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van Merrienboer的论文清单

2012-09-19  梦中家园
在ID国际观第一册中,印象最深的是这三个人Tennyson , Flechsig , van Merrienboer。
在Springer下载了van Merrienboer的一些论文,存清单于此。

Participatory instructional redesign by students and teachers in secondary education: effects on perceptions of instruction
Computer-based tools for instructional design: An introduction to the special issue
Timing of Information Presentation in Learning Statistics 
ADAPTIT: Tools for training design and evaluation
Cognitive Load Theory and Complex Learning: Recent Developments and Future Directions
The effects of portfolio-based advice on the development of self-directed learning skills in secondary vocational education
Towards a personalized task selection model with shared instructional control
Process-Oriented Worked Examples: Improving Transfer Performance Through Enhanced Understanding
A model for optimizing step size of learning tasks in competency-based multimedia practicals
Blueprints for complex learning: The 4C/ID-model
Design and evaluation of a development portfolio: how to improve students’ self-directed learning skills
Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design
Effects of Web-based Support for the Construction of Competence Maps
Flexibility in higher professional education: A survey in business administration programmes in the Netherlands
A Theoretical Analysis of How Segmentation of Dynamic Visualizations Optimizes Students' Learning
Mental Effort and Performance as Determinants for the Dynamic Selection of Learning Tasks in Air Traffic Control Training
Toward a Synthesis of Cognitive Load Theory, Four-Component Instructional Design, and Self-Directed Learning
Novice and experienced instructional software developers: effects on materials created with instructional software templates
Training for reflective expertise: A four-component instructional design model for complex cognitive skills
The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills
Instructional control of cognitive load in the training of complex cognitive tasks
Three worlds of instructional design: State of the art and future directions
A motivational perspective on the relation between mental effort and performance: Optimizing learner involvement in instruction
Observational learning from animated models: effects of studying–practicing alternation and illusion of control on transfer
Web-based support for constructing competence maps: design and formative evaluation
Exploring teachers' instructional design practices from a systems design perspective
Research on cognitive load theory and its design implications for e-learning


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Participatory instructional redesign by students and teachers in secondary education: effects on perceptions of instruction
Karen D. K?nings, Saskia Brand-Gruwel and Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer
Abstract
Students’ perceptions of instruction are important because they direct the learning of students. The fact that teachers have only limited knowledge of these perceptions is likely to threaten the effectiveness of learning, because congruence between interpretations of an instructional intervention is necessary for its optimal use. This study examines participatory design as a strategy for taking student perceptions into account in instructional re/design. Participatory design meetings of groups of teachers and seven co-designing students in a secondary education setting identified changes to improve the regular education process. The results on changes in student perceptions, perceived-desired discrepancy, and teacher–student disagreement showed some improvement for the co-designers but, unexpectedly, limited or even negative effects for the non-co-designing students. Possible causes are discussed. Participatory design seems to have potential for improving education, but further research is needed.
Keywords  Instructional design - Participatory design - Student perspectives

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Computer-based tools for instructional design: An introduction to the special issue
Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer and Rob Martens
Abstract
Modern instructional theories are characterized by their focus on rich, multidisciplinary and often collaborative learning tasks that are somehow representative for authentic, real life tasks. This new view on learning heavily increases the complexity of the design process and the resulting instructional systems. It is argued that computer-based instructional design (ID) tools may help to deal with this growing complexity. A framework to distinguish different kinds of ID tools is presented. This framework is then used to introduce the contributions to this special issue. 

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Timing of Information Presentation in Learning Statistics 
Liesbeth Kester, Paul A. Kirschner and Jeroen J.G. van Merri?nboer
Abstract
This study in the domain of statistics comparesfour information presentation formats in a 2 × 2factorial design: timing of supportiveinformation (before or during taskpractice) × timing of procedural information(before or during task practice).Seventy-two psychology and education students(7 male and 65 female; mean age 18.5 years,SD = 2.85) participated. Theeffectiveness of the learning material wasmeasured by test performance. The instructionalefficiency was measured by a combination ofmental effort during practice and testperformance (i.e., a high test performancecombined with a low mental effort duringpractice denotes a high instructionalefficiency). ANOVA showed a main effect fortiming of supportive information: presentationduring practice led to more efficient learning than presentationbefore practice. Moreover, an interactioneffect was found. Simultaneous presentation ofprocedural information before andsupportive information during practiceled to the most efficient learning.

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ADAPTIT: Tools for training design and evaluation
Marcel B. M. de Croock, Fred Paas, Henrik Schlandbusch and Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer
Abstract
This article describes a set of computerized tools that support the design and evaluation of competency-based training programs. The training of complex skills such as air traffic control and process control requires a competency-based approach that focuses on the integration and coordination of constituent skills and transfer of learning. At the heart of the training are authentic whole-task practice situations. The instructional design tools are based on van Merri?nboer's 4C/ID* methodology (1997). The article describes a training design tool (Core) that supports the analysis and design for competency-based training programs and an evaluation tool (Eval) that supports the subsequent revision of this training design. 

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Cognitive Load Theory and Complex Learning: Recent Developments and Future Directions
Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer and John Sweller
Abstract
Traditionally, Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) has focused on instructional methods to decrease extraneous cognitive load so that available cognitive resources can be fully devoted to learning. This article strengthens the cognitive base of CLT by linking cognitive processes to the processes used by biological evolution. The article discusses recent developments in CLT related to the current view in instructional design that real-life tasks should be the driving force for complex learning. First, the complexity, or intrinsic cognitive load, of such tasks is often high so that new methods are needed to manage cognitive load. Second, complex learning is a lengthy process requiring learnersrsquo motivational states and levels of expertise development to be taken into account. Third, this perspective requires more advanced methods to measure expertise and cognitive load so that instruction can be flexibly adapted to individual learnersrsquo needs. Experimental studies are reviewed to illustrate these recent developments. Guidelines for future research are provided.
Key words  cognitive architecture - biological evolution - complex learning - cognitive load - instructional design - expertise - adaptive instruction

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The effects of portfolio-based advice on the development of self-directed learning skills in secondary vocational education
Wendy Kicken, Saskia Brand-Gruwel, Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer and Wim Slot
Abstract
This experimental study was designed to investigate whether supervision meetings, in which students receive specific advice on how to use a development portfolio to monitor their progress and plan their future learning, helps them to develop self-directed learning skills and improve their learning in the domain. In the first year of a hairdressing program in vocational education, supervision meetings were used to provide students with either specific advice or not. Students in the advice group (n = 21) formulated better learning needs, selected more suitable learning tasks, completed more practical assignments, and acquired more certificates than students in the feedback-only group (n = 22). Interviews also showed that students in the advice group appreciated the supervision meeting more and perceived them as more effective than students in the feedback-only group. Guidelines are provided for the use of development portfolios and the organization of supervision meetings in on-demand vocational education.

Keywords  Self-directed learning - Advice - Development portfolio - On-demand education - Secondary vocational education and training

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Towards a personalized task selection model with shared instructional control
Gemma Corbalan, Liesbeth Kester and Jeroen J. G. Van Merri?nboer
Abstract
Modern education emphasizes the need to flexibly personalize learning tasks to individual learners. This article discusses a personalized task-selection model with shared instructional control based on two current tendencies for the dynamic sequencing of learning tasks: (1) personalization by an instructional agent which makes sequencing decisions on the basis of learner’s expertise, and (2) personalization by the learner who is given control over – final – task selection. The model combines both trends in a model with shared instructional control. From all available learning tasks, an instructional agent selects a subset of tasks based on the learner’s performance scores and invested mental effort (i.e., system-control). Subsequently, this subset is presented to the learner who makes the final decision (i.e., learner control). A computer-assisted instructional program has been developed to put the model into practice and preliminary results are discussed. The model can be used to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of instruction and to make it more appealing by providing the learner an optimal level of control over task selection.

Keywords  cognitive load - complex learning - dynamic task selection - electronic learning environment - learner control - personalized instruction 

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Process-Oriented Worked Examples: Improving Transfer Performance Through Enhanced Understanding
Tamara van Gog, Fred Paas and Jeroen J.G. van Merri?nboer
Abstract
The research on worked examples has shown thatfor novices, studying worked examples is oftena more effective and efficient way of learningthan solving conventional problems. Thistheoretical paper argues that addingprocess-oriented information to worked examplescan further enhance transfer performance,especially for complex cognitive skills withmultiple possible solution paths.Process-oriented information refers to theprincipled (``why'''') and strategic (``how'''')information that experts use when solvingproblems. From a cognitive load perspective,studying the expert''s ``why'''' and ``how''''information can be seen as constituting agermane cognitive load, which can fosterstudents'' understanding of the principles of adomain and the rationale behind the selectedoperators, and their knowledge about howexperts select a strategy, respectively. Issueswith regard to the design, implementation, andassessment of effects of process-orientedworked examples are discussed, as well as thequestions they raise for future research.

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A model for optimizing step size of learning tasks in competency-based multimedia practicals
Rob J. Nadolski, Paul A. Kirschner, Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer and Hans G. K. Hummel
Abstract
Learners are often overwhelmed by the complexity of realistic learning tasks, but reducing this complexity through traditional Instructional Design (ID) methods jeopardizes the authenticity of the learning experience. To solve this apparent paradox, a two-phase ID model is presented. Phase 1 consists of cognitive task analysis, where a systematic approach to problem solving (SAP) is identified in conjunction with skill decomposition and determination of task complexity. In the subsequent design phase, inductive micro-level sequencing based on the four-component ID model (van Merri?nboer, 1997) is applied where worked-out examples and problems accompanied by process worksheets assure the necessary variability of practice. Step size in a multiple-step whole-task approach—needed for the process worksheets—is determined on the basis of estimated part-task complexity. A developmental study of the model is illustrated with examples from the domain of law. 

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Blueprints for complex learning: The 4C/ID-model
Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer, Richard E. Clark and Marcel B. M. de Croock
Abstract
This article provides an overview description of the four-component instructional design system (4C/ID-model) developed originally by van Merri?nboer and others in the early 1990s (van Merri?nboer, Jelsma, & Paas, 1992) for the design of training programs for complex skills. It discusses the structure of training blueprints for complex learning and associated instructional methods. The basic claim is that four interrelated components are essential in blueprints for complex learning: (a) learning tasks, (b) supportive information, (c) just-in-time (JIT) information, and (d) part-task practice. Instructional methods for each component are coupled to the basic learning processes involved in complex learning and a fully worked-out example of a training blueprint for “searching for literature” is provided. Readers who benefit from a structured advance organizer should consider reading the appendix at the end of this article before reading the entire article. 

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Design and evaluation of a development portfolio: how to improve students’ self-directed learning skills
Wendy Kicken, Saskia Brand-Gruwel, Jeroen van Merri?nboer and Wim Slot
Abstract
In on-demand education, students often experience problems with directing their own learning processes. A Structured Task Evaluation and Planning Portfolio (STEPP) was designed to help students develop 3 basic self-directed learning skills: Assessing the quality of own performance, formulating learning needs, and selecting future learning tasks. A case study with 10 first-year students in the domain of hairdressing was conducted to evaluate STEPP’s use, usability, and perceived effectiveness. Results from student interviews show that usability and use are influenced by several factors. Students with low prior hairdressing skills, a weakly developed personal approach to direct their own learning, and an inclination to update STEPP as part of their weekly routine, use STEPP more frequently than students without these characteristics. Both the supervisor and students who frequently used STEPP perceived its use as a positive contribution to the development of self-directed learning skills. Furthermore, this study provides guidelines for the design of development portfolios in on-demand education.

Keywords  Development portfolio - On-demand education - Self-directed learning - Secondary vocational education

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Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design
John Sweller, Jeroen J. G. van Merrienboer and Fred G. W. C. Paas
Abstract
Cognitive load theory has been designed to provide guidelines intended to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimize intellectual performance. The theory assumes a limited capacity working memory that includes partially independent subcomponents to deal with auditory/verbal material and visual/2- or 3-dimensional information as well as an effectively unlimited long-term memory, holding schemas that vary in their degree of automation. These structures and functions of human cognitive architecture have been used to design a variety of novel instructional procedures based on the assumption that working memory load should be reduced and schema construction encouraged. This paper reviews the theory and the instructional designs generated by it.

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Effects of Web-based Support for the Construction of Competence Maps
Angela Stoof, Rob L. Martens and Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer
Abstract
Educationalists experience difficulties with the construction of competence maps that describe final attainment levels of educational programs. Web-based support was developed with three supportive aids: A construction kit, a phenomenarium, and an information bank. Each supportive aid was expected to improve perceived process and product quality as well as learning. In a full factorial experiment, 266 educational science students constructed a competence map, whether or not supported by different combinations of the three supportive aids. The availability of the construction kit and the phenomenarium had positive effects on perceived process quality and learning. Furthermore, if there was no phenomenarium with example materials, the absence of the construction kit greatly diminished experienced support (i.e., one aspect of process quality); if a phenomenarium was present, the availability of the construction kit had relatively little effect on perceived support. In general, this study indicates that well-designed Web-based support helps to construct competence maps.

Keywords  Competence maps - competence-based education - construction Kits - information banks - phenomenaria - web-based support 

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Flexibility in higher professional education: A survey in business administration programmes in the Netherlands
Ad Schellekens, Fred Paas and Jeroen J.G. van Merri?nboer
Abstract
In order to develop higher education in theEuropean Union there is a need to increase themobility of students and teachers. Improvingthe flexibility of educational programming isan educational policy in the Netherlands tosupport this development. To get a clearpicture of the operational characteristics ofcurrent educational programmes, theirflexibility and conditions for improvement, asurvey was carried out in Businessadministration programmes in higherprofessional education institutes in theNetherlands. The results indicate that theseeducational programmes are organised in ratherrigid operational formats that seem to restrictflexibility. The issue of developing newoperational models that allow for more flexibleeducational programme formats is discussed.Operations management and educationaltechnology are considered as potential domainsfor a re-engineering of educational systems.

business administration - curriculum - flexibility - higher education - professional education - school organisation - survey

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A Theoretical Analysis of How Segmentation of Dynamic Visualizations Optimizes Students' Learning
Ingrid A. E. Spanjers, Tamara van Gog and Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer
Abstract
This article reviews studies investigating segmentation of dynamic visualizations (i.e., showing dynamic visualizations in pieces with pauses in between) and discusses two not mutually exclusive processes that might underlie the effectiveness of segmentation. First, cognitive activities needed for dealing with the transience of dynamic visualizations impose extraneous cognitive load, which may hinder learning. Segmentation may reduce the negative effect of this load by dividing animations into smaller units of information and providing pauses between segments that give students time for the necessary cognitive activities after each of those units of information. Second, event segmentation theory states that people mentally segment dynamic visualizations during perception (i.e., divide the information shown in pieces). Segmentation of dynamic visualisation could cue relevant segments to students, which may aid them in perceiving the structure underlying the process or procedure shown.
Keywords  Dynamic visualizations - Animations - Segmentation - Cognitive load - Learning

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Mental Effort and Performance as Determinants for the Dynamic Selection of Learning Tasks in Air Traffic Control Training
Ron J.C.M. Salden, Fred Paas, Nick J. Broers and Jeroen J.G. van Merri?nboer
Abstract
The differential effects of four task selectionmethods on training efficiency and transfer incomputer-based training for Air Traffic Controlwere investigated. A non-dynamic condition, inwhich the learning tasks were presented to theparticipants in a fixed, predeterminedsequence, was compared to three dynamicconditions, in which learning tasks wereselected on the basis of performance, mentaleffort, and a combination of both (i.e., mentalefficiency). Using the 3-factor mentalefficiency formula of Tuovinen and Paas (2004, this issue), the hypothesis that dynamic taskselection leads to more efficient training thannon-dynamic task selection was confirmed.However, the hypothesis that dynamic taskselection based on mental efficiency leads tomore efficient training than dynamic taskselection based on performance or mental effortalone was not supported. The results arediscussed in light of the theoretical frameworkand suggestions are given for futureresearch. 

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Toward a Synthesis of Cognitive Load Theory, Four-Component Instructional Design, and Self-Directed Learning
Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer and Dominique M. A. Sluijsmans
Abstract
This article explores the opportunities to apply cognitive load theory and four-component instructional design to self-directed learning. Learning tasks are defined as containing three elements: learners must (a) perform the tasks, (b) assess their task performance, and (c) select future tasks for improving their performance. Principles to manage intrinsic and extraneous load for performing learning tasks, such as simple-to-complex ordering and fading-guidance strategies, are also applicable to assessing performance and selecting tasks. Moreover, principles to increase germane load, such as high variability and self-explanation prompts, are also applicable to assessment and selection. It is concluded that cognitive load theory and four-component instructional design provide a solid basis for a research program on self-directed learning.
Keywords  Cognitive load theory

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Novice and experienced instructional software developers: effects on materials created with instructional software templates
Eddy W. Boot, Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer and Arja L. Veerman
Abstract
The development of instructional software is a complex process, posing high demands to the technical and didactical expertise of developers. Domain specialists rather than professional developers are often responsible for it, but authoring tools with pre-structured templates claim to compensate for this limited experience. This study compares instructional software products made by developers with low production experience (n = 6) and high production experience (n = 8), working with a template-based authoring tool. It is hypothesized that those with high production experience will be more productive and create software with a higher didactical quality than those with low production experience, whereas no differences with regard to technical and authoring quality are expected. The results show that the didactical quality was unsatisfactory and did not differ between groups. Nevertheless the templates compensated for differences in experience because the technical and authoring quality was equal for both groups, indicating that templates enable domain specialists to participate successfully in the production process.

Keywords  Instructional software templates - Instructional design - Authoring

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Training for reflective expertise: A four-component instructional design model for complex cognitive skills
Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer, Otto Jelsma and Fred G. W. C. Paas
Abstract
This article presents a four-component instructional design model for the training of complex cognitive skills. In the analysis phase, the skill is decomposed into a set of recurrent skills that remain consistent over problem situations and a set of nonrecurrent skills that require variable performance over situations. In the design phase, two components relate to the design of practice; they pertain to the conditions under which practice leads either to rule automation during the performance of recurrent skills or to schema acquisition during the performance of nonrecurrent skills. The other two components relate to the design of information presentation; they pertain to the presentation of information that supports the performance of either recurrent or nonrecurrent skills. The basic prediction of the model is that its application leads to “reflective expertise” and increased performance on transfer tasks. Applications of the model that support this prediction are briefly discussed for the training of fault management in process industry, computer programming, and statistical analysis. 

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The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills
Greet Mia Jos Fastré, Marcel R. van der Klink and Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based assessment criteria, describing what students should do, for the task at hand. The performance-based group is compared to a competence-based assessment group in which students receive a preset list of competence-based assessment criteria, describing what students should be able to do. The test phase revealed that the performance-based group outperformed the competence-based group on test task performance. In addition, higher performance of the performance-based group was reached with lower reported mental effort during training, indicating a higher instructional efficiency for novice students.

Keywords  Competence-based assessment criteria - Mental effort - Performance-based assessment criteria - Self-assessment skills - Task performance

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Instructional control of cognitive load in the training of complex cognitive tasks
Fred G. W. C. Paas and Jeroen J. G. Van Merri?nboer
Abstract
Limited processing capacity constrains learning and performance in complex cognitive tasks. In traditional instruction, novices' failure to adequately learn cognitive tasks can often be attributed to the inappropriate direction of attention and the related high or excessive load that is imposed on a learner's cognitive system. An instructional design model for the training of complex cognitive tasks should provide instructional strategies that control cognitive load. We propose such a model and recommend research in which the cognitive load of instructional manipulations is systematically investigated and determined with mental-effort based measures.
Key Words  instruction - cognitive load - complex cognitive tasks

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Three worlds of instructional design: State of the art and future directions
Jeroen J.G. van Merri?nboer and Paul A. Kirschner
Abstract
Three worlds of ID are distinguished. The Worldof Knowledge stresses the analysis of learningoutcomes in knowledge structures and theselection of instructional strategies forparticular outcomes; the World of Learningfocuses on particular learning processes andthe synthesis of strategies that support thoseprocesses; the World of Work focuses onreal-life task performance and strategies thatsupport learners while they work on authenticproblems. Contributions to this Special Issueare discussed within the three-world framework.Implications for future research are discussed,stressing the promise of mental models as atheoretical construct that may help to buildbridges between the three worlds.

cognitivism - constructivism - instructional design - instructional methods - learning - mental models

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A motivational perspective on the relation between mental effort and performance: Optimizing learner involvement in instruction
Fred Paas, Juhani E. Tuovinen, Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer and A. Aubteen Darabi
Abstract
Motivation can be identified as a dimension that determines learning success and causes the high dropout rate among online learners, especially in complex e-learning environments. It is argued that these learning environments represensent a new challenge to cognitive load researchers to investigate the motivational effects of instructional conditions and help instructional designers to predict which instructional configurations will maximize learning and transfer. Consistent with the efficiency perspective introduced by Paas and Van Merri?nboer (1993), an alternative motivational perspective of the relation between mental effort and performance is presented. We propose a procedure to compute and visualize the differential effects of instructional conditions on learner motivation, and illustrate this procedure on the basis of an existing data set. Theoretical and practical implications of the motivational perspective are discussed. 

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Observational learning from animated models: effects of studying–practicing alternation and illusion of control on transfer
Pieter Wouters, Fred Paas and Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer
Abstract
Animated models explicating how a problem is solved and why a particular method is chosen are expected to be effective learning tools for novices, especially when abstract cognitive processes or concepts are involved. Cognitive load theory was used to investigate how learners could be stimulated to engage in genuine learning activities. It was hypothesized that illusion of control would impede transfer performance compared to a condition without illusion of control. Moreover, we hypothesized that learners who first studied an animated model and then solved the same problem would perform better on transfer than learners who studied the same animated model twice or who first solved the problem and then studied the animated model. In a 2 × 3 factorial experiment (N = 90) with the factors illusion of control (yes vs. no) and instruction method (study–practice, practice–study, study–study) only the first hypothesis was confirmed. Implications for the design of animated models are discussed.
Keywords  Modeling - Animations - Cognitive load theory - Perceived control 

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Web-based support for constructing competence maps: design and formative evaluation
Angela Stoof, Rob L. Martens and Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer
Abstract
This article describes the design and formative evaluation of a Web-based tool that supports curriculum developers in constructing competence maps. Competence maps describe final attainment levels of educational programs in terms of—interrelated—competencies. Key requirements for the competence-mapping tool were validity and practicality. Validity refers to internal consistency and meaningful links to the external realities represented. Practicality refers to a design approach of evolutionary prototyping, in which feedback from intended users and domain experts is collected throughout the development process. Formative evaluations of four prototypes were conducted. Measures of design, appeal, goal, content, confidence and relevance showed that the tool is practical. The article describes the formative evaluation process and concludes with a description of the modified tool from the perspective of the user and the instructional designer.
Keywords  Competence maps - Formative evaluation - Insrtuctional design tools - Performance support - Usability

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Exploring teachers' instructional design practices from a systems design perspective
Albert W.M. Hoogveld, Fred Paas, Wim M.G. Jochems and Jeroen J.G. Van Merri?nboer
Abstract
Curricular changes in higher vocationaleducation have rendered teachers' instructionaldesign activities increasingly important. Usinga repertory grid technique, this paper sets outto analyse current design activities of tenteacher trainers. Their actual approach iscompared with an instructional systems design(ISD) approach and related to innovativeteacher roles. Teachers' activities show animbalance in two ID phases, that is problemanalysis and evaluation. The results suggestthat they attempt to translate curricular goalsdirectly into concrete lessons and they payrelatively little attention to evaluation. Inline with this finding, they underrate the twoinnovative teacher roles of the `diagnostician'and the `evaluator'. It is argued thatimbalanced or incomplete design approaches andperceived roles may hinder innovation ineducation. Implications for the support ofteachers' design activities are discussed.
curriculum reform - instructional design approach - teacher training

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Research on cognitive load theory and its design implications for e-learning
Jeroen J. G. van Merri?nboer and Paul Ayres
Abstract
This introduction to the special issue provides a context for the contributing articles. for readers who are not familiar with cognitive load theory (CLT), it provides a very brief description of assumptions regarding memory systems and learning processes, different types of cognitive load (intrinsic, extraneous, and germane), and design implications. Whereas traditional CLT research focused on instructional methods to decrease extraneous cognitive load that is not directly relevant for learning, contributions to this special issue represent wider perspectives that reflect new developments in CLT. These articles have been organized into three categories: (a) methods to decrease intrinsic cognitive load, and deal with high-element interactivity materials, (b) methods to increase germane cognitive load that is directly relevant for learning, and (c) methods to deal with differences in learner's individual levels of expertise and expertise development. To conclude, design implications for (adaptive) e-learning are discussed. 

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