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中考英语词语释义题解题技巧

2011-10-05  MouseHappy

重点、难点、考点

一、重点是:

(1)常见的构词法

1)合成词:合成词是由两个或两个以上的词构成一个新的词。如:blackboard(黑板),newspaper(报纸),afternoon(下午) ,pencil-box(铅笔盒)。

2)派生词:派生词是由词根加派生词缀构成的词,词根是派生词的基础,同一词根加不同的派生词缀可以表示不同的意义,还可以表示不同的词的词性。

动词变名词:+后缀er        drive(驾驶)——driver(驾驶员)

                                teach(教)——teacher(教师)

                                read(阅读)——reader(读者)

               +后缀or         invent(发明)——inventor(发明家)

                                visit(访问)——visitor(访问者)

               +后缀tion       invent(发明)——invention(发明)

                                operate(手术)——operation(手术)

名词变形容词:+后缀y       wind(风)——windy(刮风的)

                                sun(太阳)——sunny(晴朗的)

              +后缀ful         help(帮助)——helpful(有帮助的)

                                care(小心)——careful(小心的)

              +后缀ly          friend(朋友)——friendly(友好的)

形容词变名词:+后缀ness     good(好的)——goodness(善良,美德)

                                kind(和善的)——kindness(和善)

形容词变副词:+后缀ly      bad(坏的)——badly(糟糕地)

                                quick(快的)——quickly(迅速地)

改变词义:+前缀un          happy(高兴的)——unhappy(不高兴的)

                                usual(平常的)——unusual(不平常的)

3)转化词:转化词是指由一种词类转用作另一种词类的词。例如:

hand(n .)手, hand(v .)传递, dry(adj .)干燥的, dry(v .) 烘干

[说明]初中总复习中,词汇的复习十分重要。掌握单词和词组的用法是学好语言的前提之一。没有一定的词汇量,不掌握词语的基本用法,就失去了英语知识复习的基础,也就更谈不上灵活运用和综合分析能力了。

(2)词形变化

英语词汇的词形变化除了前面讲的词根+派生词缀构成的派生词的变化外,还存在有一些单词词尾的屈折变化,它们是:

1)表示名词复数的词形变化。例如:

hand—hands(手)         picture—pictures(图片)

knife—knives(小刀)     city—cities(城市)

2)表示形容词、副词的比较级和最高级的词形变化。例如:

cheap—cheaper—cheapest(便宜的)

late—later—latest(迟来的,迟来地)

early—earlier—earliest(早的、早地)

3)表示动词一般现在时第三人称单数的词形变化。例如:

clean—cleans(打扫)     catch—catches(按住)    carry—carries(携带)

4)表示动词过去时和-ed分词的词形变化。例如:

catch—catched(捉住)    carry—carried(搬运)

close—closea(关闭)     stop—stopped(阻止)

5)表示动词-ing分词的词形变化。例如:

walk—walking(走)       make—making(做)        sit—sitting(坐)

二、难点是:如何运用词或词组。

三、考点是:(1)单词拼写。(2)词形变化。(3)对词语的理解运用和相似词语的辨析。有关词汇的考题在中考中有10分左右。

 

【经典范例引路】

例1 选择与句中划线部分意思相同或相近的词或短语。

(   )1 .Mary called him three times yesterday , but nobody answered .

A .visited      B .gave a message to        C .told     D .phoned

(   )2 .Jim comes to visit us sometimes . That is always the happiest time for the whole family .

A .on time      B .all the time             C .at times D .many times

(   )3 .Jimmy tried hard , and in the end he did it well .

A .at first         B .at the beginning     C .at the end   D .at last

(   )4 .—Oh , sorry . John . I forgot to post your letter .

        —That’s all right . I’ll post it myself.

A .Never think about it             B .It doesn’t matter

C .Don’t be sorry                  D .I don’t care

(   )5 .—Hello !May I speak to the headmaster ?

        —Hold on , please .

A .Speak louder                 B .Wait a moment

C .Call again                   D .Speak out

(2001年河北省中考题)

简析:选出能替换划线部分的选项,这是一种常见题型。做此类题时应注意以下几点:(1)弄懂句意,特别是划线部分意思,以及各选项的意思。(2)能替换划线部分的选项与划线部分意思要相同。(3)选项与划线部分在句法功能上保持一致。第1小题划线部分called后接him(sb),首先要知道它在句中的意思,为“给……打电话”。A选项意为“访问”,B选项意为“给……捎口信”,C选项意为“告诉”,只有选项D .phoned意人“给……打电话”,与划线部分意思相同。且phoned与called的句法功能也相同。故答案为D。第2小题划线部分sometimes意为“有时,某时”。A选项意为“准时,按时”,B选项意为“一直总是”,C选项意为“有时,某时”,D选项意为“许多次”。故答案为C。第3小题划线部分in the end意为“最后,终于”。A选项意为“起初,开始”,B选项意为“在开始时”,C选项意为“在末尾”,D选项为“最后,终于”。故答案为D。第4小题划线部分That’s all right在此处意为“不要紧,没关系”,用来回答别人道歉的用语。A、B、C、D四个选项中只有It doesn’t matter与That’s all right意义相同。故答案为B。第5小题划线部分Hold on在此处意为“等一会儿”,是打电话时的交际用语。只有wait a moment与Hold on 意义相同,故答案为B。

例2  单项选择。

(  )1 .Students are usually interested in sports . Some like running ;some like swimming ;_______like ball games .                     (2001年上海市中考题)

A .the others       B .others       C .the other    D .other

(  )2 .—Can you speak Chinese ,Peter ?     (2001年北京市海淀区中考题)

           —Yes , but only_______ .

A .little           B .few          C .a little     D .a few

(  )3 .Don’t worry ,I’ll take good care         Polly .(2001年天津市中考题)

A .for              B .of           C. with         D .to

简析:此题是考查词语意义和用法上的区别,以及词语的固定搭配。在做此类题时,我们应注意:(1)先读懂题意,找出考查点。(2)观察分析空格与它的前后部分的联系及空格在句中的句法功能。(3)根据题意及分析结果,对比所有选项,选择最恰当的选项。(4)对于难度较大、很难直接从正面找到答案,就可采用排除法——根据题意和所学知识排除错误答案。剩下的便是正确答案。第1小题是考查the others ,others ,the other ,other这四者在意义和用法上的区别:the others特指某一范围内的“其余的人(物)”而others泛指“其余的人(物)”它常和some对比使用,即“some . . .others . . .”,the other特指“(两个中的)另一个”,other泛指“另一个”。故答案为B。第2小题是考查little ,few ,a little ,a few的用法:某一语言不可数,因此B、D两选项不成立。而little是表示否定意义,a little表示肯定意义。根据题干的意思应为肯定,故答案为C。第3小题是考查take care of这一固定词组。故答案为B。

 

 

【综合能力训练】

一 .根据所给英语释义写出单词(首字母已给出)。

1 .become a member of                       j             

2 .have (clothes) on the body               w             

3 .almost not                               h             

4 .not any ,no one                          n             

5 .at last                                  f             

6 .the fourth day of a week                 W             

7 .the opposite of cheap                    e             

8 .father or mother                         p             

9 .ice box                                  f             

10 .go in a car or on a horse or a bike     r             

 

二   用括号中所给词的适当形式填空。

1 .“Thank you ,”he said       (polite).

2 .Children must be stopped from       (skate) on thin ice .

3 .She spends one hour       (watch) TV every day .

4 .Keep       (quietly) !They are listening to the teacher .

5 .Would you please say it again more       (loud) ?

6 .Keep on       (work) hard ,or you’ll fall behind other students .

7 .I’ve been on the Great Wall       (two) .

8 .Thank you for       (lend) me the story book .

9 .I often write “Best       (wish) for Teachers’ Day !”on the cards .

10 .Meimei did       (badly) than Lucy in the high jump .

11 .After ten minutes’ rest ,they went on       (walk) .

12 .I saw a wallet       (lie) on the ground on my way home .

13 .There is a fire       (burn) in the fireplace .

14 .      (pick) apples is better than       (have) classes .

15 .They went to the park instead of       (stay) at home last Saturday .

16 .“See you” is another way of       (say) “Goodbye” .

17 .They enjoy       (take) a walk after supper .

18 .I don’t feel like       (eat) anything now .

19 .The teachers are busy       (get) ready for tomorrow’s work.

20 .Don’t forget to take the       (shop) list with you.

 

创新备考训练 (选自各地中考题)

Ⅵ .根据句意,选择与句中划线部分意思相同或相近的解释。

1 .We are very glad to hear the good news .

A .sorry                B .sad              C .pleased

2 .I will go to see my grandma this evening .

A .visit                B .move             C .watch

3 .They have a lot of apples and bananas in the basket .

A .some             B .many             C .much

4 .Alice will go shopping with her aunt tomorrow .

A .buy something        B .borrow books     C .wash clothes

5 .The little boy is good at drawing .

A .is poor at           B .is slow at           C .does well in

6 .What are the boys doing ?They are at work .

A .are workers      B .work here            C .are working

7 .We were busy last week ,so we had a little rest .

A .a small          B .a short          C .a few

8 .Mrs Green usually goes for a walk after supper .

A .has a walk           B .walks around     C .wants a walk

9 .Jim arrived at the farm early.

A .got on               B .got up               C .got to

10 .My grandma bought a big birthday present for both of us.

A .both us          B .we both          C .us both

11 .—Hello ,may I speak to Mr. White ,please ?

—Hold on for a moment ,please .

A .Wait             B .Sit              C .Stop

12 .It’s really difficult to learn maths well .

A .wrong                B .easy             C .hard

13 .Bob is very strong .He is able to carry the box.

A .must             B .can              C .need

14 .Han Meimei has a few American friends .

A .many             B .some             C .no

15 .We are happy to see you again .

A .worried          B .sad              C .pleased

 

Ⅶ .根据句意及汉语提示,在下列各句空缺处写出各单词的正确形式。

1 .Can you answer my        (三) question in English ?

2 .Mary did        (差) in the exam than Lucy .

3 .Look !They are talking        (高兴) in the room .

4 .I        (驾驶) my car to Beijing last summer .

5 .My house is not far from my        (叔叔) .

6 .The sun is        (照耀) brightly in the sky .

7 .They will bring some        (土豆) for a picnic tomorrow .

8 .He gets on very well with his        (父母) .

9 .I like        (浅) colours ,for example ,white .

10 .Mr Wang        (搬迁) here last week .He is a new comer .

11 .I usually go to work on        (步行) .

12 .There are ten        (班级) in our grade .

13 .Lucy studies        (努力地) than Lily

14 .Mr Smith will give us a talk at the        (会议) .

15 .—Excuse me ,may I        (借) your eraser ?

—Certainly .here you are .

16 .It is an        (容易的) question .I can answer it .

17 .He won’t do it .I won’t do it ,       (也) .

18 .Is there a        (书桌) in your room ?

19 .Your hands are so        (脏的) again .Go and wash them .

20 .They have planted more than two        (千) young trees this spring .

 

Ⅷ .根据句子的意思和首字母提示,用适当的词填空,使句子的意思连贯与正确。

1 .Whose is this T-shirt ?It isn’t m        .It’s hers .

2 .This bag is big .Please give me a s        one .

3 .My father works in a hospital .He is a d        .

4 .April is the f        month of the year .

5 .When the lights are g        ,the traffic can go .

6 .Fifteen minutes is a q        .

7 .September 10th is T        Day .

8 .C        is spoken by the largest number of people in the world .

9 .When s        comes ,everything begins to grow .It’s my favourite season of the year .

10 .—Pardon ,doctor ?

—I said ,“Take the m        three times a day ,and you’ll be well soon .”

11 .Mr Turner liked visiting some places of great interest ,but he didn’t want to s        too much money .

12 .—Have you watched the seven o’clock CCTV news report ?

—Yes .There is a lot of i       news in it .

13 .You look w        .What’s wrong with you ?

14 .—Do you mind cleaning your room ?It’s very d        .

—Certainly not .I’ll do it as soon as possible .

 

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