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中学英语语法易错点解析(二)

2012-01-05  MouseHappy

(六) 介词

  介词与名词,动词,形容词的搭配是易错之处

  37. The article is good except a few spelling mistakes.
  此句应在except 后加for, 表示美中不足之意。而except 用来排除同类的人或物,如:They all went there except Tom.

  38. Please wait me at the station.
  wait 为不及物动词, 需加介词for后才能再跟名词或代词做宾语,但后面接时间,则不用for, 如I have waited 3 hours.

  39. He has been married with Betty for more than twenty years.
  marry 不跟with 连用, 应把with改为to.

  40. I finished the work on time under the help of him.
  “在---的帮助下”用with而不用under,在……领导或统治下用under, 如under the rule of these landlords.

(七) 情态动词

  请注意情态动词表示判断和反意问句的构成

  41. He can be at work now because the light in his room is still on.
  表特别有把握的肯定判断时用must,表特别有把握的否定判断时用can’t,can表判断时只用在否定句中。因此把can改为must。

  42. He need come here before the meeting begins.
  作情态动词时need用在否定,疑问和条件句中,不能用于肯定句中,而作实意动词时则常用于肯定句。所以应改为:He needs to come here before the meeting begins.

  43. He used to get up very early in the morning, and now he is still doing so.
  used to 用来表示过去常常做某事而现在不做了,所以应把后半句改为: but now he is not doing so.

  44. I needn’t come yesterday because all the work had been finished.
  由于情态动词本身不体现时态,所以在谈论过去的事情时在情态动词后加have done,因此在needn’t后加have,表示本不需要来而实际来了。

  45. You hadn’t better stay up too late because you have to get up early tomorrow.
  had better 的否定在better后面加not. 另外几个否定句式,I would rather not, I don’t have to, I oughtn’t to do, 均需注意。

(八) 动词的时态

  英语的常用时态有七种,一般根据上下文和时间状语来确定时态。

  46. Mother will give him the gift when she will come tomorrow.
  主句为将来时,其时间、条件、方式和让步状语从句中用一般现在时。因此将will come改为comes。又如,I   won’t go unless he goes there next week.

  47. The talk is about to begin in ten minutes.
  be about to 一般不与具体的时间状语连用。因此把in ten minutes去掉,或将about 改为going。

  48. The boy opened his eyes for a moment, looking at the captain and then died.
  此处look并非伴随状语,而是三个并列的谓语动词,因此把looking改为looked。又如,He got there, bought some presents and visited his aunt.

  49. I have bought this radio for ten years and I am still using it now.
  当句中有for加一段时间作状语时,谓语动词必须为延续性动词,此处把bought改为kept。常用的瞬间动词有:join, leave, come, die, begin, end, arrive, reach等。

  50. I haven’t learnt any French before I came here.
  我来这儿已经是过去的动作,在此之前发生的事应该用过去完成时。因此应把haven’t改为hadn’t。又如:By the end of last century they had built 100 bridges.

(九) 动词的语态

  及物动词用在主动语态时要有宾语,因此可以变为被动语态;不及物动词用于主动语态时不能接宾语,因此无被动语态。

  51. The two thieves have been disappeared.
  disappear为不及物动词,因此不能用于被动语态,应把been去掉。常考的不及物动词及词组有go, arrive, break out, take off, belong to等。

  52. The building built now will be our teaching building.
  表“现在正在建的”应用被动语态的正在进行时,因此在built前加being。不加being则表示已盖完了。

  53. He is being operated by the famous doctor.
  主动语态变为被动语态时,应注意短语动词的完整性,别忘了介词或副词。“给---做手术”应为operate on sb.,所以在operated后加上on。又如:The child should be taken good care of.

  54. The work should do at once.
  情态动词的被动语态应在情态动词后加be, 改为should be done。

  55. The book written by him is sold well.
  说一本书畅销是指书本身的属性,因此不用被动语态。本句应改为:The book written by him sells well. 但表示被卖出去了,则要用被动。如,The books are sold out.

  56.The book is happened to get in the store .
  happen 不能有被动,而不定式to get 则应用被动式。此句改成 The book happened to be got in the dtore.

(十) 非谓语动词

  非谓语动词包括动词不定式、分词和动名词。所谓非谓语即在句中不作谓语。

  57.We are going to talk about the problem discussing at the last meeting.
  此处为分词作定语,问题应该被讨论,所以把discussing改为discussed。
  过去分词表示被动和完成,而现在分词表示主动和正在。

  58. The girl dressed herself in red is my sister.
  dress 为及物动词,意为“给---穿衣服”,此处为分词作定语修饰girl,girl应是它的逻辑宾语,因此把herself去掉。dress表动作后面应接人,如She dressed herself this morning.

  59. Being seriously ill, his classmates sent him to hospital.
  分词作状语时,其逻辑主语为这句话的主语,此句应为“因为他病了,他的同学才把他送到医院去”,因此把前半句改为:He being seriously ill, 或Because he was seriously ill.

  60. Having not seen her for many years, we could hardly recognize her.
  现在分词的否定应把not放在现在分词前面,所以前半句应改为:Not having seen her for many years。又如:Not hearing from her, they looked worried.

  61. Seeing from the space, the earth looks like a ball.
  分词作状语,其逻辑主语应是这句话的主语,此句中地球应该被看,所以把Seeing改为Seen。

  62. English is easy to learn it.
  此句中是不定式作状语修饰easy,English应该是learn的逻辑宾语,所以把it去掉,又如,The work is difficult to do.

  63. I will get somebody repair the recorder for you.
  “让某人做某事”可以有以下几种表达法:make sb do sth; have sb do sth; get sb to do sth。因此在repair前加to。又如宾语后省掉to的还有let, feel, hear, see等。

  64. She decided to work harder so as to not fall behind the others.
  不定式的否定把not放在to前面。因此应改为:She decided to work harder so as not to fall behind the others.

  65. It’s better to laugh than crying.
  表比较时比较的双方应为同种结构,或都是动名词或都是不定式。因此有两种改法:It’s better to laugh than to cry.或It’s better laughing than crying.

  66. It’s no use to send for the doctor.
  做某事是没用的要说成It’s no use doing,所以把to send改为sending。同样的结构还有it’s no good doing sth

  67. She practises to play the piano after school every day.
  practise 后只跟动名词作宾语,因此把to play改为playing。其后只接doing 的动词和短语还有:enjoy, finish, mind, consider, imagine, give up, put off 等。

  68. When the teacher came in, the students stopped listening to the teacher.
  stop doing为停止做这件事,而stop to do为停下正在做的事去做另一件事。所以后半句应该为:the students stopped to listen to the teacher. 接to do和doing意思不一样的动词还有forget, remember, regret 等。

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