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had better的用法

 英语网 2011-06-19

had better的用法:

■在口语中常省略成’d better或better。如:

你最好小心点。

正:You had better be careful.

正:You’d better be careful.

正:Better be careful.

■注意否定式、疑问式及其回答。如:

You’d better not go there. 你最好不要去那里。

He’d better go with us, hadn’t he? 他最好同我们一块去,对吗?

What had we better do? 我们最好做什么?

Had we better not go? 我们不去好不好?

比较:Hadn’t we better go? 我们去不是更好吗?

■可接进行式、被动式或完成式。如:

I’d be going now. 现在我得走了。(心情近切)

She’d better be met by him. 最好他去接她。

You’d better have done that. 你要是把那件事办了就好了。

■注意:

1. 此结构中的had永远不可改为have或has;

2. 对上级或长辈不宜用此结构。

 

 

 关于if you will…句型结构用法详解

一、问题与疑惑

同学们知道,if有两个主要用法,一是表示“是否”,用于引导宾语从句;二是表示“如果”,用于引导条件状语从句。同时,大家在学习条件状语从句的时候学过这样一条规则——当条件状语从句表示将来意义时,习惯上不能使用将来时态,而应用一般现在时代替。如:

不知道明天是否会下雨,但要是下雨的话,我就呆在家里。

误:I don’t know if it will rain tomorrow. But if it will rain tomorrow, I’ll stay at home.

正:I don’t know if it will rain tomorrow. But if it rains tomorrow, I’ll stay at home.

析:上句第一个 if 引导的是宾语从句(if=是否),从句谓语用将来时态表示将来意义;第二个if引导的是条件状语从句(if=如果),从句谓语要用一般现在时表示将来意义。

但问题是,我们在教材上经常可以遇到if you will…这样的表达——是上面的规则出了问题?还是教材上的表达不合习惯?其实都不是!真正的问题是,你没有真正弄清if you will…的用法。

二、用法与解释

首先,大家要明确if you will…这类表达中的will不是用于构成将来时态的助动词,而是一个情态动词,所以它的意思不是“将”,而是“愿意”“执意”等。下面我们来归纳一下if you will…的用法。

1. will表示意愿

will用作情态动词最基本的用法就是表示意愿。如:

A man who won't work is no good. 不肯干活的人没出息。

I will pay you at the rate you ask. 我愿意照你要求的价钱付款。

这样用的will和would也可用于if条件状语从句中。如:

If you will allow me, I will see you home. 如果你同意,我可以送你回家。

If you won’t come, I’ll go myself. 如果你不愿意去,那我就自己去。

I’ll thank you if you will give me a hand. 如果你能帮助我,我就谢谢你了。

I’ll pay for the hotel, if you will for the food. 如果你原付伙食钱,我就来付旅馆钱。

If you won’t stop smoking, you can only expect to have a bad cough. 如果你不肯戒烟,你只会患严重咳嗽。

If he will only try harder, I’m sure he’d do well. 只要他愿再努力一些,我相信他会做好的。

If you will agree to pay us compensation, we will agree not to take the matter any further. 只要你会同意给我们赔偿费,我们就同意不再追究此事。

If you will indulge me for one moment, I think I can explain the matter to you. 你要是容我把话说完,我想我可以把此事给你解释清楚。

I’ll appreciate it if you will let me know in advance. 如果你事先让我知道的话,我会很感激的。

I’d be grateful if you will let me know soon. 如果你肯早点告诉我,我会感激不尽。

注意,这类句子的翻译有时比较灵活。如:

If you will wait a moment, I’ll fetch the money. 请稍等一会,我就取钱去。

If you will follow me, I’ll show you the way. 请跟我来,我给你指路。

If you will wait a moment I’ll see if Mr Jones is free. 请您稍候片刻,我看看琼斯先生是否有空。

If you would come this way, I’ll take you to the manager’s office. 请你从这边走,我带你去经理办公室。

If you will sit down for a few moments, I’ll tell the manager you’re here. 请稍坐,我这就通知经理说您来了。

will的过去式would也有类似用法。如:

I would be very grateful if you would make the arrangements for me. 如果您能为我安排一下,我将不胜感激。

2. will表示执意

will用作情态动词还可表示执意。如:

She will keep interrupting people. 她老是要不断地打扰别人。

He will comb his hair at the table, even though he knows I don't like it. 他偏要在饭桌边梳头,还明明知道我不喜欢。

will的过去式would也有类似用法。如:

He would do it, though I told him not to. 虽然我叫他不要做,可是他偏要做。

Regardless of warnings he would play with fire. 他不听警告,偏要玩火。

这样用的will和would也可用于if条件状语从句中。如:

If you will go to bed so late, no wonder you’re tired. 如你偏要这么晚睡觉,自然就会感到疲倦。

If you will play the drums all night no wonder the neighbors complain. 如果你执意要整夜敲鼓的话,那就难怪邻居抱怨。

If you will go out without your overcoat, what can you expect? 如果你一定不穿大衣外出,那你还能指望什么?

If you will get drunk every night, it’s not surprising you feel ill. 如果你每天晚上非得一醉方休,你感到难受就不奇怪了。

If you will keep your watch half an hour slow it is hardly surprising that you are late for your appointments. 如果你一定要让你的表慢半个小时,你约会时迟到就不足为怪了。

3. 一点补充

would有时还可用于虚拟条件中。如:

If you would be interested, I should be very glad to send you a copy of my book. 你如感兴趣,我将会很高兴寄给你我的一本书。

If you would have come sooner, you could have helped us. 你如早来一点,就会帮上我们了(www.tooben.com)。

If I would have let him back me down in front of everybody, I would have lost respect. 假如我让他逼我在大伙面前认错的话,我就会丢脸了。

 

 

means作主语时谓语动词的单复数问题

means 表单数意义还是复数意义? 用作主语时,谓语动词用单数还是复数?

如:

All possible means __________ been tired.

Every possible means __________ been tired.

A. have,have     B. has,has      C. have,has      D. has,have

此题应选C。名词means(方法)的单复数同形,用作主语时,其谓语的单复数要视具体含义而定:

1. 如果means与all,such,these,those等词连用,则其含义应该是复数:

These means are very good. 这些方法很好。

Such means sound interesting,but in fact they’reimpossible.

那样的方法听起来有趣,但实际上是不可能的。

2. 如果means与a,such a,this,that,every等词连用,则其含义应该是单数:

Such a means is really unpleasant.

这样的方法确实是令人不愉快。

There is an effective means of doing it.

做此事有一种很有效的方法。

3. 有时从句意和上下文无法确定means 到底是单数还是复数,则其谓语用单数或复数均可以:

做这事还有其他的什么办法吗?

正:Are there any other means of doing it?

正:Is there any other means of doing it?

没有好的方法。

正:There is no good means.

正:There are no good means.

 

是否有类似welcome sb to do sth结构的表达?

吴洪亮老师在2007年第6期《英语知识》之《可以说welcome sb to do sth吗?》一文中认为下面两个句子是错误的的,是典型的Chinglish:

Hu said the mainland welcomes more Taiwan people to do business.(摘自2006年1月26日的CHINA DAILY第一版Bejing’s “flexible approach appeals to Taiwan people”)

Hmm, well, we do welcome students to visit some of the wards at our hospitals, … (译林版《牛津高中英语》模块七第二单元p25.练习A对话填空)

另外,老师还得出一个结论:美国英语不用welcome sb to do sth这一错误表达方式的。

首先要澄清的是welcome sb to do sth既不是典型的Chinglish,也不是错误的表达方式,其次,美国英语不是不用welcome sb to do sth,而是大量使用welcome sb to do sth。请看例证:

1. BUY CORPUS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH (1990-2009) (Mark Davies, Brigham Young University) :

1991I would welcome you to join me with your own meal,..

1992 …, and I would welcome you to do that.

1995 …, and if Fred wants to come by and look at every check and every dollar of income and every invoice, we’d welcome him to do so.

1996 If he requests it will you welcome him to visit here?

1998 And I want to welcome you to be in here.

1999I’d like to welcome you to join me, 7:00 p.m. Eastern,…

1999 I welcome him to help build the Reform Party an alternative to the Republicans and Democrats in this country.

2000 We’re welcomed to do it.

2003 We welcome you to share in the third annual Massachusetts Missing Children’s Day.

2004 Many Christians thoughtfully affirm Dammann’s gifts and fitness for ministry and would welcome her to be their pastor.

2005 We’ve been welcomed to stay as long as we want.

2008 And if you’re logged onto “Second Life”, we welcome you to go over to our Science Friday island and ask a question there via our SCIENCE FRIDAY “ Second Life ” avatar.

实际上,不仅美国英语中大量使用welcome sb to do sth,英国英语中也不乏welcome sb to do sth的例证:

BNC(英国国家语料库)和BUY-BNC BRTISH NATIONAL CORPUS (UK,1980s-1993) (Mark Davies, Brigham Young University )

I very much welcome the council group decision to demonstrate its confidence in Alex Salmond.

Mr Churchill said he would welcome a change in the law to steer the market in favour of coal.

Today, visitors are warmly welcomed to share Crete’s ancient history and to enjoy its breathtaking landscapes of 8000-foot mountains, deep valleys, extensive beaches, sparkling bays and lively resorts.

从以上可以看出:无论美国英语还是英国英语都在使用welcome sb to do sth,尽管词典中还没有收录welcome sb to do sth。但我们都知道某个语言现象的出现要早于词典。从这点来说,译林版《牛津高中英语》的主编可以说是第一个吃螃蟹的人,他们可能是第一个把welcome sb to do sth引入到教材之中的人。

 

 

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