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远程遥控战争:无人机让战争变得更简单(图)

2011-11-28  lindan9997

远程遥控战争——无人机让战争变得更简单


 
 
 
From his spot beneath the famous Wright Military Flyer in the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Peter Singer is reminded of a modern military drone.

彼得·辛格的工作场所在著名的莱特军用飞机下,该飞行器现在是史密森国家航空航天博物馆的财产;彼得·辛格与人们谈起了现代军用无人机。

"The story of manned airplanes is a great parallel to what's happening now with unmanned airplanes," he tells weekends on All Things Considered guest host Rachel Martin.

彼得·辛格在周末告诉《无所不包》栏目的嘉宾主持人雷切尔·马丁:“我们可以从有人驾驶飞机的历程来推测无人机现在的发展进程。”

Singer, a technological warfare expert and author of the book Wired for War, has had drones on his mind a lot lately. The Department of Defense is under pressure to cut close to a trillion dollars from its budget over the next 10 years, so there's a lot of talk around the Pentagon about what can go and what can't.

彼得·辛格是一位武器技术专家,写了一本名为《战争绞索》的书,最近对无人机的发展进行了探讨。现在,美国国防部在各方面的压力下,不得不削减未来十年内的一万亿美元预算,对于五角大楼在什么方面可以削减,什么方面不能削减,人们对此有很多不同意见。

Most defense officials agree that what can't be cut is remote aerial technology. Drones have taken center stage in the U.S. wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as the counterterrorism fight in Pakistan. The ability to fight wars without risking U.S. lives is raising questions about the nature of combat.

很多国防部官员都认为涉及航空遥感技术方面的预算是不应当被削减;众所周知,无论是在伊拉克和阿富汗的战场还是在巴基斯坦的反恐行动中,美国的无人机均发挥了主要作用;也是因为无人机在战场的运用,不用美国大兵冒着生命危险去战斗,这不禁让人们重新思考未来战争的本质特征。

Skepticism From The Wright Brothers On

在莱特兄弟时代就存在的争议

The Wright Military Flyer, Singer says, is a reminder of just how far drone technology has come.

彼得·辛格表示人们可以从莱特军用飞机的出现来思考无人机技术的发展方向。

In 1903, he says, The New York Times printed an article under the headline "Flying Machines Which Do Not Fly" that argued it would take millions of engineers and mechanics tens of thousands of years to build an actual flying machine. The idea, Singer says, was considered science fiction.

彼得·辛格提到1903年的《纽约时代》杂志刊登了一篇名为《无法飞起来的飞行机器》,该文章声称为了建造一台能够真正飞行的机器,需要数百万名工程师工作数万年的时间才能将这项工作完成。彼得·辛格说飞机在当时就是科幻小说里的东西。

But on the very day that article was printed, Singer says, "two brothers in Dayton, Ohio, start to assemble the first real flying machine in their bicycle shop."

彼得·辛格说:“就在这篇文章被印刷的同一天,莱特兄弟在俄亥俄州代顿市自家的自行车车间内开始装配第一台实际意义上的飞机。”

It wasn't long until the military opened bids for what were then called "heavier-than-air" flying machines. The Wrights signed a contract, and the Military Flyer was born.

不久,美国军方就“比空气质量重”的飞行机器进行了招标,莱特兄弟由此得到了军方的订单,军用飞机由此诞生。

"It's just like any other technology — whether it's what happened with the horseless carriage or what happened with the computer," Singer says. "Starts out as imagination, and then it gets crossed with innovation, profit seeking and, most importantly, that horrible human need to figure out how to destroy one another."

彼得·辛格说:“与其他任何技术一样,不论是汽车还是电脑;开始的时候只是人脑中的幻想,随即人们或者出于创新的目的,或者出于挣钱的目的,还有更重要的,出于相互屠杀的目的,该幻想被实现了。”

More than 100 years later, aerospace pioneers are still convincing the rest of us their work isn't the stuff of science fiction.

在飞机被发明出来后端一百多年的时间里,航空先驱们不断地向人们证明,飞机不再是科幻小说里的物品。

That's literally the tagline of a recent Air Force recruiting ad featuring drone technology: "It's Not Science Fiction. It's What We Do Every Day." The ad shows a robotic aircraft scanning a desert landscape with a camera that looks like a bright red eye, alerting troops on the ground of a nearby sniper.

美国空军最近推出了一条关于无人机技术的广告标语——“这不是科幻小说,这是我们每天都工作”。在广告里,一架自动的无人机使用一台红眼摄像头扫描沙漠,并通知地面部队附件有狙击手。

Not far from the Wright exhibit at the Air and Space Museum, you can find an exhibit featuring five different drones — the Air Force prefers the term "remotely piloted aircraft. Among the aircraft is an MQ-1 Predator, similar to the drone from the Air Force ad. These drones have special meaning for Singer.

距离莱特飞机展区不远的太空博物馆,人们在这里可以看到五种不同的无人机,美国空军对无人机的正式名称为“远程控制飞机”。MQ-1“捕食者”无人机就被展示的飞机之中,它看起来与空军广告中的无人机有几分神似。在彼得·辛格的眼里,这些无人机有着特殊的意义。

"They're actually just like that Wright brothers Flyer," Singer says. "They're the first generation of all this."

彼得·辛格说:“他们的地位与莱特兄弟发明的第一台飞机不相上下,他们是第一代无人机。”

Remote Defense Takes Off

遥控防务装备开始起飞

Singer says not a single Western aerospace company has a manned combat aircraft in research and development. The MQ-1 Predator is the military's main workhorse; on Sept. 11, 2001, the Air Force had one.

彼得·辛格说没有一家西方航空公司能够单独完成有人战斗机的研发工作。MQ-1“捕食者”现在是美国军方的主力无人机机种;但在2001年9·11事件发生时,美国当时只有一架“捕食者”无人机。

"We've now got 57 Predators up, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, looking at different target points around the world," says Air Force Maj. Gen. James Poss. Poss helps oversee the Air Force's surveillance programs, which mostly revolve around drones.

基恩·詹姆斯·珀斯是美国空军的一名少校,他告诉记者:“我们现在使用五十七‘捕食者’无人机在一年三百六十五天,每天二十四小时不间断地监视遍布于世界各地的目标。”珀斯少校无意中提及到了美国空军的监视计划,这些计划大多使用无人机执行建设任务。

Poss says the Air Force now recruits more pilots for unmanned aircraft than fighter and bomber pilots combined. A lot of the skills pilots need are the same — spatial awareness, quick critical thinking skills — but unlike pilots for manned aircraft, remote pilots don't need perfect vision. They don't need to worry about getting airsick. And combat can bring different strains, too.

珀斯少校表示美国现在招募的无人机驾驶员数量比美国战斗机和轰炸机的飞行员的总数还多。与战斗机和轰炸机的飞行员的要求一样,无人机驾驶员必须掌握包括空间感和快速反应在内的技巧,与有人驾驶飞机不同,无人机飞行员不需要良好的视力;无人机驾驶员也用不着担心晕机的问题,无人机是以一种不同于有人驾驶飞机的方式进行作战。

"Unlike a person that deploys to combat, our remotely piloted aircraft force never leave combat," Poss says. Also, "you do leave your ground control station and drive home and you have to mow the lawn."

珀斯少校说:“与将战斗人员部署到战斗位置的行动不同,我们远程操作的无人机驾驶员从来就没有离开战场,同时在完成任务,离开地面控制站后。”

One Predator pilot, he says, has been stationed at Creech Air Force Base in Nevada, flying surveillance over the same area of southwest Asia for nine years.

珀斯少校提到了一位在内华达州美国空军克里奇基地工作的“捕食者”无人机驾驶员,该驾驶员已经操控“捕食者”在亚洲西南部地区执行了九年的监视工作。

"The overwhelming advantage we get," Poss says, "is that if you want to go and talk to a world expert on Iraq or Afghanistan, maybe you don't need to go to Iraq or Afghanistan. Maybe you need to talk to that young captain down at Creech, because they've been staring at that ground for the past nine years."

珀斯少校说道:“这是我们利用无人机取得的巨大优势。如果你要与一位伊拉克或阿富汗的国际事务专家进行讨论,你不必去伊拉克或阿富汗,你只要与我们卡拉奇基地的年轻上校们讨论就行了,他们在过去的就一直对伊拉克或阿富汗进行监视。”

A War Over There

无人机决战天空

The extreme distance between Nevada and Afghanistan keeps a remote pilot out of harm's way, but Singer argues it also introduces a host of complications about how we define war.

内华达州和阿富汗的距离十分遥远,让无人机驾驶员不会受到任何伤害。珀斯少校说有很多关于重新设定战争的讨论了。

He points out that Obama skirted congressional authorization for military action in Libya, arguing that air support for the European effort did not risk U.S. forces. Yet, he says, the U.S. carried out 146 airstrikes in Libya — including a final strike that may have contributed to the capture of Col. Moammar Gadhafi.

珀斯少校指出奥巴马总统绕过国会的授权,批准了在利比亚的军事行动,奥巴马总统认为对欧洲解决利比亚的行动提供空中支援并不会危及到美国军方人员;但珀斯少校也指出美国在利比亚进行了146次空中打击,最后一次在利比亚的空中打击与卡扎菲的被抓有关系。

The U.S. has also carried out hundreds of airstrikes over Pakistan using drones, raising questions about the nature of aerial combat. The strikes have led to civilian casualties and inflamed tensions between the two countries.

美国在巴基斯坦也使用无人机进行了数百次空中打击,这让人开始重新思考空战的本质特征。这些空中打击导致了巴基斯坦的平民伤亡,美巴两国关系紧张。

That tension escalated on Saturday as Pakistani officials accused NATO of killing more than 20 soldiers at an outpost near the Afghan border. In response, Islamabad shut down one of the key supply roots for U.S. troops into Afghanistan and demanded that the U.S. close an air base used by the CIA for drone strikes.

在本周六(2011年11月26日,译者注),巴基斯坦官方指责北约的空中打击杀害了一个巴基斯坦靠近阿富汗的边界哨所的二十名军人。作为回应,伊斯兰堡关闭了一条巴基斯坦境内美军向阿富汗输送物资的公路,并要求美国关闭住巴基斯坦的空军基地,美国中央情报局正是利用该基地执行无人机空中打击任务。

"Engaging in combat and people being at risk have always been together until now," Singer says. "The technology allows you to disentangle them, and now a new age of war has started."

彼得·辛格说:“在此之前,只要发生战争,总有人处在危险之中;现在,技术的进步让美国军人可以处在危险之外,新时代的战争已经开始。”

The big question is how much more automated war will become. Singer says there are dozens of other countries at different stages of developing their own drone technology. Will there be a time when air-to-air combat is fully automated?

现在最大的问题是自动化的战争何时开始。彼得·辛格表示现在有数十个国家正在研发自己的无人机,这些国家的研发进展各不相同。在未来,无人机之间的全自动化的战争会发生吗?

"I can definitely see some of the more mundane aspects of flight being autonomous," Poss says. That could mean landing and taking off, aerial refueling, flying to and from a certain target.

彼得·辛格说:“我看到了无人机在飞行时很多事情是自动完成的,包括起飞、降落、空中加油及在目标上空盘旋。”

"But I always see a human making that final call on whether or not that is a legitimate target," he says. "And I certainly always see a human making that final call on whether or not to release a weapon on that target."

彼得·辛格说:“但最终决定该目标是否是合法打击目标的是人,同样,做出是否对该目标进行打击的决定的也是人。”

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