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动名词1

2011-07-05  冰姿飒飒

定义:动名词是动词的一种非限定形式,兼有动词和名词的特征,它可以带宾语,也能被状语修饰。动名词接宾语或状语构成动名词短语。动名词有时态和语态的变化。

基本形式:由动词原形家词尾-ing构成,与现在分词形式相同。动名词已经名词化了,而现在分词常表示动作或状态。如:a sleeping chair /睡椅(动名词,表用途) a sleeping child 正在睡觉的孩子(现在分词,表状态)

一、动名词的句法功能

动名词具有名词的性质,因此在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语等。

1、 作主语

1 直接位于句首做主语。

Reading is an art. 读书是一种艺术。  

Climbing mountains is really fun. 爬山真是有趣。

Working in these conditions is not a pleasure but a suffering. 在这种工作条件下工作不是一件愉快的事而是一件痛苦的事。

注意:动名词做主语时,谓语动词为单数

2 it 作形式主语,把动名词(真实主语)置于句尾作后置主语。

It is no use/no good crying over spilt milk. 覆水难收

It is a waste of time persuading such a person to join us. 劝说这样的人加入真是浪费时间。

It was hard getting on the crowded street car. 上这种拥挤的车真难。

It is fun playing with children. 和孩子们一起玩真好。

这种用法在习惯句型中常用,常用句型:

It is + no use/no good/useless/senseless/fun/enjoyable/tiring/interesting/foolish/nice/a waste of time/a plessure… + v.ing  

注意importantessentialnecessary 等形容词后面不用动名词(常用不定式)。

3 用于“There be”结构中。

There is no saying when he'll come.很难说他何时回来。

There is no joking about such matters. 对这种事情不是开玩笑。

There is no holding back the wheel of history. 历史的车轮不可阻挡。

常用句型:There is no + v.ing = It is impossible to do …

注意:“There be”句型中,只能用动名词,而不能用不定式作主语。

4 用于布告形式的省略结构中。

No smoking ( =No smoking is allowed (here) ). 禁止吸烟。   

No parking. 禁止停车。

5 动名词的复合结构作主语

当动名词有自己的逻辑主语时,常可以在前面加上一个物主代词或名词所有格,构成动名词的复合结构。动名词的复合结构也可以在句中作主语。例如:

Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us. 他们前来帮忙对我们来说是极大的鼓舞。

Lao Li’s going there won’t be of much help. 老李去不会有多大帮助。

2、作宾语

1)作动词的宾语

*某些动词后出现非限定性动词时只能用动名词作宾语,不能用不定式。常见的此类动词有:advise, suggest, allow, permit, avoid, consider, enjoy, finish, cannot help, imagine, include, keep, keep on, mind, miss, delay, practise, resist, postpone(推迟)deny(否认), appreciate (欣赏,感激), escape, excuse, pardon, can’t stand, put off, give up等。如:

Would you mind opening the window?吧窗户打开好吗?

She suggested going to the Great Wall for the spring outing. 她建议去长城春游。

Seeing the picture, he couldn’t help laughing. 看了这幅画,他禁不住大笑起来。

Mark often attempts to escape being fined whenever he breaks traffic regulations.

每当马克违反交通规则时,他常常企图逃避罚款的处分。

*在下面这种结构中也可以用动名词(短语)做宾语:find/think/consider… + it(形式宾语) + no use/no good/useless… + v.ing(真正宾语).

I found it pleasant walking along the seashore. 在海滩上走真是乐事。

Do you consider it any good trying again? 你认为再试一次有好处吗?

*形容词worth后也可接动名词,作为复合谓语的宾语。

The music is well worth listening to more than once. 这种曲子很值得多听几遍。

2)作介词的宾语

*能接动名词的短语有:think of/about, dream of/about, hear of, prevent/keep/stop…from…, depend on, set about, succeed (in), worry about, burst out, insist on, be/get used to, devote…to…, look forward to, pay attention to, get down to, be good at, do well in, be fond of, be interested in, be tired of, be afraid of, spend…(in), feel like, prefer…to…, instead of, in case of等等。

We are thinking of making a new plan for the next term. 我们正考虑为下学期制定新的计划。

Shall we have a rest or get down to doing our work? 我们休息呢还是开始干活?

Ann has been looking forward to coming to China for a long time. 安好久以来就盼望着来中国。

*在下面的结构中,介词in常可省略:

1S + have + trouble/difficulty/problems/fun/a struggle/ a good time/a hard time + (in) +v.ing

2S + speng time/money + (in) +V.ing

3S + be busy + (in) +V.ing

4S + lose no time + (in) +V.ing (立即… …

We are busy (in) preparing for the coming sports meet. 我们正为马上到来的运动会忙着做准备。

Do you have any difficulty (in) understanding spoken English? 要听懂英语口语你有困难吗?

3、作表语

动名词作表语时句子主语常是表示无生命的事物的名词或what引导的名词性从句。表语动名词与主语通常是对等的关系,表示主语的内容,主语、表语可互换位置。

Your task is cleaning the windows. 你的任务就是擦窗户。(Cleaning the windows is your task.)

What I hate most is being laughed at. 我最痛恨的就是被别人嘲笑。 (Being laughed at is what I hate most.)

4、作定语

动名词作定语往往表示被修饰词的某种用途。如:

a walking stick a stick for walking=a stick which is used for walking

a washing machine=a machine for washing=a machine which is used for washing

a reading room=a room for reading=a room which is used for reading

sleeping pills=pills for sleeping=pills which is used for sleeping

二、动名词的复合结构

带有逻辑主语的动名词称为动名词的复合结构。当动名词的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致时,要在动名词之前加上物主代词或名词所有格,这便构成了动名词的复合结构。其中物主代词(名词所有格)是逻辑上的主语,动名词是逻辑上的谓语。动名词复合结构在句中可作主语、宾语、表语等,分别相当于一个主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句。如:

Her coming to help encouraged all of us. 他来帮忙鼓舞了我们所有人。 (=That she came to help encouraged all of us.)    

Jane’s being careless caused so much trouble. 简的粗心惹来了不少麻烦。 (=That Jane was careless caused so much trouble.)

What’s troubling them is their not having enough food. 烦扰他们的是食物不足。 (=What’s troubling them is that they have not enough food.)

在口语中,如果动名词复合结构作宾语,其中的物主代词常用人称代词宾格,名词所有格常用名词普通格来代替,但在句首作主语时不能这样来代替。如:

Would you mind my/me using your computer? 用下你的电脑介意吗?

The father insisted on his son’s/his son going to college. 爸爸坚决要求儿子上大学。

Mary’s (不可用Mary) being ill made her mother upset. 玛丽病了,使她妈妈很着急。

His (不可用Him)smoking made his family angry. 他抽烟使他一家人非常生气。

例:I would appreciate_______ back this afternoon.

Ayou to call  Byou call  Cyou calling  Dyou’re calling

KeyC;换成your calling也对)

在下列情况下动名词的逻辑主语必须用名词的普通格或人称代词宾语:

a.无命名词

The baby was made awake by the door suddenly shutting. 这个婴儿被猛烈的关门声吵醒。

b. 有生命名词但表示泛指意义

Have you ever heard of women practising boxing? 你听说过妇女练拳击吗?

c. 两个以上的有生命名词并列

Do you remember your parents and me telling about this? 你记得你父母和我都告诉过你这事吗?

三、动名词的时态和语态

动名词的时态和语态如下:

主动语态、    被动语态、

一般式  doing          being done

完成式  having done     having been done

(一)时态

1、动名词一般式:表示的动作通常是一般性动作,即不是明确地发生在过去、现在或将来的动作,或是与谓语动词所表示的动作同时或之后发生的动作。

I hate talking with such people. 我讨厌与这样的人说话。

Being careless is not a good habit. 粗心不是一个好习惯。

2、动名词的完成式:表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前。

I don’t remember having met him before. 我记不得以前见过他。

Thank you for having taking so much trouble to help. 谢谢你费力帮忙。

He denied having taken any money from the cash register. 他否认从现金出纳机里拿了钱。

(二)语态

动名词的逻辑主语同时也是动名词动作的承受者,动名词用被动语态。

1)它的一般式表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,或在其后发生。如:

I don’t like being laughed at in public. 在公共场合下,我不喜欢被别人嘲笑。

He came in without being asked. 没有谁请他进来他自己进来了。

2)它的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前。如:

I am very pleased at your having been honoured with a medal. 我很高兴你能获得这样的奖牌。

3)在某些动词,我们常用动名词的一般式表示完成式,尽管动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,这似乎是一种强大的习惯。如:

Excuse me for being late. 我来晚了请你原谅。

I don’t remember ever meeting somewhere. 我记不得原来在什么地方见过。

Thank you for giving us so much help. 谢谢给我们这么大的帮助。

4)在多数情况下都避免使用动名词被动语态完成式,而用一般式代替,以免句子显得累赘,尤其是在口语中。如:

I forget once being taken (having been taken ) to the city zoo. 我曾被带到过这个动物园,可我忘了。

四、动名词的否定式:not + V.ing

I regret not being able to help you. 我很抱歉不能帮助你。

I apologize for not having waited for you. 没有等你,我向你表示歉意。

五、动名词与动词不定式的区别:

1. 作主语或表语时:

动词不定式和动名词都可以用作主语,在意义上相近,但动名词多用来表示泛指的抽象的动作或经常性的动作;不定式多用来表示特指或具体的动作,特别是将来的动作。比较:

Smoking is not good for health.   

It is not good for you to smoke so much.

My job is teaching English.

Our task now is to increase food production. 我们现在的任务是增加粮食产量。

2. like, hate, prefer等动词后:

如果表示一般倾向,多用动名词做宾语;如指特定的或具体的某次行为,用不定式更多一些。

I like reading books in my spare time.

I like to read that book.

They prefer walking to cycling.

He prefers to stay at home today.

3. 有些动词后即可用动名词也可以不定式做宾语(如like, love, hate, dislike, begin, start, continue, want, need, stop, remember, forget, try, attempt等)。

有时区别不大,如:

Let’s continue working/to work.

When did you begin learning/to learn English?

但有时两种结构之间含义不同,如remember, forget, regret, try, stop, mean, go on等。

He tried speaking English to us. 他试着用英语和我们讲话。

Please try to do it better next time. 下次请设法做得更好些。

This means setting out at once. 这意味着立即出发。

He really meant to come. 他确实打算来的。

4. 在表示“需要”意思的want, need, require, deserve等动词后:当主语表事物时,其后既可用动名词的主动式也可用不定式的被动式表被动含义。

My watch needs repairing/to be repaired.

The house wants cleaning/to be cleaned.

The way deserves mentioning/to be mentioned.

These young trees will require looking after/to be looked after carefully.

5. allow, permit, advise, recommend, consider, forbid等词后,常用动名词做宾语,用不定式做宾语补足语。

We don’t allow smoking here.

Her mother doesn’t allow her to stay up late.

注意:

Seeing is believing. / To see is to believe. 眼见为实。

六、动名词与现在分词的区别

1?动名词和现在分词都可以用于系动词之后作表语,区别方法是:

作表语的动名词与主语指的是同一件事, 此时系动词相当于”, 通常把主语和表语的位置互换,语法和意思不变, 例如:

My hobby is swimming.可改为Swimming is my hobby.(可将原句中的主语与表语位置互换)

现在分词作表语主要用以说明主语的性质, 不能与主语互换位置, 但可加very, quite等副词修饰,例如:

The story is (very) interesting. ( 不可改为:Interesting is the story )

③动名词作表语时,不可与进行时态相混淆,如:

Her job is washing clothes. (动名词做表语)

She is washing clothes now. (现在进行时)

2?动名词和现在分词都可以用作定语来修饰名词,两者的区别在于:   

动名词修饰名词时主要表示该名词的用途,而现在分词修饰名词时性质?状态或动作等?试比较: a swimming boya swimming suit

前者的意思是一个正在游泳的男孩”,a boy who is swimming ,现在分词swimming 表示被修饰名词boy的动作;而后者的意思是游泳衣”,a suit for swimming , 动名词swimming表示suit 的用途?

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