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中学英语要点汇总1

 南山松林 2011-09-22

 

 

学英语要点汇总

 

1.宾语从句:怎样判断出一个从句是宾语从句?1 在动词后作宾语(动宾):

 Do you know where he comes from? 划线部分是动词know的宾语.

 2.在有些接双宾结构的动词后作宾语:

 He asked me when we would leave. 此句中me与从句when-分别是ask的宾语

 3在介词后作宾语(介宾)Let’s talk about how we solve this problem.

 4I’m sorry…, I’m afraid…, I’m sure…等结构后的句子也被认为是宾语从句.

 宾语从句需注意的时态问题:

1主句若是一般现在时,从句根据不同情况用不同时态。

He says (that) he will have a walk soon. soon指将来,从句用将来时

 The teacher asks who is the cleverest in the school. 暗指目前谁最聪明,从句用现在时

 I want to know who came here late this morning. 今早已过去,从句用过去时

 2主句若是一般过去时,从句也要用过去时。

 He wondered if I would come.        She told me that her son had got well.

 She said that she liked watching TV.      We thought Jim was wrong.

 3无论主句是何时态,从句若表客观真理,要用一般现在时。

Mr. Li said the moon is smaller than the earth.

4宾语从句无论有何引导词,句子都要用陈述句语序。

 Could you tell me when you will get back to Wuhan?不是will you

 Do you know which sweater she is wearing? (不是is she)

2.状语从句:此处所说的状语从句用法仅包括条件(ifunless引导)状语从句和时间(when等引导,见下文)状语从句。状语从句需注意以下问题

1主句若是一般将来时、祈使句或含不表过去的情态动词等,则if(如果), unless(除非)when(当…的时候), as soon as(一…就…)before, after, until, till, as(当…的时候)所引导的状语从句用一般现在时。

You may take a rest when you finish doing your work. 主句有情态动词

Could you look after my son after I leave home?

情态动词could是为了让语气委婉,并不指过去时,从句仍用一般现在时

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 I will go out as soon as it stops raining this afternoon.    主句是将来时

 Wait for your brother at the bus station until he arrives. 主句是祈使句

2而主句若是一般过去时,从句也要用表过去时的适当时态,如

 I would give the money to the charity if I had a million dollars.

 When he got to the park, his classmates had left.

 My son ran towards me as soon as he saw me on the street.

3.定语从句定语从句是指修饰前面名词或代词的句子。从句前面的名词或代词叫先行词,从句中的引导词叫关系代词或关系副词。关系代词who只指人which只指物。that既可指人又可指物whose 后必须跟有名词,既指人,也可指物。关系词作主语时,不可省略,作宾语时可省略。whom只指人,只作宾语。关系副词where在那里”,when在那时”。              以下所给例子凡斜体字部分均作定语从句。)

She is a girl who / that is beautiful and kind-hearted.  The girl who / that is tall is my sister.

以上关系词作主语不可省略。)

 She is a girl (who / whom / that) I know very well. 关系词做know的宾语可以省略。)

 That boy whose hair is very long is my brother.        I own a bike whose price is high.

 (关系词whose表所属后需接名词前句指人译为这个孩子的”;后句指物译为这个自行车的”。

I bought a watch (which / that) I paid 100 yuan for. 指物, pay的宾语可以省略

I prefer a place which / that is clean and quiet. 关系词译为这个地方”,主语不可省

I prefer a place where I can live a quiet life. 关系词译为在这个地方”,是地点副词。)

I shall never forget the day when a boy helped me find my dog. (“在这一天”,是时间副词

4.wishhope:1wish既可接to do sth.  也可接sb + to do sth.  也可接that从句.

I wish to spend my summer holiday in Qingdao.    I wish you to join my party this Sunday.

I wish (that) I could be a scientist. that从句时从句用虚拟语气。)

2hopeto do sth. that从句. 但不接sb to do sth.

I hope to receive a letter from you some day.    I hope you will get well soon.

I hope (that) everything goes well.  接从句时不用虚拟

5.thanks forthanks to: Thanks for your helping me with the work.

 (此句表达对对方为自己做了某事的感谢后无补充的结果)

 Thanks to your suggestion, I didn’t make such mistakes.

 (此句表达感谢由于某方所做的有利的事出现了后面的结果)

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6.感官动词用法之一see, hear, listen to, watch, notice等词后接宾语再接动词原形或ing形式前者表全过程,后者表正在进行句中有频率词时以上的词也常跟动词原形 I heard someone knocking at the door when I fell asleep. (我入睡时有人正敲门)

 I heard someone knock at the door three times. (听的是全过程)

 I often watch my classmates play volleyball after school. (此处有频率词often)

 若以上词用于被动语态后面原有动词原形改为带to不定式

 We saw him go into the restaurant. He was seen to go into the restaurant.

 I hear the boy cry every day. The boy is heard to cry every day.

7.感官动词用法之二look, sound, smell, taste, feel可当系动词后接形容词

He looks angry.  It sounds good.  The flowers smell beautiful.  The sweets taste sweet. The silk feels soft.   I felt tired.   They all looked tired.

 这些动词都不用于被动语态The sweets are tasted sweet.是错误的

 注意如果加介词like, 则后不可接形容词而接名词或代词

 He looks like his mother.  That sounds like a good idea.   It sounds like great fun.

 It smells like a flower.   It tastes like salt.

8.findthink部分用法: find / think + 宾语 + 宾语补足语(代替宾从)

 宾补有以下情况1.名词短语 John found his son a clever boy.

 2.形容词短语 Mrs. Smith thinks her husband kind of lazy.

 3.有时宾补后可接带to不定式  I found it hard to fool the girl.

 4find后也有v-ing形式作宾语补足语I found him reading a book just now.

9.would like / want / feel like: 1would likewant类似

都可接名词短语I would like / want another three desks. 

都可接带to 不定式I would like / want to go out for a walk. 

都可接sb,然后再跟带to 不定式: I would like you to give me a hand.

2feel like:  后也可接名词短语Do you feel like some tea?

 后若接动词须用动词ing形式Do you feel like having a walk? 

I don’t feel like drinking tea.     feel like常用于疑问句或否定句中。】

10.词序易错的短语1形容词修饰不定代词或不定副词形容词在后面

Is there anything delicious in the fridge?     Nothing serious.  

There is something wrong with the computer.     I want to go somewhere warm.

 2else修饰疑问词和不定代词不定副词也放在后面

 What else can you see in the picture?   Who else is in the room?

 Do you have anything else to say?   Where else can you see it?

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 3enough修饰形容词和副词enough 放在后面

 This sweater is cheap enough.  Nemo is old enough to work.

 He ran fast enough to catch up with the dog.   She doesn’t listen carefully enough.

11.对“评价”、“天气”的提问之区别1What do you think of ?=

 How do you like ? =How / What do you feel about…?

你对怎么看?”(How?句中有like是动词) 

2What’s the weather like in? = How is the weather in?“…的天气什么样?

(What?句中有like是介词,“”。How?句中无like.)

12.take, cost, pay, spend区别

1It + take + sb + some time + to do sth      It took us half an hour to cut down the tree.

 2 + cost + sb +   The bag cost me thirty yuan.

   cost后无sb, 则译作价钱是”:  The bag costs 30 Yuan.

 3+ pay + sb + + for sth    I paid the seller 200 Yuan for the bike..

(pay后所加内容可视具体情况取舍切记for后接的是物而不是人或钱)

 4 + spend + 时间/ + on sth / (in) doing sth.

   The girl spent two hours (in) searching the Internet.

   The girl always spends much money on her clothes.

   spend 有时可指度过”:spend holiday / weekends / winter

13.双宾结构pass / give / teach / offer / lend / send / sell / call / show / buy / ask / tell 等可加双宾结构也就是接sb + sth.  Pass me the book, please.  He gave us some pens.

 其中pass, give, offer, lend, send, sell, show等也可接sth + to sb.  : lend the book to me.

 buy, build等可接sth + for sb.   My brother bought a dictionary for me.

另外sth是代词时不用双宾结构Please show it to me.   而不说show me it.

14.部分词作连词与介词:(连词接句子介词接名词或代词

 Keep careful when you are listening to the teacher. 斜体部分是句子when是连词

 Keep careful when listening to the teacher. 斜体部分是名词短语when是介词

 类似的while, than, before, after, as, since, until

 I’ll wait until I hear from her. 连词 I’ll wait until hearing from her. (介词)

 I’ll wait until next Friday / September / 11:00. 接的都是表时间的短语until是介词

15.动词ed与动词ing作形容词用法之一: 1. 动词ed作形容词表示被动或已发生,常作定语The boy named Peter is my friend.  那个叫做彼得的男孩是我的朋友

此处是后置定语划线部分起修饰作用下同

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He’s eating fried chicken. 他在吃。”chicken的前置定语

There is no time left. 没时间剩余了。”time的后置定语

I have read a novel written by Lu Xun.我读了一部鲁迅写的小说做后置定语下同

He lives in a house built twenty years ago. 他住在一个二十年前被建造的房子里

一般来说定语部分不只一个词时 常放在名词的后面

 2动词ing作形容词表示正在进行或表示功能常作定语

 the crying boy,  a running bus,  the rising sun,  a bus running on the road,

 the boy crying in the corner  (以上表示正在进行)

a sitting room,  the bathing suit,  a cutting machine,  writing paper…… (本行表示功能)

16.动词ed与动词ing作形容词用法之二 由一些及物动词派生而来和心理感受有关ed修饰人ing常修饰物 以下词凡是译为使…”的及物动词ed形式的形容词都译为感到”,ing形式的形容词都译为令人(感到)”。以下带-ed形式的词的各个短语一般都译为感到…”。

exciting

surprising

amazing

embarrassing

encouraging

frustrating

interesting

thrilling

terrifying

pleasing, = pleasant

satisfying

frightening

tiring

boring

relaxing

fascinating

annoying

moving

worrying

confusing

 

 

excited (be ~d about)

surprised (be ~d at)

amazed (be ~d at)

embarrassed(be ~ed in)

encouraged(be ~ed at / by)

frustrated (be ~d of)

interested (be ~ed in)

thrilled (be ~ed at)

terrified (be terrified at/ of / with)

pleased (be ~d with)

satisfied(be satisfied with)

frightened (be ~ed at / of )

tired (be ~d of)

bored (be ~d with)

relaxed (无固定搭配)

fascinated (be ~d by)

annoyed (be ~ed with)

moved (be ~d by)

worried (be worried about)

confused (be confused about)

 
 及物动词, 后接人           ed形式及常见短语           ing形式

 excite使兴奋使激动

 surprise使惊讶使吃惊

 amaze使吃惊

 embarrass使尴尬

 encourage(使受鼓舞, 鼓励)

 frustrate使失望使沮丧

 interest使感兴趣

 thrill使激动/ 紧张

 terrify使恐怖使害怕

 please 使高兴使满意

 satisfy (使满意)

 frighten 使害怕使惊惧

 tire使厌烦

 bore使厌烦

 relax使放松

 fascinate使着迷

 annoy使烦恼

 move使感动

 worry使担忧

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 confuse使困惑

 His words amazed me.   The news frustrated us very much.   (都是及物动词后接人) 

His words were amazing. (修饰物)     I was amazed at his words. (修饰人)

How exciting the film is! 修饰物  He was moved by the movie. (修饰人)

17.动词ing和带to不定式作主语

 To be a teacher is my dream.   Working hard brings you success.

Taking care of our environment is very important.   To plant trees makes me happy.

 Reading books gives you knowledge.        (以上各句谓语都用单数见黑体部分)

 Listening and writing are both difficult.      (此句主语因指两件事谓语用复数)                      

18.later / after / ago / before: 1later“…时间后结构时间段+later

 常用于一般过去时They went to Beijing five days later.

 (later前无时间段单独在句尾常用于将来时I’ll see you later.)

 2after“…时间后结构after+时间段常用于一般过去时1相同

They went to Beijing after five days.   The dog died after a week.

 (after也可加句子, 但主句不一定用一般过去时I’ll send you an e-mail after I get home.

Return it to me after you finish it. 2.)

3ago“…时间前结构时间段+ago, 用于一般过去时

The Greens moved to Shanghai four weeks ago.   I saw it ten minutes ago.    

 (若有since+时间段+ago常用现在完成时Mr. Li has worked here since 5 years ago.)

 4before 单独放在句尾常用现在完成时:“以前

 I have been to London before.  He has seen the film before.

 (若是时间段+before,常用过去完成时,“…”: I had seen the film two weeks before.   We had found out the answer to the problem an hour before.)

19.四季springsummerautumnwinterseason

20.January, 一月 February, 二月 March, 三月 April, 四月 May, 五月

June, 六月 July, 七月 August, 八月 September, 九月 October, 十月

November, 十一月 December, 十二月

21.星期Sunday, 周日Monday, 周一Tuesday, 周二Wednesday, 周三Thursday, 周四Friday, 周五Saturday, 周六Sunday是一周的第一天 Saturday是最后一天

22.“也”either, 用于否定句的末尾also, 通常挨着动词少用于句尾too, 通常在句尾前常有逗号as well, 只用于句尾, 前无逗号   注意后三个词都不用于否定句

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23.to不定式用法之一to不定式有逻辑宾语在前时to后动词用及物动词不及物时需跟介词The work is too hard for me to do. work做及物动词do的逻辑宾语

 I have nothing to say.   nothing做及物动词say的逻辑宾语

I have a letter to write.  letter是及物动词write的逻辑宾语 而以下情况有介词

I have a pen to write a letter with. 用钢笔写信所以要有故加with.

The zoo is not a good place for animals to live in.

(“住在动物园里”,zoolive in的逻辑宾语故不及物动词live加介词in.  

Tom has no friends to talk to. friends talk to的逻辑宾语to不可少。)

 He runs too fast for us to catch up with. hecatch up with的逻辑宾语with.     There are no seats to sit on. 坐在座位上sit后要加on.   

24.(a) little / (a) few: 1fewlittle几乎没有否定词few加可数名词复数, little加不可数名词  There is little water in the bottle, is there?      (前否定后肯定)

 Tom is so shy that he has few friends.

2a few一些肯定词加可数名词复数; a little一些一点也是肯定词加不可数名词   Tom is not an Englishman , but he knows a little English.

3另外too, very, so等词后用few, little; only, just, still等词后用a few, a little. quite a few / a little 都译为很多”,分别相当于manymuch.

有时a little…..并不是固定短语 a little sheep译为一只小羊”)

25.及物动词+副词put on (穿上) / put off (推迟) / put away (整理好) / put up (举起,搭起,挂起张贴) / put down (放下) / put out(扑灭);       break down(损坏倒塌);

turn on(打开) / turn off (关闭) / turn up (调大) / turn down(关小);      get back(取回);  

use up(用光);    cut up(切碎     eat up(吃光   sell out(卖完   cheer up(振作

give away(赠送) / give out(发放) / give up(放弃) / give back(归还);    pick up(捡起拿起)

try out(验证) / try on(试穿);     ring up/ call up(打电话);       clean up / out 打扫干净; 

set up成立;   think up想出想起;    hand in (上交) / hand out(分发散发); 

fix up(修理);    work out(算出)    dress up(打扮);     help out(帮人解决);    

keep off / keep out(阻止挡住)   take off(脱下) / take away(拿走) / take out(拿出);  

look up(查找) / look over(仔细查看);     throw away / off (抛弃)     wake up(叫醒); write down(写下);    let down(使沮丧);   make up(编造组成)  set off(激起触发)

名词做以上短语的宾语可放在它们中间或后边而代词做宾语只放在中间

26.as……as用法中间加形容词和副词原级1一样 His room is as big as mine. 

 He runs as fast as I do / me / I.    You should keep the room as clean as your brother’s.

2asas possible / sb can 尽可能…”  We went there as soon as possible.

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Listen to the teacher as carefully as you can.   He went there as quickly as he could.

3有些短语有几个意思as soon as 一样快…; as much as一样多多达 as long as一样长长达只要 as well as一样好一样

as far as远达来说      (asas在否定句中也可说soas.)

 也可表示倍数 This room is twice as big as that one. 这个房间是那个房间的两倍大

27.prefer用法prefer sth to sth    prefer doing sth to doing sth.比起更喜欢…”

 prefer to do sth rather than do sth宁愿也不愿

 若单独一个preferlike 用法类似后接 to do sth doing sth 更喜欢做某事

28. some-, any-, every-用法1some-~,一些~”,用于肯定的陈述句中

I have something to tell you.   Maybe somebody has taken it. 

若用于疑问句中表示期待对方肯定的回答或表示请求或建议.

Why not ask somebody to help you?  Shall we give him something to eat? 

What about some milk?  Could you please lend me some chairs?  

Will you buy me some books?    May I give you some tea?  Would you like some milk?

在一些”do some…”短语中, 即使是疑问句中, some也不变为any. 

Will you do some washing next Sunday?  这些短语有

do some shopping / cleaning / cooking / sweeping / washing

2any-, 在疑问句中仍译为~,一些~”Do you have anything to say

Is anybody in the house    Have you seen it anywhere?   

if 引导的句中常用any.       If you have any water, please give me some.

在肯定句和否定句中译为任何~” You may put the box anywhere in the room.

He is taller than any other student in the class.  We won’t have anything to eat now.   

3every-~”,强调所有既包括此也包括彼

Is everybody here-NoTom and Lucy have asked for leave. 

The glass was broken, and the water went everywhere.

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