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[神马语法]高中版:高考英语语法突破-It及其代词(3)

2011-09-07  昵称68725...
    (一)知识讲解
    
    一、不定代词的用法难点
    
    1.none, no one, nothing 的用法区别
    
    ① none 既可指人,也可指物,且一定是特指概念,常用来回答how many /much 引导的疑问句;no one 只能指人,且只能是泛指概念,常用来回答who 引导的疑问句;nothing “什么也没有”,否定一切,常用来回答what 引导的疑问句。如:
    
    — How many people are there in the room now ?
    
    — None.
    
    — Who is in the room ?
    
    — No one / nobody
    
    ② none 往往与前面的(some / any / every ) + n. 匹配构成试题;而nothing 往往与something, anything, everything 相匹配构成试题;no one / nobody 往往与someone / somebody, everyone / everybody, someone / somebody 相匹配构成试题。如:
    
    I need someone to help me, but there is no one here.
    
    I need something to drink, but there is nothing.
    
    I need some students to help me to carry the tools for experiment, but there is none here.
    
    — Is there anyone in that room ?
    
    — No, no one.
    
    — Is there anything in that room ?
    
    — No, nothing.
    
    — Is there any student in that room ?
    
    — No, none.
    
    ③ none 后面可加of 引导的介词短语,而something / anything / everything / nothing; someone / anyone / everyone / no one 却不能。
    
    2. each 和every
    
    ① each 强调“个体”,起代词和形容词作用;every 强调“全体”,只能作定语。Each 作同位语时,不可用not each 来表示部分否定,而not every 表示部分否定。如:
    
    The tickets each cost ten dollars.
    
    这些票每张十美元。(each 作同位语,不能用costs)
    
    Every man is not honest. 并非每个人都诚实。
    
    = Not every man is honest.
    
    ② every 还可表示“每融……的;每……中的”,如下列说法中只能用every。
    
    every year or two 每一两年
    
    every now and then 时常
    
    every other day 每隔一天
    
    Choose one out of every ten boys. 每十个男孩中选一个。
    
    one car to every 20 people 每20人乘一辆车
    
    3. another, other, the other, others, the others 的用法一览表
不定代词
意义
用法说明
another
任何一个,另一个
指三者或三者以上中的任何一个,用作代词或形容词。如:
I don’t like this coat. Show me another, please.
other
另外的
只作定语,常与复数名词或不可数名词连用;但如果前面有the, this, that some, any, each, every, no, one 及my, your, his 等时,则可与单数名词连用。如:any other plant, every other day。
the other
两者中的
另一个
常与one 连用,构成:one … the other… 一个……另一个……;作定语修饰复数名词时,表示“全部其余的”。
others
泛指别的
人或物
是other 的复数形式,泛指别的人或物(但不是全部),不能作定语,构成some…others…
the others
特指其余
的人或物
是the other 的复数形式,特指其余的人或物。
    
    不定代词 意义 用法说明
    
    another 任何一个,另一个 指三者或三者以上中的任何一个,用作代词或形容词。如:
    
    I don’t like this coat. Show me another, please.
    
    other 另外的 只作定语,常与复数名词或不可数名词连用;但如果前面有the, this, that some, any, each, every, no, one 及my, your, his 等时,则可与单数名词连用。如:any other plant, every other day。
    
    the other 两者中的
    
    另一个 常与one 连用,构成:one … the other… 一个……另一个……;作定语修饰复数名词时,表示“全部其余的”。
    
    others 泛指别的
    
    人或物 是other 的复数形式,泛指别的人或物(但不是全部),不能作定语,构成some…others…
    
    the others 特指其余
    
    的人或物 是the other 的复数形式,特指其余的人或物。
    
    4.全部否定和部分否定
    
    all, both, everyone, everybody, everything 以及every + 名词都表示全部肯定:no one, none, nobody, nothing, nothing, not … any, 以及no + 名词都表示全部否定;但当not 出现在含有表示全部肯定的不定代词的句子中,不管not 在它们之前或之后都表示部分否定。如:
    
    Both of them haven’t read this story. = Only one of them has read this story.
    
    并非他们二人都看过这个故事。
    
    All of the boys are clever, but none of them can work out this problem.
    
    这些男孩都很聪明,但没有一个人能解出这道题。
    
    All bamboo doesn’t grow tall.
    
    = Not all bamboo grows tall.
    
    = Some bamboo grows tall, but some doesn’t.
    
    并非所有的竹子都长得高。
    
    We fear no difficulty.
    
    = we don’t fear any difficulty.
    
    我们不怕困难。
    
    Neither of them wants to stop for a rest.
    
    他们两个谁也不愿意停下来休息。
    
    另外。① any 所修饰的名词或由any 构成的复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词不能用否定式。也就是说,我们只能说not … any,但不能说any … not。如:
    
    × Anything cannot stop him going there.
    
    √ Nothing can stop him going there.
    
    任何事不能阻止他去那儿。
    
    ② 总括性副词如everywhere, always, altogether (全然地),wholly(全部地)和not 连用时,也表示部分否定。例如:
    
    Such a thing can’t be found nowhere.
    
    这种事什么地方也见不到。
    
    5.Both, all, either, any, neither, none 的用法
    
 
任何
都不
两者
both
either
neither
两者(以上)
all
any
none
    都 任何 都不
    
    两者 both  either neither
    
    两者(以上) all  any  none
    
    如:① I had to buy all these books because I didn’t know which one was the best.
    
    ② It is easy to do the repair. All you need is a hammer and some nails.
    
    ③ I invited Joe and Linda to dinner, but neither of them came.
    
    ④ — Which of the three ways shall take to the village ?
    
    — Any way as you please.
    
    ⑤ We had three sets of the garden tools and we seemed to have no use for any.
    
    二替代词(one, ones, the one, the ones, that, those)的用法
    
    对于替代词,首先要明白使用替代词的目的就是要代替前面的名词,以避免重复。那么,做题时首先要弄清替代词替代什么样的名词,如:可数还是不可数?是泛指还是特指?其中one用来替代前面出现的单数名词,是泛指概念相当于a/an +单数名词;ones用来替代前面出现的复数名词,有时可用that 代替(尤其在有后置定语的情况下)。The ones 用来代替前面的特指的复数名词,有时可用those代替(尤其在有后置定语的情况下)。that 用来替代前面出现的特指的单数可数名词或特指的不可数名词,相当于the +单数/不可数名词。如:
    
    Mr. Zhang gave me a very valuable present, one ( = a present ) that I have never seen.
    
    Mr. Zhang gave me many valuable presents, ones ( = many presents ) that I have never seen.
    
    The book on the desk is better than that / the one under the desk.
    
    The books on the desk are better than those / the ones under the desk.
    
    (二)[基础过关]
    
    1.Teenagers are warned to be careful when making friends online, because when you can’t see a person, they could be _______.  作者:山东:邵立华
    
    A. everybody   B. somebody   C. anybody   D. nobody
    
    答案:C
    
    解析:anybody用于肯定句中意为“任何人”,在口语中还有“靠不住”的含义;everybody“人人,所有的人”;somebody“某人,有一定地位的人”;nobody“没有人,无关紧要的人”。
    
    2.From the chart we can learn that the max temperature in Auckland is nearly 30C higher than ______ in Wellington. htt://www.canpoint.cn
    
    A. it is    B. that          C. what is        D. one
    
    答案:B
    
    解析:考查代词。That指代上文的“he max temperature”。
    
    3.—Daddy, which of those smart hats do you like in the hat shop?
    
    — _______. They are both expensive and less warm-keeping.
    
    A. Either        B. Nothing   C. Neither   D. None
    
    答案:D
    
    解析:根据句意可首先排除A和C。nothing指事物,不是数量;none指多数事物中没有哪一个,表示完全否定。
    
    4.— How many classmates did you see there?
    
    — ________.
    
    A. No one   B. None    C. Nobody   D. Not at all
    
    答案:B
    
    解析:No one和Nobody在句中常可作主语。None作主语时常和of连用,以限制范围,在范围明确的情况下也可作宾语。
    
    5.Within industries,companies are always trying to develop products that are one step better than _____ of other companies.http:
    
    A.one     B.that     C.those    D.all
    
    答案:C
    
    解析:比较句,同类复数指代用those。
    
    6.His sudden look of fear made _____ clear that he had something to do with the matter.
    
    A. him      B. this     C. it    D. that
    
    答案:C
    
    解析:it做形式宾语。
    
    7.The book is of great value. _______ can be enjoyed from it until you have a deep understanding of it, however.
    
    A. Nothing          B. Few htt://www.canpoint.cn全品高C. Something   D. Much
    
    答案:A
    
    解析:根据句末的however判断出转折关系,选择nothing。
    
    8.— Have you got used to the Chinese food, Robert?
    
    — Yes. But I don't like _____ when a Chinese host keeps serving me the food I don't like.
    
    A. this          B. that          C. those        D. it
    
    答案:答案:D
    
    解析:it 指代一种情况  eg. I hate it when you talk to me with your mouth full of food .
    
    9.Teenagers are warned to be careful when making friends online, because when you can’t see a person, they could be __________.
    
    A. everybody B. somebody C. anybody D. nobody
    
    答案: C
    
    解析:anybody任何人。
    
    (三)[能力提高]
    
    1. What he said is _______ but practical since ______ depends on “if”.
    
    A. anything; everything            B. nothing; everything
    
    C. everything; anything            D. none; everything
    
    答案:A
    
    解析:but表转折,即前后两次为反义词,且根据句意,前肯后否,故选A。
    
    2. It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers hemingway and Fitzgerald reached ______ highest point.
    
    A. their       B. its        C. his         D. our
    
    答案:B
    
    解析:从句的主语是friendship,宾语指代主语,故用B。
    
    3. I invited five people to my party. Out of those five people, only John and Mary can come. _____ people can’t come.
    
    A. The others        B. The other     C. Others        D. Other three
    
    答案:B
    
    解析:由句意可知,五个人被分为了来和没来两组,形成了意义上的one…the other…结构,同时,不是一个人,other变为复数,选A。
    
    4. — Lend me some more money, will you ?
    
    — Sorry, I’ve got _______ at hand myself. You know the MP3 player cost me all I had just now.
    
    A. nothing          B. no         C. none          D. not
    
    答案:C
    
    解析:根据句意,表示全部没有,选C
    
    5. — We were talking about the new play _____ day, remember ?
    
    — Yes, I enjoyed it very much.
    
    A. the other        B. another        C. dome         D. other
    
    答案:A
    
    解析:the other day 表示另一天,与句意相符,选A。
    
    6. — Excuse me, but can you tell me which road I should take to the post office ?
    
    — _______ of the four roads will do.
    
    A. Any           B. Neither         C. Both        D. Every
    
    答案:A
    
    解析:表示任意一个,用A。
    
    7. Hurry up if you want to buy something for the party, as there is hardly ______ left in the fridge.
    
    A. something         B. anything         C. nothing        D. none
    
    答案:B
    
    解析:hardly表示否定,空格处应与与something对应反义,选B
    
    8. he has lived in London and New York, but he doesn’t like ______ city.
    
    A. neither           B. either          C. both         D. all
    
    答案:B
    
    解析:表示肯定的“或”关系,用B。
    
    9. — Do you have a passport, sir ?
    
    — Yes, I have _______. Here you are.
    
    A. it          B. that        C. one         D. this
    
    答案:C
    
    解析:指代a passport,用one。
    
    10. I understood most of what they said but not ______ word.
    
    A. any       B. each        C. every         D. one
    
    答案:C
    
    解析:根据句意,应选表“每一个”意思的词,由于each不能用于否定句,故选C。
    

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