2008y8m / 英语 / 高中英语语法大全03

分享

   

高中英语语法大全03

2011-08-18  2008y8m

八、动词

1、动词的分类:

   

                 

              

实义动词

含有实在的意义,表示动作或状态,在句子中能独立作谓语。

She has some bananas. 些香蕉。

They eat a lot of potatoes. 他们常土豆。

I’m reading an English book now.

我现在正一本英文书。

连系动词

本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须和表语一起构成谓语。

His father is a teacher.他父亲教师。

Twins usually look the same.

双胞胎通常看起来一样。

The teacher became very angry. 老师变得很生气。

助动词

本身没有词义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,用来表示否定、疑问、时态、语态或其它语法形式,助动词自身有人称、单复数和时态的变化。

He doesn’t speak English. 他不说英语。

We are playing basketball. 我们在打篮球。

Do you have a brother? 你有兄弟吗?

情态动词

本身有一定的意义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示说话人的语气和情态。情态动词没有人称和单复数的变化,有些情态动词有过去式。

You can keep the books for two weeks.

这些书你可以借两个星期。

May I smoke here? 可以在这儿抽烟吗?

We must go now.  我们现在走了。

★重要注解:

(1) 关于实义动词:

    英语的实义动词又可分为及物动词不及物动词两大类:

后面必须跟宾语意义才完整的叫及物动词;本身意义完整,后面不需跟宾语的叫不及物动词。

有些动词通常只作不及物动词。如:go,come,happen,lie,listen,rise,arrive,hall等。

有些动词通常用作及物动词。如:say, raise, lay, find, buy等。

大多数动词可以兼作及物动词和不及物动词。如:study, sing等。

有些动词作及物动词与作不及物动词时的意义有所不同。如:know, wash等。

有些动词常和介词 、副词或其它词类一起构成固定词组,形成短语动词。如:listen,reply,wait,look.

(2) 关于连系动词:

      连系动词用来连接主语和表语,连系动词后面常为形容词。

      常见的连系动词有:bebecomelookfeelsoundsmelltasteseemturngrowget  gofallsitstandlie 等。

      有些连系动词来源于实义动词,意思也跟着变化look(看→看起来)feel(感觉、摸→感到)  smell(闻、嗅→闻起来)taste(尝→尝起来)turn(翻转、转动→变得)grow(生长→变得)get(得到、到达→变得)go(去→变得),所不同的是,作为实义动词时,后面不能跟形容词。

[注释]

becomegetgobegrowturn的用法区别become表示“变成”,比较正式,通常不用将来时表示动作已经完成。get也表示动作已经完成,但是更加口语化,通常表示温度、时间、岁数等变化。go表示“变得”,常见于某些短语中,后面常有形容词badblindhungry等。be表示“是、成为、当”,多用于将来时、祈使句或不定式中。grow表示“变得”,常指逐渐的变化,表示身高、岁数的增长。turn表示“变得”,指变为与原先不同的情况,通常指颜色等变化。如:I was caught in the rain and I became ill.(我淋雨感冒了)/ He has got rich.(他变富了)/ He will be a scientist in the future.(将来他将成为科学家)/ My little brother has grown much taller in the past year.(在过去的一年里我的弟弟长得高多了)/ The sandwich has gone bad.(那块三明治已经变坏)/ Her face turned red after her mother criticized(批评) her.(妈妈批评了他以后他的脸变红了)

(3) 关于助动词

①常见的助动词有:用于进行时和被动语态的be (am, is, are ,was, were, been, being ) ;用于完成时的have(has,had,having) ;用于将来时的shall (should) ; will (would)和用于一般时的do(does,did) .

助动词必须同主语的人称和数一致,也就是说因主语人称、数的不同而采用不同的形式,其中有些助动词也可作情态动词。如:shall, will, should, would.

  (4) 关于情态动词:

①常见的情态动词有:can (could) ,may (might), must ,shall (should), will (would), dare (dared) , need,另外,have tohad better也当作情态动词使用。情态动词后面必须加动词的原形。

can表示体力、脑力方面的能力或客观的可能性。口语中, 在询问或说明一件事可不可以做时,常用“can”代替“may”。情态动词“can”的过去式是“could,否定式是“cannot”通常缩写成“can’t,could”的否定式是“could not,通常缩写成“couldn’t”。如:Can I help you?(要帮忙吗?)/ He can swim.(他会游泳)/ That can’t be Mr Li.(那不可能是李先生)

may表示允许、请求或可能性,may提问时,肯定回答一般用CertainlyYes,you may.;否定回答一般用can’tmustn’t. 如:May I ask you a question?—Certainly.(可以问你一个问题吗?当然可以)/ You may go now.(现在你可以走了)/ It may be in your pocket.(它可能在你的衣袋里)

must表示“必须”、“一定”的意思。表示“必须”时否定形式是mustn’t;表示“一定”时,否定形式是“can’t 如:We must be very careful when we cross the road.(我们过马路时一定要非常小心)/ It must be Jack.(那准是杰克)/ I haven’t seen Kate today. She can’t be here.(我今天没有看到过凯特,她不可能在这里)

[注意]must(必须)进行提问时,肯定回答用must,否定回答用needn’t;用must(一定)进行提问时,肯定回答仍用must,但是否定回答用can’t.如:Must we clean the room before we leave? –Yes,you must.No,you needn’t.(我们走之前必须要打扫房间吗?是的,必须打扫。/ ,不需要。) / Must she be in the romm? –Yes,she must.No,she can’t.(她一定在房间里吗?是的,一定。/ ,不可能在。)

have to”表示“不得不”、“必须”。We’ll have to leave now for it is very late at night.

  have to的疑问形式是:助动词+…+have to,否定形式是:助动词+not+have to或者用needn’t.如:Do you have to stay until 8 o’clock?(你得呆到8点钟吗?)/ You don’t have to do so.(=You needn’t do so.)(你不用这么做)

shall在问句中,可表示征求对方意见,与第一人称连用;在陈述句的第二、三人称的主语后或表示“命令”、“警告”、“允许”等。如:Shall we go to the zoo this weekend?(我们这个周末去动物园好吗?)/ He shall bring his own book next time.(他下次必须带自己的书来)

should可表示“劝告”、“建议”、“惊奇”等意思。We should speak to old people politely.(我们应该礼貌地对老人讲话)

will表示“意愿”、“决心”等意思,一般与第二人称连用。如:Will you please close the door for me?(请你替我把门关上好吗?)/ I will teach you a lesson.(我要教训你一顿)

would表示过去的“意愿”、“决心”等。He would sit near the fire every time he returned home.(每次他回到家中总要坐在火炉边)

would也可以表示现在的情况,表达说话人向对方提出的要求,语气比“will”婉转、客气。在日常会话中,“我想要…”通常用“I would like to”或“I should(I’d) like to”来表示。如:Would you like to have a rest at the moment?(你现在想要休息一下吗?)

would还可以表示过去经常发生的事情。如:Every year parents would tell their children about the boy who would save his people.(每一年父母们总是向孩子们讲述这个将会拯救他的人民的男孩的事)

need表示“需要”,用于疑问句或否定句。“need”作实义动词时,在肯定、否定、疑问句中都可以用。如:He needn’t do it in such a hurry.(他不需要如此匆忙地做这件事)/ He needs some help.(他需要一些帮助)/ He doesn’t need to bring his football socks then.(那么他就无须带上足球袜了)

dare是“敢”的意思,用法几乎与“need”完全相同,即在疑问句和否定句中,可以作情态动词,后面用不带“to”的动词不定式。在肯定句中和实义动词一样,后面的动词不定式要带“to”。How dare you say I am a fool?(你竟敢说我是个傻瓜?)/ He didn’t dare to touch the red button.(他不敢触碰那个红色的按钮)

‘d better (do)(“最好是”)一般也当作情态动词使用,否定式是:’d better not (do). You’d better sit here and say nothing.(你最好坐在这儿不讲话)/ You’d better not speak because he is sleeping.(你最好不要讲话因为他正在睡觉)

2、动词词形变化一览表:

(1)规则动词变化表:

 

则变

原形动词结尾情况

现在时单三人称

过去式和过去分词

一般情况

+s

+ing

+ed

s,x,ch,sh,o结尾

+es

+ing

+ed

辅音字母+y结尾

yi,+es

+ing

yi,+ed

重读闭音节一元一辅结尾

+s

双写辅音字母,+ing

双写辅音字母,+ed

不发音的e结尾

+s

去掉e,+ing

+d

ie结尾

+s

iey,+ing

+d

不规则变

havehasbeis

()  

(见不规则动词变化表)

注意:①在加inged时动词如果以“r”结尾,尾音节又重读的动词,r”应双写。

s/es的读音规则:在清辅音后读[s];在浊辅音后和元音后读[z];在[ s ][ F][z][tF][dV]后读[iz].

ed的读音规则:在清辅音后读[t];在浊辅音后和元音后读[d];在[t][d]后读[id].

(2)不规则动词变化表:( 原形 过去式 过去分词)

be(am,is)

  was

been

 

lose

lost

lost

 

be(are)

were

been

 

make

made

made

 

beat

beat

beaten

 

may

might

 

 

become

became

become

 

mean

meant

meant

 

begin

began

begun

 

meet

met

met

 

blow

blew

blown

 

mistake

mistook

mistaken

 

break

broke

broken

 

must

must

 

 

bring

brought

brought

 

pay

paid

paid

 

build

built

built

 

put

put

put

 

buy

bought

bought

 

read

read

Read

 

can

could

 

 

ride

rode

ridden

 

catch

caught

caught

 

ring

rang

rung

 

choose

chose

chosen

 

rise

rose

risen

 

come

came

come

 

run

ran

run

 

cost

cost

cost

 

say

said

said

 

cut

cut

cut

 

see

saw

seen

 

dig

dug

dug

 

sell

sold

sold

 

do

did

done

 

send

sent

sent

 

draw

drew

drawn

 

set

set

set

 

drink

drank

drunk

 

shall

should

 

 

drive

drove

driven

 

shine

shone

shone

eat

ate

eaten

 

show

showed

shown

fall

fell

fallen

 

shut

shut

shut

feel

felt

felt

 

sing

sang

sung

find

found

found

 

sink

sank/sunk

sunk/sunken

fly

flew

flown

 

sit

set

set

forget

forgot

forgot/forgotten

 

sleep

slept

slept

freeze

froze

frozen

 

smell

smelt

smelt

get

got

got

 

speak

spoke

spoken

give

gave

given

 

spend

spent

spent

go

went

gone

 

spill

spilt

spilt

grow

grew

grown

 

spoil

spoilt

spoilt

hang

hung/hanged

hung/hanged

 

stand

stood

stood

have(has)

had

had

 

sweep

swept

swept

hear

heard

heard

 

swim

swam

swum

hide

hid

hidden

 

take

took

taken

hit

hit

hit

 

teach

taught

taught

hold

held

held

 

tell

told

told

hurt

hurt

hurt

 

think

thought

thought

keep

kept

kept

 

throw

threw

thrown

know

knew

known

 

understand

understood

understood

lay

laid

laid

 

wake

woke/waked

woken/waked

learn

learnt/learned

learnt/learned

 

wear

wore

worn

leave

left

left

 

will

would

 

lend

lent

lent

 

win

won

won

let

let

let

 

write

wrote

witten

lie

lay

lain

 

 

 

 

3be(“是/存在”)动词的各种时态变化:

I am….

You are.…

He/She/It is….

We/You/They are….

(I等各人称) will be….

I am               

He/She/It is        going to be… 

We/You/They are

I have been….

You have been….

She/he/It has been….

We/You/They have been….

I was….

You were.…

He/She/It was….

We/You/They were….

(I等各人称) would be….

I was        

He/She/It was        going to be…

We/You/They were

I had been….

You had been….

She/he/It had been….

We/You/They had been….

注意:句型变化时,

否定句在am /is /are /will /have /has /was /were /had /would 后面加not,而且not都可以缩写为n’t (am后面not不可以缩写)

疑问句将am /is /are /will /have /has /was /were /had /would 提前到句首。

 

4、其它动词(主动语态)时态变化一览表

现在  时态

谓语动词构成

动词用原形(单三加s / es)

(问句和否定句借用助词do / does)

am

is     +动词-ing

are

will + 动词原形

am

is     +going to+动词原形

are

have +过去分词

has

过去  时态

谓语动词构成

动词用过去式

(问句和否定句借用助词did)

was

       +动词-ing

were

would + 动词原形

was

+going to+动词原形

were

had +过去分词

5、八种时态的具体用法:

(1)    一般现在时 表示现阶段经常或习惯发生的动作或存在的状态,或说明主语的特征。

① 一般现在时句子中常有的时间状语:often,usually,sometimes,always,every (day),     once/twice,a (week), on (Sunday),never,in the (morning)。如:They go to the Palace Museum once a year.(他们每年去一次故宫)/ They often discuss business in the evening.(他们经常在晚上商谈生意)

② 表示客观真理、事实、人的技能或现在的状态时句子里一般不用时间状语。如:The earth turns round the sun.(地球绕着太阳转)/ Light travels faster than sound.(光传播比声音快)

表示十分确定会发生(如安排好的事情)或按照时间表进行的事情,用一般现在可以表达将来,句子中可以有将来时间。如:The train for Haikou leaves at 800 in the morning.(开往汉口的列车上午8点开车)

在时间状语从句中(when, after, before, while, until, as soon as等引导)和条件状语从句中(if,unless引导),用一般现在时代替一般将来时,句子可以有将来时间。如:Please ring me up as soon as you arrive in Germany.(你一到德国就给我打电话) / If it rains tomorrow,we will have to stay at home.(如果明天下雨我们就只好呆在家)

一般现在时用于倒装句中可以表示正在发生的动作,动词以come, go为主。如:Here comes the bus. (车来了) / There goes the bell.(铃响了)

一般现在时常用于体育比赛的解说或寓言故事中。Now the midfield player catches the ball and he keeps it.

人的心理活动和感官动作一般用一般现在时而不用现在进行时表达,常见动词有:like, love, hate, dislike, want, wish, hope, think(认为),understand, remember, forget, mean, need, hear, feel, see. 如:I think it is going to snow.(我想天要下雪了)/ I really hope you can enjoy your stay here.(我真的希望你愉快地呆在这儿)

(2)     一般过去时 表示过去某时发生的动作或状态,这种动作或状态可能是一次性,也可能经常

发生。

① 表示过去具体时刻发生的一次性动作时,时间状语有:at (eight) (yesterday morning),(ten minutes) ago, when引导的时间状语从句。如:I got up at 600 this morning.(我是早上六点钟起床的)/ Little Tom broke the window at half past nine this morning.(小汤姆今天早上九点半把窗子打破了)/ When he went into the room,he saw a stranger talking with his father.(他走进房间时发现一个陌生人正和他父亲谈话)

② 表示过去一段时间内不知何时发生的一次性动作时,时间状语有:yesterday, last (year), in (1998 )。如:He came to our city in the year 2000.(2000年来到我们市)

③ 表示过去一个阶段中经常发生的事情时,时间状语有:last…, in…, from…to…, for(10 years),often,usually, sometimes, always, never等。如:Mr Jackson usually went to evening schools when he was young. / Every day he went to the rich man and borrowed books from him.

④ 讲故事、对过去经历的回忆、双方都明白的过去事件等一般用过去时,而且经常省略时间状语。如:I happened to meet Rose in the street.(我正好在街上遇到露西)

(3)    一般将来时 表示将来某一时刻或经常发生的动作或状态。

①一般将来时的时间状语有:tomorrow,this (afternoon),next (year),one day,now,soon,     

someday,sometime, in the future, when引导的从句等。

② 用will构成的将来时,表示动作与人的主观愿望无关。“shall”用于第一人称,will      

用于所有人称。如:I will graduate from this school soon.(我很快就要从这所中学毕业了)/ You will stay alone after I leave.(我走了之后你就要一个人过了)

③ “am/is/are going to+动词原形”表示打算或准备要做的事情,或者主观判断即将要发生的事情,而“am/is/are to +动词原形”表示安排或计划中的动作。如:A man told them that the woman was to give birth to the special baby.(有一个人告诉他们那个妇女就会生下那个特别的男孩)/ It’s going to rain soon.(天快要下雨了)

④ 表示一个人临时决定要做某事,可以用will表达。如:I will go to the lab to get some

chemicals(化学药剂). So please wait until I return.(我要到化学实验室去取些药品,请等我回头)

⑤ 现在进行时、一般现在时也可以表示将来。(见相应时态)

⑥ shallwill 在口语的一些疑问句中相当于情态动词。Shall一般与第一人称连用,will与第二人称连用。如:Shall we go to the zoo next Saturday?(我们下周六去动物园好吗?)/ Will you please open the door for me?(替我把门打开好吗?)

        be to +动词原形”表示按照计划将要发生的事情。如:An angel came to tell her that she was to have this special boy. 

 

(4)现在进行时 现在进行时表示现在正在进行的动作或是现阶段正发生而此刻不一定在进行的动作。

  现在进行时由“助动词be (am is are ) +现在分词”构成。

  现在进行时的时间状语有: now, this …, these…,但经常不用。如:What are you doing up in the tree?(你在树上干什么?)/ I am writing a long novel these days.(我最近在写一本长篇小说)

  表示即将发生的动作,一般指近期安排好的事情。常见的动词有:come, go, stay, leave, spend, do等。如:I’m coming now.(我就来)/ What are you doing tomorrow?(你明天干什么?)/ He is leaving soon.(他就要走了)

  表示频繁发生或反复进行的动作,常与always等频度副词连用,以表示赞扬、不满或讨厌等感情色彩。如:He is always borrowing money from me and forgetting all about it some time later.(他老是向我借钱,过一些时候就忘得一干二净)

   初一:

   1. Where is your mum?

     She _______ at the kitchen.

  

 

(5)过去进行时  过去进行时表示过去某一时刻或某阶段正在进行的动作。

  过去进行时由“was(第一、三人称单数)were(第二人称单数和各人称的复数)+现在分词”构成。

  过去进行时的时间状语有:then, at that time, this time yesterday, at (eight) yesterday (morning),(a year) ago, 以及由when引出的时间状语从句。如:He was cooking supper this time yesterday.(昨天这个时候他正在做晚饭)/ The little girl was playing with her toy when I saw her.(我看到小女孩的时候她正在玩玩具)

  用于宾语从句或时间状语从句中,表示与主句动作同时进行而且是延续时间较长。句子中通常不用时间状语。如:She was it happen when she was walking past.(她路过时看到事情的发生)/ They sang a lot of songs while they were walking in the dark forest.(他们在黑暗的森林里走时唱了很多歌)

  也可以表示过去一个阶段频繁发生或反复进行的动作,常与always等频度副词连用,以表示赞扬、不满或讨厌等感情色彩。如:He was always borrowing money from me when he lived here.(他住在这里时老向我借钱)

 

(6)现在完成时  现在完成时表示一个发生在过去的、对现在仍有影响的动作,或表示开始在过去,并且一直延续到现在,甚至还可能延续下去的动作。

①在完成时由“助动词have (has)+动词的过去分词”构成。

②表示发生在过去的对现在仍有影响的动作时,时间状语有:already, yet, just, once, twice,ever, never,three times, before等。如:I have never seen such fine pictures before. (我以前从来没有看过这么好的画)/ He has just gone to England.(他刚去英国)

③表示在过去开始一直延续到现在(可能延续下去)的动作或状态时,时间状语有:for (two years),since 1990, since (two weeks ago)since引导的状语从句。如:I have been away from my hometown for thirty years.(我离开家乡有30年了)/ Uncle Wang has worked in the factory since it opened.(自从这家工厂开张,王叔叔一直在那儿工作)

④口语中have got往往表示have()的意思。如:They have got thousands of books in their library.(他们图书馆有上万本书)

have been tohave gone to的区别:have gone to(“已经去了”)表示人不在这里,have been to(“去过”)表示人在这里。如:--Where is Mr Li? –He has gone to the UK.(先生在哪里?他去了英国。)/ --Do you know something about Beijing? –Yes,I have been to Beijing three times. (你知道北京的情况吗?是的,我去过那里三次。)

⑥在完成时中,一个瞬间性动词(一次性动作)不能与表示一段时间的状语连用,此时须将该瞬间动词改为延续性动词或状态动词。具体变化见下表:

 

 

瞬间性动词的完成时

延续性动词或状态动词的完成时

have

(already)

gone to…

have

been in / at …

for (two years)

has

 

come to…

has

been here

since (1990)

(had)

 

left…

(had)

been away from…

 

 

 

arrived…

 

been in…

 

 

 

died

 

been dead

 

 

 

begun

 

been on

 

 

 

ended

 

been over

 

 

 

bought...

 

had…

 

 

 

borrowed…

 

kept…

 

 

 

joined…

 

been in …

 

        或者使用下面这个句型:

It  is / has been  + (多久)+ since + 主语()+谓语(过去时)+……+过去时间状语

  [注意] 在其它的时态中也存在类似问题,记住,关键是:瞬间动词不能和表达一段时间的状语连用。如How long may I keep the book?(这本书我能借多久?)(句子中keep取代了borrow)

(7) 过去完成时  过去完成时表示过去某一时间或某一动作发生之前已经完成的动作。简言之, 过去完成时所表示的时间是“过去的过去”。

①过去完成时由“助动词had+动词的过去分词”构成。

②过去完成时时间状语有:by (yesterday), by then, by the end of (last…)或者由when,before等引出状语从句。有时句子中会有already, just, once, ever, never等词语,也会有for… since…构成的时间状语。如:They had already finished cleaning the classroom when their teacher came.(当老师来的时候他们已经打扫完了教室)/ The woman had left before he realized she was a cheat.(在他发觉那个妇女是个骗子时她已经走掉了)

③过去完成时常用于宾语从句中、after引导的从句中,或者从句是before引导的主句中。如:After I had put on my shoes and hat,I walked into the darkness.(我穿上鞋子戴上帽子走进了黑暗之中)/ He said that he had never seen a kangaroo before.(他说他以前从来没有见过袋鼠)

(8) 过去将来时  过去将来时表示在过去预计将要发生的动作或存在的状态。

①过去将来时由“助动词should(第一人称)would(第二、三人称)+动词原形”构成。在美国英语中,过去将来时的助动词一律用“would +动词原形”。

②过去将来时常由于宾语从句中,时间状语有:later, soon, the next (day).

③在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中不可以使用过去将来时,而应该使用一般过去时。如:He promised that he would pay me a lot if I helped him with the project.(他答应付给我许多钱如果我帮助他搞那个项目)/ Every time when he was free,he would sit down and read some books.(每次只要他有空他就会坐下来看看书)

④表示纯粹的将来时用wouldshould,表示打算或主观认为的事情用was/were going to (+动词原形)。如:She told me she would be 18 the next month.(她告诉我她下个月就18岁了)/ She told me that she was going to have a walk with her pet dog.(她告诉我她打算带她的宠物狗去散步)

⑤过去将来时还可以表示一个过去经常性的动作。如:When it rained in the day, he would bring an umbrella with him.(白天下雨时他会随身带一把雨伞)

   (9)现在完成进行时:现在完成进行时指一个从过去就开始一直延续到现在并由可能继续下去的动作,它具有现在完成时和现在进行时双重特征,结构是:“have/has + been +动词的现在分词”。如:I have been swimming in the cold water for about two hours.(我已经在冰冷的水里游了将近两个小时)/ How long have you been waiting here?(你在这里一直等了多久?)

6、被动语态:

(1)被动语态定义:被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,用来说明主语与谓语动词之间的关系。如果主语是   动作的执行者(即某人做某事),便叫主动语态;如果主语是动作的承受者(即某事被做),便叫被动语态。主动与被动的区别不是词序的区别,而是主语与谓语意义上的区别。在英语中只有及物动词和一些相当于及物动词的词组才有被动语态的形式。

(2)英语中被动语态由“助动词be +动词的过去分词”构成。助动词be有时态、人称和数的变化。被动语态后的by短语有时可省去。具体结构见下表:

现在时态

一般现在时

现在进行时

现在完成时

谓语动词构   

am

is    +p.p.

are

am

is    +being+p.p.

are

will + be+p.p.

am

is    +going to+ be + p.p.

are

have(has) +been+p.p.

过去时态

一般过去时

过去完成时

谓语动词构   

was    +p.p.

were

was

      +being+p.p.

were

would +be+p.p.

was     +going to+be+p.p.

were

had +been+p.p.

       [] p.p.表示过去分词。

(1) 被动语态的用法:

不知道谁是动作的执行者(即不知道谁做)时用被动语态,省略by短语。如:A man was killed in the accident.(一个人死于事故)/ This window was broken yesterday.(这扇窗子是昨天被打破的)

不说或者众所周知是谁做时,用被动语态,省略by短语。如:Rice is also grown in this place.(这个地方也种水稻)/ A railroad will be built here in three years.(三年之后这里将要修建一条铁路)

强调动作的承受者,句尾加by短语。如:It was written by Lu Xun.(()是鲁迅写的)/ A pet dog is never killed by its owner.(宠物狗是不会被主人宰杀的)

(2) 主动语态如何改写为被动语态:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    主动句:   主语(/)  +  谓语(及物动词) +  宾语(/)  +  其他  + 状语

             (动作的执行者)  (各种时态形式)    (动作的承受者)     

 

 

 

  被动句: 主语(/)  +  谓语(及物动词) +  by   + /     + 其他  + 状语

             (动作的承受者)  (be +过去分词)       (动作的执行者)               

 

(3) 注意点:

“动词+间接宾语+直接宾语”改为被动时,可以用间接宾语做被动句的主语。如:

        His teacher gave him a dictionary.He was given a dictionary by his teacher.(老师给他一本字典→他得到老师一本字典)

也可以用直接宾语做被动句的主语,但是需用to或者for引出原句的间接宾语。如:His teacher gave him a dictionary.A dictionary was given to him by his teacher.(老师给他一本字典→一本字典由老师送给了他)/His father made him a kite.A kite was made for him by his father.(他的父亲给他做了一个风筝→一个风筝由他的父亲做给了他)

“动词+宾语+动词原形”改为被动时,动词原形前要加to.如:The boss made the poor man work 12 hours a day.The poor man was made to work 12 hours a day.(老板让这个可怜的人一天工作12小时→这个可怜人被迫一天工作12小时)

“动词+…+介词”改为被动时,介词一般在原位不动。如:The girl takes good care of her little brother.The girl’s little brother is taken good care of by her.(女孩照顾小弟弟→女孩的小弟弟由她照顾着)

be+过去分词”未必表示被动语态,而可能是系表结构。如:

He is pleased / worried / tired /…….(系表)(他高兴/焦虑/疲劳……)

 He was hit / knocked down / told / shot / …….(被动)(他被击中/撞倒/关照/射中……)

 

7、动词的非谓语形式:动词不做谓语时的固定形式

(1)动词的非谓语形式包括动词不定式、动名词和分词三种形式;其中分词又包含现在分词和过去分词两种形式。它们在句子中不能单独作谓语。

(2)动词不定式:

形式:动词不定式基本形式由“不定式记号to+动词原形”构成。它的否定形式只要在“to 前面加上“not”。它的疑问形式是:“wh-疑问词+to+动词原形”。*它的被动形式:“to be +过去分词”。*它的完成形式:“to have +过去分词”。

动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,即可以在句子中作主语、宾语、定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语。但不定式也保留动词的某些特征,即不定式后面可以跟宾语、表语和状语。动词不定式加上相关成分就构成不定式短语。

动词不定式可以放在谓语前句子作主语。但是通常将作主语的动词不定式或不定式短语放在谓语后面,而在主语位置用“it”作形式主语(有时在不定式的前面还会用for sb.表示不定式的逻辑主语)。如:To help animals is helping people.(帮助动物就是帮助人)/ It is very difficult (for us) to learn Chinese well.((对于我们而言)学好汉语是非常的困难)/ It took me half an hour to work out this problem.(解出这道题花了我一个小时的时间)

动词不定式可以作谓语动词(及物动词)的宾语。

[A] 及物动词+不定式一般形式:

谓语动词(vt.)

+不定式

(作宾语)

[     ]

want() / try(试图) / decide(决定) / would like(想要) / hope(希望) / love(喜爱) / learn(学会) / afford(提供) / agree(同意) / fail(失败、未能) / mean(意味着) / prefer(宁愿) / wish(希望)

+ to (do)

()

help(帮助)

to可以省略

begin(开始)/ start(开始)/hate(憎恨)

也可跟动名词,意义变化不大

forget(忘记) / remember(记得)/ like(总爱)

也可跟动名词,意义变化较大

    如:I would like to have a rest at the moment.(我现在想休息一下)/ They began to search the room for the thief.(他们开始在屋子里搜寻小偷)/ He liked to have a swim in the pool near his house.(他喜爱在靠家的水塘里面游泳)/ When did you learn to speak English?(你什么时候开始学英语的?)/ Don’t forget to close the door when you leave.(你离开时别忘了关门

[比较] He forgot to turn off the light.(他忘了关灯.) (没关)/ He forgot turning off the light.(他忘记关过灯.)(关了) / Please remember to ring me up.(记得给我打电话.)(还没打电话) / I remember calling you yesterday but you forgot.(我记得昨天给你打电话了,但是你忘记了.)(打过电话)

     [B] 及物动词+疑问词+不定式:

         谓语动词(vt.)

+wh-疑问词+不定式 (作宾语)

[说明]

tell (告诉) / show (显示) / know (知道) / ask () / find out (发现) / understand (明白) / wonder(疑惑) / learn(学会) / forget(忘记) / remember(记得) / teach sb.(教某人) / discuss(商讨)

what

    where

+   how       + to (do)

who

which

……

不定式疑问形式还可以作句子的主语、表语等。

     如:He does not know which one to take.(他不知道该选哪个)/ Tell me how to get to the station.(告诉我怎么样去火车站)/ She asked me what to do for today’s homework.(她问我今天家庭作业做什么)/ Can you teach me how to search the internet?(你能教我怎样上网吗?)

   [C] 不定式作宾语而后面又有宾语补足语时,通常用it代替作形式宾语,而不定式则后置。如: I found it not very easy to learn to ride a bike.(我发现学骑车不很容易)

动词不定式可以在句子中用作定语,放在名词或代词后面。

[A] 记住下面的一些结构:

被修饰部分    +  不定式(作后置定语)

a key

to lock the door

锁门的钥匙

              a box

to hold these things

装这些东西的箱子

give her a book

to read

给她一本书读

Is there any (+名词/代词)

to (do)?   

(做的)?

It’s  time

to go.

是走的时间了。/ 该走了。

Do you have any work

to do?

你有工作要做吗?

I’d like something

to eat.

我要点儿吃的。

I have nothing

to say.

我没有话要说。

Would you like something

to drink?

你要点儿喝的吗?

[B] 在这种情况下,如果不定式动词是不及物动词,则后面必须加介词。如:

They could not find a place to live in.(他们找不到住的地方)/ Please give me a chair to sit on.(请给我一张椅子坐坐)/ He has got a writing brush to write with.((他找到了写字的毛笔)

动词不定式可以在句子中用作状语,有下列几种情况:

[A] 放在不及物动词(come, go, stop, finish, wait等词)的后面。如:He came to see her yesterday.(他昨天来看望她)(表示来的目的)/ I stopped to have a rest.(我停下来休息一会儿)(表示停下来的目的)

[B] 放在完整的谓语之后(即“谓语+宾语”、“谓语+宾语+补语”、“动词+表语”之后)。如:We cleaned the room to let him play in it.(我们打扫了房间以便让他在里面玩)/ I opened the window to see more clearly.(我打开窗子以便看得更清楚点儿)

[C] 有时表示目的的不定式短语可以放在句首。如:To arrive there on time,I got up one hour earlier than usual.(为了按时到达,我们比平时早起了一个小时)(表示早起的目的)

[注意] stop to do stop doing的不同。如:They stopped to have a look.(他们停下来看看)(不定式作“停下来”的目的状语)/ They stopped looking out of the window and began to listen to the teahcher.(他们停止向窗外望,开始听老师讲课)(动名词作宾语,表示“停止”的内容)

动词不定式可以在句子中用作表语,限用于连系动词之后。如:My job is to keep the goal.(我的工作就是守住球门)

动词不定式可以在句子中用作复合宾语中的宾语补足语。

       (vt.)

+ 宾语 ( / )

+不定式             (作宾语补足语)

ask() / tell(关照) / teach() / want(想要) / would like(想要) / get() / help() / invite(邀请) / like(喜欢) / warn(警告) /

+sb. / sth.

+to (do)

make(使得) / let() / hear() / see() / feel(感觉) / watch(观看)/ have(使得) / help(帮助)

+sb. / sth.

+ (do)

  如:Mum asked me to help her with the cooking.(妈妈叫我帮助她做饭)/ I would like you to see my parents.(我想要你见见我的父母)/ The boss often made the workers work 14 hours a day.(老板常让工人们一天工作14小时)/ Now let me hear you play the violin.(现在让我来听你拉小提琴)

       [注意] help之后做宾补的不定式符号to可以省略;hear / see / feel / watch之后的宾补用不定式与现在分词时,含义不同,需特别注意,(参见现在分词部分)。试比较:

      I heard her crying when I walked past.(我路过时听到她正在哭)(指当时瞬间的情况)

      I sat near her and heard her sing the new song.(我坐在她附近听她新歌)(指整个过程)

   (3)动名词

动名词由动词原形加词尾“ing”构成。动名词有动词的特征,可以跟宾语,可以被状语修饰;它也有名词的特征,在句子中可以作主语、宾语(包括介词宾语)等。动名词加相关词语(宾语或状语等)构成动名词短语。

动名词可以作主语。一般可用it作形式主语而将动名词短语后移。如:Learning English all by yourself is not so easy.(自学好英语不那么容易)(=It is not so easy learning English all by yourself.)

动名词可以作宾语

[A] want / need之后用动名词时,含有被动意思。如:Your car needs reparing badly.(你的车急需修理。)(被修)My hair needs cutting.(我要理发。)(头发被理)

[B] remember / forge / stop / finish之后用动名词时,与用不定式含义不同。如:I forgot to write a letter to him.(我忘了给他写封信)(根本没写) / I forgot writing a letter to him.(我忘了给他写过信)(写了却忘了) / They stopped to look back.(他们停下来向后看)(停下的目的是向后看) / They stopped looking back.(他们停止向后看)(不向后看了)

[C] enjoy / mind / keep / hate/ go等词一般用动名词作宾语。如:Do you mind my closing the door?(把门关上你介意吗?)/ She hates travelling by air.(她讨厌坐飞机旅行)/ They went swimming every afternoon.(他们每天下午去游泳)/ I enjoy walking around the town.(我喜欢在镇上转悠)

[D] like / love / start / begin / learn后面用动名词时,与用不定式意思相近或相同。如:We began to study English when we were at primary school.(我们在小学时就开始学英语了) / We began studying English when we were at primary school. (我们在小学时就开始学英语了)

动名词可以作表语,此时特别注意不要与现在进行时混淆。如:My job is putting these parts  together.(我的事情是把这些部件拼起来) / I am putting these parts together.(正在把这些部件拼起来)

动名词与现在分词构成相同,但是含义不同,动名词主要表示事情,而现在分词则主要表示进行着的动作。如:Eating too much is not good for your health. (动名词短语,作主语) / Seeing is believing.(动名词短语,分别作主语和表语) / He ran after a moving bus and got onto it.(现在分词,作定语) / His father saw him sitting on some eggs.(现在分词,作宾补)

(4)分词: 包含现在分词和过去分词。(高中学习重点)

主要区别:现在分词一般有主动的意思或表示动作正在进行的意思;过去分词有被动或动 作已经完成的意思。分词可以有自己的宾语或状语。

分词或分词短语在句子中作定语、状语和复合宾语等。

[A] 作定语:分词作定语,一般要放在修饰的名词之前,分词短语作定语时,则要放在所修饰的名词之后。 如:I have got a running nose.(鼻涕) / The woman running after the thief shouted very loudly,Stop the thief!(跟着小偷追的妇女大喊:捉小偷!) / Yesterday I met a man called Mr. Black.(昨天我遇见了一个名叫布莱克先生的人)/ He only gave me a broken glass,so I was very angry with him.(他只给了我一个坏玻璃杯,所以我很生他的气)

[B] 现在分词可以作下列动词的宾语补足语。(参考不定式作宾语补足语)

谓语动词(vt.)

宾语

宾语补足语

keep(保持) / see(看到) /

hear(听到) / watch(注意到) / feel(感觉到)

sb./sth.

(do)ing

    如:Mum kept me working all the week.(妈妈让我一个星期都在工作)/ When I entered the room,I saw Jack eating a big pear.(我进入房间时看到杰克正在吃一只大梨子)/ In the dark I felt something very cold moving on my foot.(黑暗之中我感到有个冷的东西在我的脚上移动)

[C] 现在分词可以作状语,表示伴随情况。如:She came into the classroom,holding a pile of papers in her hand.(他走进教室,手上抓着一沓纸)/ I am very busy these days getting ready for the coming oral test.(这些日子我正忙着准备即将来到的口语考试)

[D] 过去分词可以作表语,放在连系动词后面,但要注意不要与被动语态混淆,“主系表”主要表示状态,而被动语态则表示动作。常用过去分词作表语的结构有:be worried (焦虑) / be pleased (高兴) / be tired (疲劳) / get dressed (打扮好) / get lost (迷路) / get caught (遭遇) / beome frustrated (沮丧) / become intereted in (感兴趣)等等。例略。

[E] 过去分词可以作宾语补足语。如:I had my hair cut this morning.(今天早上我让人给我理了发)(注意:have sth. done表示动作由别人来做,have done sth.则为现在完成时的结构,两个结构不可以混淆)

8、动词用法辨析:

(1)Why not+动词原形+…?(干嘛不……?)是简略句,完全形式是:Why don’t you +动词原形+…?如:Why not go and have a look?(干嘛不去看看?)/ Why not try it once again?(为什么不再试试?)

(2) seem(好象)的用法:记住几个结构:①sb./sth. + seem + (to be+)形容词+…;②sb./sth. + seem + like +…;③sb/sth + seem + to (do);④It seems that + 从句。如:He seemed (to be) very happy when he was called by the headmaster. (被校长叫到名字时他好象很开心) / It seems that nobody else could do such a foolish thing except Jim. (除了吉姆好象没有什么人会做出如此愚蠢的事情来)

(3) be afraid(害怕)的用法:记住几个结构:①be afraid of sth; be afraid of (doing); be afraid to (do); be afraid that+从句。如:She is a little afraid of snakes.(她有点怕蛇)/ Don’t be so afraid to stay at home alone at night.(别害怕晚上一个人在家)/ I’m afraid that somebody will take his place because of his serious mistakes.(恐怕有人要取代他了,因为他犯了那么大的错误)

(4) be sorry(抱歉)的用法:记住几个结构:①be sorry for (sth); be sorry for (doing sth); be sorry to (do); be sorry that+从句。如:I am very sorry for keeping you waiting so long.(不好意思让你久等了)I am sorry to trouble you.(对不起,麻烦你了)/ I am sorry (that) he isn’t here at the moment.(恐怕他现在不在)

(5) be sure (确信)的用法:记住几个结构: be sure of (sth); be sure to(do); be sure that+从句。如:She told me many times that she was sure to come.(她给我讲过多次她一定会来的) / Are you sure of your answer?Maybe it’s wrong.(你对你的答案有把握吗?也许是错的。)/ I am sure that Dad will help me with the job.(我确信爸爸会帮着我做这件事情的)

(6) make do的用法:一般情况下表示进行活动或者做工作用do,表示创造建构某事物用make. 如:I don’t know what to do.(我不知道该干什么)/ I’m not going to do any work.(我不准备做什么)/ My father and I once made a boat.(我和我爸曾经做过一只船)

此外还要记住一些固定说法:do good / harm / business / one’s best / a favour……

make a decision / an effort / a mistake / a noise / a phone call / money / war / the bed / sure,...

(7)put onwearhave…onbe intry ondress的用法:put on强调“穿、戴”这个动作过程,wear则表示“穿着、戴着”这一状态,have+衣物+on主要表示状态,be in(+颜色/衣物)也是表示一个状况,dress(+)表示“给人穿衣”。如:Please put on your new shoes.(请穿上你的新鞋)/ The twins are wearing the same clothes.(双胞胎穿着相同的衣服)/ Today she has an overcoat on.(今天她穿着一件大衣) / Do you know the woman who is in black?(你认识那个身穿黑衣的女人吗?)/ Dad is dressing Tom now.(爹正在给汤姆穿衣)

  [注意]dresswearput on的区别:wearput on常用衣物作宾语,dress常用人作宾语。表示给自己穿衣时常用“get dressed”或“dress oneself”表达。be dressed inwear基本同义。dress up意为“穿上盛装、乔装打扮”。如:Could you dress the baby for me?(你能替我给宝宝穿衣吗?)/ He is eight but can’t dress himself.(他八岁了,还不会穿衣服)/ She was dressed in a red coat.(她穿着一件红上衣)/ Do I have to dress up to go to Jim’s party?(我得穿上好衣服去参加吉姆的聚会吗?)

(8)likeloveenjoy的用法:三个词都含有“喜欢”的意思,但是,likeenjoy后面跟动名词,love 后面一般跟动词不定式love to do sth.like后面有时跟动词不定式,表示一种习惯嗜好(往往与具体的时间或地点有关)enjoy后面还可以加名词、反身代词,表示“享受乐趣;玩得开心”。如:Do you like shopping?(你喜欢购物吗?)/ He likes to have a swim when he gets home every afternoon(习惯,与具体的时间有关).(每天下午放学后他总爱游个泳)/ They love to sing foreign songs.(他们喜爱唱外国歌曲)/ Did you enjoy yourself at the party?(在聚会上你玩得开心吗?)/ He enjoys living in China.(他喜欢在中国生活)

(9)studylearn的用法: study主要表示“学习、研究”,过程;而learn主要表示“学会”,结果。表示“学”时可以互换。如:How many subjects do you study?(你学多少门课程?) / Have you learned it yet?(这个你学过了吗?)/ How long have you studied/learned English?(你学英语多久了?)

    learn还可以表示“听说,如:He learned the musician himself was in town.(他听说音乐家本人就在城里)

(10)thinkwantwould like的用法:三个词都含有“想”的意思,think指“思考、考虑”,want指“想要、愿望、企图”,would like指“想要”,think后面一般跟介词短语或从句,wantwould like后面跟名词或动词不定式。如:Do you think that China will become a developed country in 40 years? (你认为中国会在40年后成为发达国家吗?)/ I am thinking of the money I once lent to Li Min.((我正在想着以前借给黎敏的钱)/ What do you really want to say?(你到底想干什么?)/ Which of these cakes would you like (to have)?(这些饼子中你想吃哪些?)

(11)look forsearch…forfindfind out的用法:前面两个词语表示动作过程,后面两个表示结果,look for指“寻找”不见的或丢失的东西,还没有找到;search…for…指“为找而搜寻”;find指“找到”了东西;find out主要指“查明一个事实真相”。如:Hey, Monkey, what are you looking for in the cupboard?(,猴儿!你在厨子里面找什么呢?)/ Have you found the lost key to your car?(你找着丢失的车钥匙了吗?)/ The soldiers were searching the room for the spy when they heard a loud noise.(士兵们正在房间里面搜寻间谍突然间他们听到了衣声巨响)/ Let’s try to find out who broke the window.(让我们查查谁把窗子打破了)

[注解] find的几个结构:find sb. sth“为某人找到,find sth./sb. + adj./n.“发觉某人是,find it +adj. + to do…(+宾语从句)“发现(……)如何”。如: His mother found her daughter a very clever girl.(他的母亲发现她的女儿是个聪明的女孩)(名词作补语补足语) / You can easily find it not good for your health to eat cold food.(你很容易就会发现吃冷食对你的身体是不利的)

(12)listen tohear的用法:两个词与听觉有关,listen to指“听”这一过程,hear指“听到”这一结果。如:Are you listening to me, Jim? Yes, I have heard your words. (吉姆,你在听我说吗?是的,你的话我全听见了)

(13)lookseewatchread的用法:四个词均与眼睛有关,look指放眼去“看”(不管是否看得到),指“看”的过程see指“看见”这一结果,有时see引申为“明白,表示“看”时后面加“电影”等词,see the film/film watch指专注的看,含有“注视、监视”之义,后面常跟“电视、比赛”等词;read限制为看书面材料,译为“看、阅读”,后面跟“书、报纸、杂志”等词。如:What are you looking at?(你在看什么?)/ Please look at the blackboard. (请看黑板)/ Let me go to see the film, mum, will you? (妈妈,让我去看电影吧,好吗?)/ He won’t feel well until he finishes watching the football match. (要看完了足球赛他才会感觉好些)/ Reading gives us knowledge.(阅读给我们知识)

(14)hearhear ofhear fromlearn的用法: hear“听说”,后面可以跟名词、代词、从句表示听见的内容,hear of“听说”,后面跟,指对某人有耳闻但没有见过面;hear from“收到……来信,后面加learn“听说、得知”,后面跟从句,含义与hear相似。如:I hear Mr Green is coming to see us tonight. (我听说格林先生今晚要来看望我们)/ Have you ever heard of the man who once went to the Himalaya Mountains? (你是否听说过那个去过喜马拉雅山的人?)/ How often do you hear from your father? (隔多久你收到你父亲的信?)/ He learned the musician himself was in town.(他听说音乐家本人就在城里)

(15)speaktalksaytell的用法:四个词与“说”有关。speak讲话、发言、演说,是不及物动词,涉及人时要加介词to,speak作及物动词时后面跟语言名称talk“谈话、闲谈”,是不及物动词,涉及人时用介词withto,涉及事情时后面跟介词about等;say 是及物动词,后面跟名词、代词、从句等,表示说的内容;tell是及物动词,后面首先要跟人,然后再跟从句或者介词短语等。如:Do you speak English? (你讲英语吗?)/ Who spoke at the meeting? (谁在会上发了言?)/ Our teacher is talking to Lin Tao’s parent. (我们的老师正在跟林涛的家长讲话)/ Can you say it in English? (你能用英语说出它吗?)/ Please tell me something about the strange flying object. (请跟我讲讲那个奇怪的飞行物的事情吧)

(16)be able to(do)can的用法:can是情态动词,有许多含义,表示“可能、可以、会”等意思,只有①现在式can和过去式could两种形式;be able to表示能力上“会”,多种时态形式,to后面跟动词原形,有时可以与can/could互换。如:Can you speak English? (你会说英语吗?)/ He couldn’t(wasn’t able to) swim when he was 12. (他十二岁时不会游泳)

    表示成功的做了某事时,只能用be able to.如:

    He was able to flee Europe before the war broke out.

(17)there behave的用法:两个词都可以译为“有”,但是,have表示的是“拥有”,主语必须是或者there be表示“存在”的概念,主语在there be之后。如:How many brothers and sisters do you have?  I have only one brother. (你有多少兄弟?我只有一个兄弟。)/ How many chairs and desks are there in their classroom? There is none. (他们教室里有多少张桌椅?一张也没有。)

    [注解]there be sb./sth doingthere be sb./sth to do 有所不同:用doing表示一个正在发生的事情,而用to do 则表示尚未做的即将要做的动作。如: Look! There is a dog lying on the stairway. / Take your time. There is nothing for you to do tonight.

(18)borrowlendkeep的用法:表示“借”的三个词,borrow“借”、lend“借”都是一次性动作,不可以和表示一段的时间状语连用;keep“保存”用来表示借一段时间。如: I have lost the book I borrowed from my teacher. What can I do? (我丢掉了从老师那里借来的书)/  How long have you kept my dictionary,eh?For more than two months! (,我的字典你借了多久了?两个多月了!)

(19)bringtakecarrysendlift的用法:bring指从远处“拿来”,是从别处把东西带到这里来,如:Can you bring me that glass? 你能给我拿那个杯子吗?;take指从面前“拿走”,把人或物拿到别处不是说话的地方,如:Please take the letter to the post office .carry指一般的搬运, 不涉及方向;send主要指“送、派遣、寄”;lift指把东西由低向高“提起、拎起”。例略。

   (20)hopewish的用法:两个词都表示“希望”,但是,hope表达有把握或信心实现的事情,后面直接跟动词不定式或者宾语从句,不可以跟动名词或作宾语补足语的不定式;wish表达实现的可能性不大的事情,后面跟名词、宾语从句(用过去时)或者作宾语补足语的不定式。如:We all hope to see him very soon. (我们全都希望尽快见到他)/ I hope it will be fine tomorrow so that we can go out. (我希望明天天好,这样我们就能出去了。)/ How I wish it was not raining at the moment!(我多么希望此刻不在下雨!)(事实上天正在下雨,虚拟语气)

   (21)takespendpaycost的用法:①看主语 ②看结构

      spend的宾语通常是金钱或时间,句型:sb.+(spend)+时间/金钱+on sth / (in) doing sth.

take的主语通常是事情,句型:sth./It + (take)+sb.+时间+to do… (如果是动作则常用it作形式主语将动词不定式后移)

cost的宾语通常是时间、金钱、力气,句型:sth. +(cost)+sb.+时间/金钱/力气.

pay的宾语通常是金钱,句型:sb.+(pay)+金钱+for+事物.

如:She spent the whole night reading the novel. (她花了一个晚上看那本小说)/ This job will take me two days.=It will take me two days to do the job. (做这件事情要花我两天的时间)/ How much does a house like this cost? (像这样的房子要花多少钱?)/ I paid him twenty dollars for the book.. (我花了20元从他那儿买了书)

 (22)beginstart的用法:begin在大多数情况下可以替代start,(反义词是end),后面接不定式或动名词时区别不大,但是start还可以表示“开始、出发、启动,反义词是stop某事停止后再重新开始一般用start.如:When did you begin/start to learn English? (你什么时候开始学英语的?)/ They started getting in the crops after the rain stopped. (雨停后他们开始收割庄稼) / This time he could not start his car. (这次他没法启动他的汽车)

 (23)arrive in/atreachget to的用法:arrive是不及物动词,到达具体地点(单位,学校,家,车站)时后面加介词at , The new teacher arrived at our school . We arrived at the station just now,到达一个的地方(国家、地区、城市)时后面加介词in如:We arrived in Paris yesterday, arrive后面可以直接跟地点副词here/there/home等;get表示“到达”时是不及物动词,涉及地点(无论大小)时后面加to,get后面可以直接跟地点副词here等;reach是及物动词,后面直接跟地点名词。如:He arrived in San Francisco last Sunday. (上个星期天他抵达旧金山)/ How did you get there in the night? (你是怎样在夜间到达那里的?)/ We hurried all the way and reached the station just five minutes before the train left. (我们一路狂奔在火车启动前5分钟到达车站)

   (24)be made ofbe made frombe made intobe made inbe made bybe made for的区别:be made of指从制成品中可以看得出原材料,be made from则指从制成品中看出原材料,口语中都可以换成be made out of be made into表示“被制成……,be made in表达被制造的地点,be made by表达制造的人,be made for表达被制造的目的。如:This kind of paper is made from bamboo. (这种纸是由竹子生产的)/ The desk is made of wood and metal. (桌子是铁和木头打的)/ A lot of paper has been made into paper birds. (许多纸被折叠成了小鸟)/ Computers are made in these cities. (计算机是在这几个城市制造的)/ This kite was made by Uncle Wang. (这个风筝是王叔叔做的)/ A big bag was made for me to hold my waste things.(一只大包做好了让我装废物)

   (25)be used forbe used toused toget used to的区别:be used for + 名词/代词或动名词, be used to + 动词原形,表示两个短语意思相近,表示“用于”。  used to + 动词原形,表示“过去常常”,否定式可以是“didn’t use to”也可以是“usedn’t to”;get/be used to + 动名词,表示“习惯于….”。如:A knife can be used for cutting things.(刀可以用来割东西)/ A knife can be used to cut things.(刀可以用来割东西)/ He used to borrow novels from the library when he was at school. (他上学时常常在图书馆借书)/ He is used to getting up early in the morning. (他习惯早起)(注意:be used to 表示“被用作”和“习惯于”的区别)

(26)beat,winlose beat (打败),后面跟“,win(赢得),后面跟“比赛、竞赛”等。如:Who won at last? (最后谁赢了?)/ Class Three beat us 5-0. (三班以50打败了我们)/ I am sure to win the match. (我一定能赢得比赛)

  lose则表示“输了”,常用句型:lose sth. to sb. 如:Unluckily we lost the match to Class Three. (不幸的是我们比赛输给了三班)

(27)growplantkeep的区别:plant着重讲“栽、种植”这个动作,grow则指种植以后的“栽培”、“管理,keep则主要指“喂养”、“赡养”一个人或者动物。如 He grew vegetables in his garden. (他在园子里种菜)/ I planted ten trees last year,but four of them died. (去年我栽了10棵树,但是死了4)/ Old women enjoy keeping cats or dogs to kill the time. (老年的妇女喜欢养猫养狗打发时间)

(28)fall drop的区别:fall指东西由高处向下坠落,不及物动词;也可以作连系动词,意思是“变得,进入某种状态”。drop表示物体由高处往低处落下,不及物动词;或让物体落向低处,及物动词。如:The man fell off the tractor and hurt himself. (那个人从拖拉机上摔下来跌伤了)/ Soon after they touched the pillows they  fell (系动词) fast asleep. (他们头挨枕头不久就睡着了)/ He felt as if he had to drop maths.(他觉得似乎要放弃数学)/ He dropped a letter into the mail-box.(他向邮箱里丢了一封信)

(29)joinjoin intake part in的区别:join多指参加组织、团体、党派,后面跟时表示和某人一起参加某项活动;join in指参加某项游戏或活动take part in多指参加群众性的活动、运动、会议等。如:He joined the army in 2001.(2001年参军)/ They joined me in congratulating you.(他们和我一起向你祝贺)/ Do join us in the game.(千万参加我们的比赛) / He took an active part in the students’ movement in the 1940s.(在二十世纪40年代他积极参加学生运动)

(30)beathitstrike的用法区别:beat指“连续不断地打击;(心脏的)跳动”;hit指“一次性地撞击、命中”;strikehit基本同义,还可以理解为“(火柴)、给……深刻的印象”。如:The man looks dead, but his heart is still beating weakly. (那个人看上去死了可心脏还在微弱地跳动) / He hit the ball so hard that it flew over their heads and fell into the lake. (他踢球的劲太大球飞过他们的头顶落入水中) / He went into the room and struck a match(火柴). (他走进房间划着了一根火柴)

(31)carry oncarry out的区别:carry on表示“进行、继续”;carry out表示“执行、贯彻”。如:I will carry on the work. (我会继续工作)/ I have some difficulties in carrying out his orders. (对于执行他的命令我有问题)

(32)be amazedbe surprised的区别:be amazed“感到惊讶”,指人对某个不可能(可能是自认为的)发生却实际发生了的事情感到极其的讶异;be surprised“感到吃惊”指人对突发的事件感到惊讶。如:When he dived deep into the sea, he was amazed at the colours of all the beautiful coral reefs. (他深潜到海中时被所有美丽的珊瑚礁惊呆了)(原先可能想不到世上会有这么美的珊瑚) / He was very surprised when he heard a loud noise from inside the room. (听到房间里传出一个很大的声音他非常地吃惊)(突然传出来的声响)

(33)warn的用法:“warn sb. of/about sth”意思是“针对而警告某人”;“warn sb (not) to do sth”意思是“告戒某人()要做某事”;“warn sb. + that从句”意思是“警告某人说……”。如:They warned the passengers of thieves. (他警告路人小心窃贼) / I warn you that you will fail in the coming exams if you are still so lazy. (我警告你:如果你还这么懒在即将来到的考试中你会不及格的。) / He was warned not to go out in the late night. (他受到警告不要在深夜出去)

(34)think ofthink about等短语的区别:think of表示“考虑、思念、认为、想起、建议”等;“think about”表示“看待、认为”,表示对某事的看法;“think much /highly /a lot of”表示“高度评价”;“think over”表示“仔细考虑”;“think out”表示“想出”。如:The headmaster thought highly of this boy. (校长高度地评价了这个男孩) / We’re thinking of going to France for our holiday. (我们在考虑去法国度假的事情) / Think it over and you will have a way. (仔细考虑就有办法) / I cannot think of his name. I forgot it. (我想不起他的名字我忘了) / What do you think about his composition? Very good! (他的作文你觉得怎么样?  很好。)

(35)agree with/ agree to / agree on等词语用法:“agree to+动词”表示“同意做某事”,agree with + sb./观点”表示“赞同的观点”/ agree about表示“对话题有相同看法”/agree to +建议”表示“同意”某人的建议,agree to your advice,agree on + 决定”表示“赞成某人的决定”, agree on your decision。例略。

(36)deserve(应该,应得)的用法:deserve后面可以加不定式,也可以加名词或动名词。如:They had tried their best and they deserved to win. (他们尽力了该赢。) / The little boy always made troubles around and deserved beating. (小男孩总是处处惹麻烦活该被打) / The girl did a good deed and deserved praise. (女孩做了好事应该受到表扬)

    本站是提供个人知识管理的网络存储空间,所有内容均由用户发布,不代表本站观点。如发现有害或侵权内容,请点击这里 或 拨打24小时举报电话:4000070609 与我们联系。

    0条评论

    发表

    请遵守用户 评论公约

    类似文章 更多
    喜欢该文的人也喜欢 更多

    ×
    ×

    ¥.00

    微信或支付宝扫码支付:

    开通即同意《个图VIP服务协议》

    全部>>