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【中考英语】初中英语总复习之语法篇--动词的被动语态

2012-02-17  *晚 秋*

初中英语总复习之语法篇--动词的被动语态

初中英语被动语态考点聚焦

     [焦点一]什么是被动语态?它是怎样构成的?

   被动语态表明一个被动性动作,它由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。助动词be有时态、人称和数的变化,其变化规则与连系动词be完全一样。请看下表:

时 态

主语为单数被动语态构成

主语为复数被动语态构成

一般现在时

is/ am done are done

一般过去时

was done were done

一般将来时

will be done/ is (am) going to be done will be done/ are going to be done

情态动词

may/ can/ must/ should be done may/ can/ must/ should be done

  被动语态否定式为be not done,情态动词被动语态否定式为情态动词+not be done.

 [焦点二]在什么情况下要使用被动语态?

  在下列情况下要使用被动语态:

  1. 行为主体不明确,不必说出或者无法说出动作的执行者时。如:

  Football is played all over the world.

  2. 不易找到或根本就不可能找到动作的执行者时。如:

  My bike was stolen. 我的自行车被盗了。

  3. 汉语中含有“据说、据悉、有人说、大家说”等时。如:

  It is said that one day he climbed to the top of a house and dropped some money down a chimney.

  据说,有一天他爬到一所房子的顶上,往烟囱下面扔了一些钱。

  4. 汉语中含有“被、由”等词时。如:

  Wei Hua is asked to come by Lin Tao.

  魏华是被林涛叫来的。

  5. 汉语中没有“被、由”等词,而在原句中试加这类词且句意通顺时。如:

  These songs are usually sung by boys.

  这些歌曲通常是男生唱的。(在“是”后面可以加上“由”)

  6. 某些句子习惯上用被动语态。如:

  He was born in October, 1989.

  7. 表示礼貌时。如:

  You are friendly invited to come to our English party at 8:00 p.m. tomorrow.

  敬请您明天晚上8:00光临我们的英语晚会。

 [焦点三]那么在什么情况下不能使用被动语态呢?

  在以下10种情况下均不能使用被动语态:

  1. 不及物动词不能用于被动语态。如:

  正:The story happened in London.

  误:The story was happened in London.

  2. 表示状态的动词,如have,cost,fit,last,own,hold,become等往往不能用于被动语态。如:

  正:The shirt fits him very well.

  误:He is fitted very well by the shirt.

  3. 某些“不及物动词+介词”构成的短语动词,如listen to,walk into,fall off等,往往不使用被动语态。如:

  正:He walked into the room.

  误:The room was walked into by him.

  4. 祈使句一般没有被动语态。如:

  正:Look at the blackboard, please.

  误:The blackboard is looked at by you.

  5. 宾语和主语所指的对象相同时不能用于被动语态。如:

  正:We must help each other.

  误:Each other must be helped by us.

  6. 某些及物动词的宾语表示处所、地点、组织时不能用于被动语态。如:

  正:He joined the League in 1998.

  误:The League was joined by him in 1998.

  7. 动词不定式或动词-ing形式作宾语时不能用于被动语态。如:

  正:They like to watch TV.

  误:To watch TV is liked by them.

  正:He enjoys listening to the radio.

  误:Listening to the radio is enjoyed by him.

  8. 主动句中有表示数量、长度、大小或程度的单词或短语作宾语时往往不使用被动语态。如:

  正:She pays three yuan for the tomatoes.

  误:Three yuan is paid for these tomatoes by her.

  9. 由“动词+名词”构成的英语习语(如make faces,make friends,take place等)一般不可改为被动语态。如:

  正:The boy make faces in class.

  误:Faces are made by the boy in class.

  10. 反身代词在句中作宾语时,不能用被动语态。如:

  正:You must look after yourself.

  误:Yourself must be looked after.

 
[焦点四]初中英语被动语态八注意  
 
       1.我们知道,主动语态变为被动语态时,通常将主动语态中的宾语变为被动语态的主语;主动语态的主语变为由介词by引导的宾语;谓语动词变为被动语态“be +过去分词”形式,例如:
   Everyone likes the interesting film. (主动语态) → The interesting film is liked by everyone. (被动语态)
   They used knives to cut things. (主动语态) → Knives are used to cut things. (被动语态)
    但是,并非所有由“be +过去分词”构成的形式就是被动语态。有时过去分词已经变为形容词,表示一种状态。试比较:
    My brother is very interested in English. 我哥哥对英语非常感兴趣。(状态)
    My brother was interested by what I told him. 我告诉他的话让我哥哥非常感兴趣。(动态)

       2.在被动语态中谓语动词一定是及物动词,也就是说必须跟宾语的动词。如:
    We can make metals into different shapes. (主动语态) → Metals can be made into different shapes. (被动语态)
    在主动语态中make是及物动词,其动作的承受者即宾语是metals。
    但是,并非所有的及物动词都有被动语态。比如,表示静态的动词(have、belong to)、宾语是反身代词或相互代词等。例如:
    He has a nice house. 他有一所漂亮的房子。
    We must help each other. 我们应该互相帮助。
       3.主动语态中的主语在变为被动语态时通常变为由介词by的引出的宾语。如:
    They have already cut down the trees. → The trees have already been cut down by them. 那些树木已经被他们砍光。
    如果谓语动词是know,在变为被动语态时,原来的主语变为由to引出的宾语。如:
    May people know him very well. → He is well known to many people. 很多人都非常了解他。
    注意:我们之所以用被动语态是因为我们不清楚动作的执行者、或没有必要指出动词的执行者等。因此很多被动语态没有由by引出的宾语。如:
    People may lose their lives and homes or they may be injured badly in a fire. 在大火中人们可能失去性命和家园,要不就是严重烧伤。
It is used for protecting the fireman from smoke. 它用来保护消防人员以避免吸进烟雾。
      4.在主动语态变为被动语态时,时态一般应保持一致。如:
    We will build more factories in my hometown. → More factories will be built in my hometown. 我们家乡将要建起更多的工厂。   
    为此,我们必须记住以下某些时态的被动结构:
    do(es)→ is/am/are done           did → was/were done
    have/has done → have/has been done   will do → will be done
    be doing → be being done           
      5.某些动词可以跟双宾语如give、pass、bring、write;buy、make等,在变为被动语态时如果直接宾语变为被动语态中的主语,则间接宾语通常由介词to、for引出。例如:
    My sister gave me a nice watch for my birthday. → A nice watch was given to me by my sister for my birthday. 我过生日时收到了姐姐的一块手表。
    They have bought us many books. → Many books have been bought for us by them. 很多书都是由他们给我们买的。
 
     6.某些动词make、hear、see、watch等在主动语态中,其宾语补足语要求用不带to的不定式。但在变为被动语态时通常省略的不定式符号to必须恢复。如:
    He made us clean the classroom after school. → We were made to clean the classroom after school. 我们被迫在放学后打扫教室。
    I saw him come into the room. → He was seen to come into the room. 人们看见他进了屋子。
 
     7.在主动语态中如果谓语动词是含有介词或副词的短语动词,变为被动语态时不能丢掉该介词或副词。如:
    They must take good care of the children. → The children must be taken good care of. 孩子们必须小心照看。
      8.英语中某些动词如sell、lock、draw、start等在否定句、进行时或用在某些形容词、副词前可以表示被动意义。如:
    This kind of books sells well. 这种书畅销。
    The door won’t lock. 门锁锁不上。

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