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高考英语难点讲解---不定代词的固定表达

2011-08-29  2008y8m

不定代词具有名词和形容词的性质,并有可数与不可数、单数与复数的区别,用时需慎重。

   

    ●难点磁场

    1.(★★★★)—Is________here?

    —No,Bob and Tim have asked for leave.

    A.anybody           B.somebody          C.everybody          D.nobody

    2.(★★★★)They were very tired,but________of them would stop to take a rest.

    A.any               B.some              C.none              D.neither

    3.(★★★★)I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have________.

    A.it                 B.those              C.them              D.one

    4.(★★★★★)—When shall we meet again?

     —Make it ________day you like;it’s all the same to me.

     A.one              B.any               C.another            D.some

    5.(★★★★★)I agree with most of what you said,but I don’t agree with________.

    A.everything         B.anything           C.something          D.nothing

    (NMET1997)

    6.(★★★★★)Sarah has read lots of stories by American writers.Now she would like to read________stories by writers from________countries.

    A.some;any          B.other;some          C.some;other         D.other;other

    7.(★★★★)—Can you come on Monday or Tuesday?

     —I’m afraid________day is possible.

     A.either            B.neither             C.some              D.any

    8.(★★★★★)Dr.Black comes from either Oxford or Cambridge,I can’t remember________.

    A.where             B.there              C.which             D.that

    9.(★★★★★)—Are the new rules working?

    —Yes.________books are stolen.

    A.Few              B.More               C.Some             D.None

    10.(★★★★)Few pleasures can equal________of a cool drink on a hot day.

    A.some              B.any               C.that               D.those

    ●案例探究

    1.If you want to change for a double room,you’ll have to pay________$15.

    A.another            B.other              C.more              D.each

    (NMET2000)

    命题意图:本题考查学生对“又”“再”的英语表达方式的掌握,属五星级题目。

    知识依托:“another+数词+复数可数名词”表示在原有基础上多出的数量。

    错解分析:B、C迷惑性较大。因other、more也有“再”“又”之意,但位置与another不同。

    解题方法与技巧:必须记清表达方式,数词+more/other+复数可数名词。

    答案:A

    例:I’ve got another three books.

    I’ve got three more/other books.

    2.—Why don’t we take a little break?

    —Didn’t we just have________?

    A.it B.that C.one D.this

    (NMET2000)

    命题意图:考查学生对表示特指事物的代词和表示泛指事物的代词的区别,属四星级题目。

    知识依托:one代替单数可数名词,但泛指物。

    错解分析:A项选择迷惑性较大。因人称代词it和不定代词one都可以代替单数可数名词,但it指特定事物。

    解题方法与技巧:答语中用one泛指第一个对话者询问的a little break。

    答案:C

   

   

    ●锦囊妙计

    不定代词的种类较多,用法各异,下面分别进行介绍。

    1.one,some与any的用法

    one可以泛指任何人,还可以在形容词和that、this等词后代替刚提过的可数名词,其复数形式为ones,可用作主语和宾语;one’s是它的物主代词形式,可用作宾语;oneself是它的反身代词形式,可用作宾语。some和any通常用作定语,都可用来修饰可数与不可数名词、单数或复数名词。some用于单数可数名词前,表示“某一”。some用于数词前,表示“大约”。some一般用于肯定句,any多用于疑问、否定句中。例如:

    One should wash oneself regularly.

    This film is not as good as the one I saw yesterday.

    He thought it over carefully and concluded that heavy objects always fell faster than light ones.

    We have some food left.Have you any books?I don’t have any books.

    注意:①some可用于表达邀请或请求、预期的答案是肯定的或鼓励对方给予一个肯定的答复的问句。例如:

    Could you let me have some coffee?(请求)

    Would you like some bananas?(邀请)

    ②some和any可用作主语和宾语。例如:

    Some are singing,others are dancing.(主语)

    Does any of you know Mr Wang?(主语)

    I don’t like any of the books。(宾语)

    ③some,any,every,no与one,body,thing构成的合成代词都作单数看待。另外,some的合成代词一般用于肯定句,any的合成代词一般用于否定句、疑问句和条件从句。例如:

    Did anybody ask for you outside?

    There is somebody waiting for you.

    2.each,every的用法

    ①each强调个体,可以充当宾语、定语、主语和同位语,every强调整体,相当于汉语的“每个都”,在句中只作定语。例如:

    The teacher had a talk with each of them.(宾语)

    Each of us has two boxes.(主语)

    We have two boxes each.(同位语)

    Each boy has a bike.(定语)

    Every one has strong and weak points.(定语)

    ② each所代表的数可以是两个或两个以上,而every所指的数必须是三个以上。例如:

    Each of the two has won a prize.Every student in the class likes English.There is a line of trees on each side of the river.

    3.none和no的用法:

    ①no=no any在句中作定语,修饰可数或不数名词。none在句中作主语或宾语。none不能用来说明两个人或物。例如:

    There is no water in the well(井).(定语)

    None of them know the story.(主语)

    I know none of them.(宾语)

    ②none代替不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;代替可数名词作主语时,谓语动词可用单数,也可用复数。例如:

    None of the students are(is)afraid of difficulties。

    ③none不能回答who的问题,可回答how many或how much的问题,例如:

    (误)—Who is in the classroom?—None.(改None为No one或Nobody)

    (正)—How many students are there in the classroom?—None.

    4.many和much的用法

    many和much都表示“许多”, many修饰可数名词,much修饰不可数名词,都可用作主语、宾语和定语。例如:

    Many of the students often go shopping.(主语)

    I have much to do.(宾语)

    There is not much water in the cup.(定语)

    much有时用作状语,例如:

    He likes playing football very much。(状语)

    5.few,little;a few,a little的用法

    ①few和little表示没有多少,含否定意义;而a few与a little表示有一些,有几个,含肯定意义。另外,few与a few修饰可数名词,而little与a little修饰不可数名词,它们在句中常用作定语、主语和宾语。例如:

    He knows a little English.(定语)

    He has many books.But few are interesting.(主语)

    I know a little about Japanese(宾语)

    ②a few,a little可以用quite或only修饰,few和 little则不能。例如:

    —How much water is left?

    —Only a little./Qutie a little.

    —How many books are left?

    —Only a few./Quite a few.

    6.other和 another

    other泛指“另外的”,作定语,常与复数名词或单数不可数名词连用,但如果前面有the,this,that,some,any,each,every,no,none,one,or以及形容词性物主代词时,则可与单数名词连用。例如:all other rice,no other way,the other one,any other plant,every other day,some other reason等等。

    others是other的复数形式,泛指“别的人或物”(但不是全部)。例如:

    Don’t lend the book to others.

    Some are carrying water,others are watering the trees.

    the other指“两者中的另一个”,常与one连用,作定语修饰复数名词时,表示另一方中的“全部其余的”。例如:

    He held a book in one hand and his notes in the other.

    the others是the other的复数形式,特指“全部其余的人或物”。例如:

    I have got ten pencils.Two of them are red,the others are blue.another指三个或三个以上中的任何一个,“现一……”“另一个”,作代词或形容词。例如:

    I don’t like this dictionary.Please give me another.

    one… the other指两个人或物当中的“一个”和“另外一个”;叙述三个不同的人或事物时,需用one,another,the third。例如:

    Here are two books. One is for Mary,the other is for Jack.

    Three boys are here.One is Dick,another is Tom and the third is David.

    7.all和both的用法:

    两个词都表示整体,但both指两个人或物,而all指三个以上的人或物。在句中都可作主语、宾语、表语、同位语和定语。例如:

    All of us should work hard.(主语)

    We are all students.(同位语)

    We both like to play football.(同位语)

    We like both of the films.(宾语)

    That’s all for today.(表语)

    All knowledge comes from practice.(定语)

    注意:①all表示不可数名词时,其谓语动词用单数。

    ②both和all加否定词是部分否定。如果表示全部否定,要分别用 neither和 none,例如:

    Both of us are not teachers.(部分否定)我们俩不都是老师。

    Neither of us is a teacher.(全部否定)我们俩都不是老师。

    All of the books are not English books.(部分否定)

    None of the books are English books.(全部否定)这些都不是英语书。

    8.neither和either的用法

    neither表示两者都不;either表示两者中的任何一个。两个词都表示单数,在句子中作主语、宾语和定语。例如:

    Neither of the answers is correct.(主语)

    Either sentence is right.(定语)

    I know neither of the teachers.(宾语)

    Here are two dictionaries. You may take either.(宾语)[参考包天仁主编《高考英语语法》]

    ●歼灭难点训练

    1.(★★★★★)—Do you have________at home now,Allen?

     —No,we still have to get several pounds of fruit and some tea.

     A.something         B.everything         C.anything           D.nothing

    2.(★★★★)—What do you want me to say?

     —________you like.

     A.Anything         B.Everything          C.Something         D.Nothing

    3.(★★★★)—What shall we have for dinner tonight?

     —Oh,I don’t care.________.It’s your job to come up with the menus,so get on with it.

    A.Anything will do

    B.I won’t have lessons tomorrow

    C.I needn’t to talk about it with someone

    D.What a nice meal

    4.(★★★★)You can buy these maps at________railway station.They all have them.

    A.all                B.every              C.each              D.any

    5.(★★★★★)I don’t like these.Have you________?

    A.some              B.any others          C.anothers           D.another ones

    6.(★★★★★)I prefer a street in a small town to________in such a large city________Shanghai.

    A.that;as             B.one;as             C.one;like           D.that;like

    7.(★★★★)She won the first prize,though________of us________it.

    A.no one;expected                         B.none;had expected

    C.nobody;was expecting                    D.none;would expect

    8.(★★★★★)—Do you live________near Jim?

     —No,he lives in another part of the town.

    A.somewhere         B.nowhere           C.anywhere          D.everywhere

    9.(★★★★)—Could you drop in on me on Friday or Saturday?

     —I’m afraid________day is possible.

    A.either             B.both               C.neither            D.any

    10.(★★★★)—Which share is meant for me?

    —You can take________half.They’re exactly the same.

    A.this               B.any               C.each               D.either

    11.(★★★★)—Is ________finished?

    —Not yet.My dirty clothes are still soaking in the washing machine.

    A.something          B.anything           C.nothing            D.everything

    12.(★★★★)—Excuse me,but can you tell me which road I should take to the post office?

    —________of the four roads will do.

    A.Any                B.Neither           C.Both               D.Every

    13.(★★★★★)There is only an English-Chinese dictionary in that book-shop.I wonder if you still want to buy________.

    A.it                   B.one              C.another             D.any

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