write down

8. come out

9. all the year round

10. later on      

11. at times

12. ring sb. up

13. Happy New Year!

14. have a party

15. hold on

16. hear from

17. be ready

18. at the moment

19. take out 

20.the same as

21. turn over

22. get-together

23. put on

24. take a seat

25. wait for

26. get lost

27. just then

28. first of all

29. go wrong

30. make a noise

31. get on

32. get off

33. stand in line

34. at the head of

35. laugh at

36. throw about

37. in fact

38. at midnight

39. enjoy oneself

40. have a headache

41. have a cough

42. fall asleep

43. again and again

44. look over

45. take exercise

 

II. 重要句型

 

1. be good for sth.

2. I think …

3. I hope…

4. I love…

5. I don’t like…

6. I’m sure…

7. forget to do sth.

8. take a message for sb.

9. give sb. the message

10. help yourself to sth.

11. be famous for sth.

12. on one’s way to…

13. make one’s way to…

14. quarrel with sb.

15. agree with sb.

16. stop sb. from doing sth.

 

III. 交际用语

 

1.What’s the weather like today?

2.It’s cold, but quite suuny.

3.How cold it is today!

4.Yes, but it’ll be warmer later on.

5.Shall we make a snowman?

6.Ok. Come on!

7.Happy New Year!

8.May I speak to Ann, please?

9.Hold on, please.

10.Thanks a lot for inviting me to your party.

11.Ok. But I’m afraid I may be a little late.

12.Can I take a message for you?

13.That’s OK. It doesn’t matter.

14.I’m very sorry, but I can’t come.

15.I’m sorry to hear that.

16.Happy birthday!

17.Would you like ...? Would you like to ...?

18.Do you think ...? Yes, I think so. / No, I don't think so.

19.Do you agree? Yes, I agree. / No, don't really agree. I really can't agree.

20.There are a few / a lot of ... / on it.

21.So do we.

22.I'm happy you like it.

23.Which is the way to ..., please?

24.Turn right/left at the ... crossing.

25.Go on until you reach ...

26.How can I get to ...? Go down/up/along this road.

27.What's the matter?

28.It'll take you half an hour to ...

29.We'd better catch a bus.

30.It may be in ... Ah, so it is

31.You must be more careful!

32.You mustn't cross the road now.

33.If you want to cross a street, you must wait for the green light.

34.Please stand in line.

35.You must wait for your turn.

36.If you don't go soon, you'll be late.

37.I don't feel very well.

38.My head hurts.

39.You mustn't eat anything until you see the doctor.

40.What's the trouble?

41.What's the matter with…?

42.She didn't feel like eating anything.

43.Nothing serious.

44.Have/get a pain in…

45.No problem.

46.Take this medicine three times a day.

 

IV. 重要语法

 

1. 一般过去时;

2. 反意疑问句的用法;

3. 一般将来时;

4. 感叹句;

5. 简单句的五种基本句型;

6. 情态动词can, maymust, have to的用法;

7. 时间状语从句和条件状语从句。

 

【名师讲解】

1. above/ over/ on

这三个介词都表示“在……之上”,但含义不同。on指在某物的表面上,和某物接触;above指在某物的上方,不和某物接触,但也不一定在某物的正上方;over指在某物的正上方,不和某物接触。试比较:There is a book on the desk.课桌上有一本书。

I raise my right hand above my head. 我把右手高举过头。

There is a stone bridge over the river. 河面上有座石桥。

2. forget to do sth./forget doing sth.

forget to do sth.意思是“忘记做某事”,实际上还没做;forget doing sth,意思是“忘记做过某事”,实际上已经做过了。试比较:I forgot to tell him the news.我忘记告诉他这条消息了。

I forgot telling him the news.我已经把这条消息告诉他了,我却忘了。

类似的词还有:remember, regret等。

3. hope/wish

hopewish 在汉语中都有“希望”的意思,但其含义和用法有所不同。主要区别如下:

(1)wish可以用来表示不可实现的愿望;hope只能用来表示可能实现的愿望。例如:

I wish I were 20 years younger.我但愿自己能年轻二十岁。

I hope youll be better soon. 我希望你能很快好起来。

I wish the weather wasnt so cold. 但愿天气不这麽冷。

I hope he will come, too. 我希望他也能来。

(2)wish可以接sb. to do sth. 的结构,而hope不可以。例如:

Do you wish me to come back later?  你是否希望我再来?

4. be sure to do sth./ be sure of/about sb. or sth.

(1)be sure to do sth.可以用来表示说话人给对方提出要求,意思是“务必”,也可以用来表示说话人做出的推断,意思是“一定”,“肯定”。例如:

Be sure to lock the door when you leave.你离开时务必把门锁好。

Its a good film. You are sure to enjoy it.这是一部好电影,你肯定会喜欢的。

(2)be sure of/about sb.or sth.  可用来表示“某人对某事有把握”。例如:

Im sure of his success.我相信他会成功。

I think it was three years ago, but Im not sure about it.我想那是三年前的事情,但我没有把握。

5. hear from/hear of

hear意思是“听到”,从哪里听到要用from来表示。例如:

Ive heard from Xiao Wu that well start out military training tomorrow.我听小吴说,我们明天开始军训。Listen to the tape and write out what you hear from Han Mei.听录音,并写出你从韩梅那里听到的内容。

hear from还有一个意思是“收到某人的来信”(=receive a letter from sb.)。例如:

I heard from my pen friend in the U.S.A. last month. 上个月我受到了美国笔友的来信。

I heard from her last week. 我上周接到了她的来信。

hear of和和hear from含义不同。hear of 意思是“听说”,“得知”(某事或某人的存在),常用在疑问句和否定句里。例如:Who is he? Ive never heard of him.他是谁?我从来没有听说过他。I never heard of such a thing! 这样的事我从来没有听说过。

6. It’s a pleasure./With pleasure.

Its a pleasure这句话常用作别人向你表示致谢时的答语,意思是“那是我乐意做的”。例如:

---Thank you for helping me. 谢谢你地帮助。---Its a pleasure. 那是我乐意做的。

---Thanks a lot. Bye.非常感谢。 再见。---Its a pleasure. 那是我乐意做的。再见。

类似的话还有 Not at all. You are welcome. Thats all right.

With pleasure也用作客气的答语,主要用在别人要你做某事,而你又非常愿意去做的场合。例如:---Will you please pass me the newspaper, please?请你把报纸递给我好吗?

---With pleasure.当然可以。

7. seem/look

(1)二者都可以作“看起来”讲,但seem暗示凭借一些迹象作出的有根据的判断,这种判断往往接近事实;look着重强调由视觉得出的印象。两者都可跟(to be)+形容词和as if从句。如:He seems / looks (to be) very happy today. 他今天看起来很高兴。

It looks (seems) as if it it is going to rain. 好像要下雨了。

(2)但下列情况中只用seem不用look

1)后跟不定式to do时。如:He seems to know the answer. 他似乎知道答案。

2)It seems that ...结构中。如:It seems that he is happier now than yesterday.他像比昨天高兴些了。

8. be ready to do/be ready for/ get ready to do/get ready for

(1)be ready to dobe ready for…表示“已作好…的准备”,强调状态

(2)get ready to doget ready for…表示“为…做准备”,强调行为。如:

I'm ready to do anything you want me to do. 我愿意/随时准备做一切做你要我做的事。

I'm ready for any questions you may ask.我愿意/随时准备回答你可能问的问题。

He's getting ready to leave for Tokyo.他正准备动身去东京。

Let's get ready for the hard moment.我们为这一艰难时刻作好准备吧。

(3)be ready to do 通常可理解“乐于做某事”,即思想上总是有做某事的准备。be not ready to do表示“不轻易做某事”。如:He's usually not ready to listen to others.他通常不轻易听从别人。

9. at table/at the table

at table在吃饭,at the table在桌子旁边。例如:The Greens are at table. 格林一家人在吃饭。

Mr. Black is sitting at the table and reading a book.布莱克先生坐在桌旁读书。

10. reach, arrive/get to

三者都有"到达"之意。reach是及物动词,后直接加名词,getarrive是不及物动词,不能直接加名词,须借助于介词。get to后加名词地点,若跟副词地点时,to去掉;arrive at +小地方,arrive in+大地方。如:

Lucy got to the zoo before 8 o'clock. 露西8点前到了动物园。

When did your parents arrive in Shanghai? 你父母何时到上海的?

It was late when I got home. 我到家时天色已晚。

11. sick/ill

二者都是形容词。当“生病的,患病“之意时,ill只作表语,不作定语;而sick既可作表语也可作定语。sick"呕吐,恶心"的意思,只能作表语,而ill无此意。如:

Li Lei was ill last week. (只作表语)李磊上周生病了。He's a sick man. (作定语)他是病人。不能说成:He's an ill man.My grandfather was sick for a month last year. (作表语)我祖父去年病了一个月。

12. in time/on time

in time"及时"的意思,on time"准时,按时"。如:I didn't get to the bus stop in time. 我没有及时赶上汽车。We'll finish our job on time. 我们要按时完成任务。

13. may be/maybe

It may be in your inside pocket. = Maybe it is in your inside pocket. 也许在你里边的口袋里。第一句中may be是情态动词+be 动词构成的谓语部分,意思是"也许是""可能是";第二句中的maybe是副词,意思是"可能",常位于句首,不能位于句中,相当于另一副词 perhaps。再如:Maybe you put it in that bag.也许你放在了那只包里。(不能说You maybe put it

in that bag.It may be a hat.那可能是顶帽子。(不能说It maybe a hat. It maybe is a hat.

14. noise/ voice/ sound

noise 指嘈杂声,噪音大的吵杂声。voice是指说话的声音,嗓音,嗓子。sound是指耳朵能够听到的声音、闹声等。它是表示声音之意的最普通的字。有时还用作科学上的声音。例如:

Don't make so much noise! 别那么大声喧哗!

I didn't recognize John's voice on the telephone. 在电话里我听不出约翰的声音。

He spoke in a low voice. 他低声说话。We heard a strange sound. 我们听到了一种奇怪的声音。

Sound travels fast, but light travels faster. 声音传得快,但是光传得更快。

【考点扫描】

中考考点在本单元主要集中在:

 

1. 一般过去时;

2. 反意疑问句的用法;

3. 一般将来时;

4. 感叹句;

5. 简单句的五种基本句型;

6.情态动词can, maymust, have to的用法;

7. 时间状语从句和条件状语从句;

8. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;

9. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。

考试形式可以是单项填空、完型天空、短文填空和完成句子。

 

【中考范例】

1. (2004年长沙市中考试题)

  ---Do you know if we will go to the cinema tomorrow?

---I think we’ll go if we ________ too much homework.

  A. will have  B. had  C. won’t have  D. don’t have

【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是条件状语从句的时态。在条件和时间状语从句里通常用一般现在是表示将来的动作。

2. (2004年佛山市中考试题)

You have been to Tibet, ______? I was told that the snow-covered mountains were very beautiful.

A. have you  B. haven’t you  C. don’t you

【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是反意疑问句的构成。反意疑问句的前一部分是肯定句,后一部分就应该是否定的疑问部分,而且要和前一部分保持时态上的一致。

3. (2004年扬州市中考试题)

  ---Jacky, look at that Japanese sumoist(相扑手).---Wow, ______________!

  A. How a fat man   B. What a fat man  C. How fat man   D. What fat man

【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是感叹句的构成。这个感叹句省略了主谓部分,只保留了感叹部分。如果以What开头,就应该是What a fat man! 如果是How开头,就应该是How fat!

4. (2004年福建省泉州市中考试题)

  ---Thanks for your help. ---__________________

  A. It doesn’t matter     B. Don’t thank me  C. You’re welcome    D. That’s right

【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是日常交际用语。回答别人的道谢通常用“Thats all right.”或”Youre welcome.

初二英语(下)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

 

1. on time

2. out of

3. all by oneself

4. lots of

5. no longer

6. get back

7. sooner or later

8. run away

9. eat up

10. take care of

11. turn off

12. turn on

13. after a while

14. make faces

15. teach oneself

16. fall off

17. play the piano

18. knock at

19. to one's surprise

20. look up

21. enjoy oneself

22. help yourself

23. tell a story / stories

24. leave....behind ……

25. come along

26. hold a sports meeting

27. be neck and neck

28. as ... as

29. not so / as ... as

30. do one's best

31. take part in

32. a moment late

33. Bad luck!

34. fall behind

35. high jump

36. long jump

37. relay race

38. well done!

39. take off

40. as usual

41. a pair of

42. at once

43. hurry off

44. come to oneself

45. after a while

46. knock on

47. take care of

48. at the moment

49. set off

50. here and there

51. on watch

52. look out

53. take one’s place

 

II. 重要句型

 

1. We’d better not do sth.

2. leave one. oneself

3. find one’s way to a place

4. stand on one’s head

5. make sb. Happy

6. catch up with sb.

7. pass on sth. to somebody

8. spend time doing sth.

9. go on doing sth.

10. get on well with sb.

11. be angry with sb.

12. be fed up with sth.

13. not…until…

14. make room for sb.

 

III. 交际用语

 

1. We’re all by ourselves.

2. I fell a little afraid.

3. Don’t be afraid.

4. Help!

5. Can’t you hear anything?

6. I can’t hear anything / anybody there.

7. Maybe it’s a tiger.

8. Let’s get it back before they eat the food.

9. Did she learn all by herself?

10. Could she swim when she was …years old?

11. She didn’t hurt herself.

12. He couldn’t buy himself many nice things.

13. Did he enjoy himself?

14. Help yourselves.

15. Bad luck!

16. Come on!

17. Well done! Congratulations (to…)!

18. It must be very interesting.

19. I don’t think you’ll like it.

20. It seems to be an interesting book.

21. I’m sure (that)… I’m not sure if… I’m not sure what to…

22. I hope so.

23. What was he/she drawing when…?

24. I’m sorry to trouble you.

25. Would you please…?

26. What were you doing at ten o’clock yesterday morning?

27. You look tired today.

28. You’d better go to bed early tonight, if you can.

29. How kind!

30. Let’s move the bag, or it may cause an accident.

31. It’s really nice of you.

32. Don’t mention it.

33. Don’t crowd around him.

 

IV. 重要语法

 

1. 不定代词/副词的运用;

2. 反身代词的用法;

3. 并列句;

4. 形容词和副词的比较等级;

5. 冠词的用法;

6. 动词的过去进行时;

 

【名师讲解】

1. bring/take

Bring表示“带来、拿来”,指从别处朝说话人所在或将在的地方“带来、拿来”。而take则表示“拿去、带走”,它表示的方向与bring相反,指从说话人所在地“拿走、带走”。如:

Bring me the book, please. 把那本书给我拿来。

Take some food to the old man. 给那位老人带去些食物。

2. somebody/ anybody/nobody

一般说来,somebody用于定句,anybody用于否定句、疑问句和条件状语从句。例如:

Somebody came to see you when you were out. 你出来时有人来见你。

Does anybody live on this island? 有人在这岛上住吗?

I didn't see anybody there. 我在那儿谁也没看见。

Don't let anybody in. I'm too busy to see anybody. 别让任何人进来。我太忙,谁也不想见。

There is nobody in the room. 房间里没人。

Nobody told me that you were ill, so I didn't know about it .谁也没告诉我你病了所以我不知道。

3. listen, listen to, hear

这三个词意思都是“听”,但是它们的用法不完全相同。它们的区别在于:

(1)listen 只用于不及物动词,后面接人或人物做宾语,着重于“倾听”,指的是有意识的动作,至于是否听到,并非强调的重点。如:

Listen! Someone is singing in the classroom. 听!有人在教室唱歌。

(2)listen to listen的及物形式,后面一定要接人或物做宾语,这里的to是介词。如:

Do you like listening to light music?你喜欢听轻音乐吗?

(3)hear 可用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词,意思是“听到、听见”,指用耳朵听到了某个声音,表示无意识的动作,着重于听的能力和结果。如:We hear with our ears.我们用耳朵听。She listens but hears nothing.她听了听,但是什么也没有听见。

4. many/ much/ a few/ a little/ few/ little

(1)many修饰可数名词,much修饰不可数名词;都表示许多。例如:

He has many books.他有许多书。He drank much milk.他喝了许多牛奶。

(2)a fewa little都表示"有一点儿",侧重于肯定,相当于"some",但a few修饰可数名词,a little修饰不可数名词,例如:He has a few friends in London.他在伦敦有一些朋友。

Would you like some coffee? Yes, just a little.喝点咖啡好吗?好的,只要一点。

(3)fewlittle表示"几乎没有",侧重否定。few后接可数名词,little后接不可数名词。例如:

He is a strange man. He has few words.他是个怪人,他几乎不说什么话。

Hurry up, there is little time left.赶快,没什么时间了。

5. either/ neither/ both

either可作形容词,一般指"两者中的任何一个"。有时也可表示"两个都……"的意思,后跟名词的单数形式;neither: 指两者中没有一个,全否定;both: 指两者都,肯定。句中可作主语、宾语和定语,both后面应跟名词的复数形式。如:Neither of the films is good.两部电影都不好。(没有一部是好的)Either of the films is good. 两部电影都不错。(谓语动词用单数)Both the teachers often answer the questions.这两个老师都常常解答问题。

6. take part in/join

take part in参加某种活动; join参加,加入某一政党或组织。例如:Can you take part in my party.你能来参加我的派对吗?We often take part in many school activities.我们经常参加学校里的一些活动。He joined the party in 1963. 1963年入的党。My little brother joined the army last year. 我小弟去年参的军。

7. quite/ rather/ very

(1)quite 表示程度“很,十分,完全地”,“相当”。如:She is quite right.她对极了。

That's not quite what I want . 那并不完全是我所要的。

(2)rather 表示程度上的“相当”,比预想地程度要大,通常用在不喜欢的情况下。如:It's rather cold today.今天的天气相当冷。

(3)very 表示程度“很,甚,极其,非常”,用于修饰形容词或副词,既可用在喜欢的情况下,也可用于不喜欢的情况下。应注意“a very +形容词+可数名词的单数”结构中,"a"应置于"very"之前,该结构相当“quite a/an +形容词+名词”的结构。如:Two months is quite a long time. / a very long time. 两个月是一段很长的时间。It's a very nice day / quite a nice day. 今天天气很好。

【考点扫描】

中考考点在本单元主要集中在:

 

1. 不定代词/副词的运用;

2. 反身代词的用法;

3. 并列句;

4. 形容词和副词的比较等级;

5. 冠词的用法;

6. 动词的过去进行时;

7. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;

8. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。

考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。

 

【中考范例】

1. (2004年江西省中考试题)

  ---I called you yesterday evening, but there was no answer.

  ---Oh, I am sorry I ___________ dinner at my friend’s home.

  A. have  B. had  C. was having  D. have had

【解析】答案:C。该提考查的是动词的时态。表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作应用过去进行时。

2. (2004年北京市中考试题)

  ---Which is _________, the sun, the moon or the earth? ---Of course the moon is.

  A. small  B. smaller  C. smallest  D. the smallest

【解析】答案:D。该提考查的是形容词的比较等级。三者进行比较,其中最小的应用最高级,而形容词最高级之前必须加顶冠词the

3. (2004年河北省中考试题)

  Bob never does his homework _________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes.

  A. so careful as  B. as carefully as  C. carefully as  D. as careful as

【解析】答案:B。该提考查的是形容词和副词的用法区别。空白处所缺的词是修饰动词短语does his homework的,应该用副词。另外,表示“某人做事不如某人细心”应用“not as carefully as”这样的结构。

4. (2004年吉林省中考试题)

  ---I like riding fast. It’s very exciting.

  ---Oh! You mustn’t do it like that, ________ it may have an accident.

  A. and  B. or  C. so  D. but

  【解析】答案:B。该提考查的是连接并列句的并列连词的选择。And通常连接两个意思一致的并列句,so连接两个有因果关系的并列句,but连接两个有转折关系的并列句,or相当于if not意思是“否则”。

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