家有学子 2012-11-14

(1)difficulty 困难;a difficulty 一件难事
(2)experience 经验;an experience 一次经历
(3)failure 失败;a failure 一位失败者,一件失败的事
(4)knowledge 知识;a good knowledge 对……精通/熟知
(5)success 成功;a success 一位成功者,一件成功的事
(6)surprise 惊奇;a surprise 一件令人吃惊的事
(7)honour 荣誉;an honour 一位(件)带来荣誉的人或事
Failure is the mother of success.失败是成功之母。
The party last night was a success.We sang and danced until it came to an end.
Losing the game was a difficult experience for her.
Would you like some coffee?你想喝点咖啡吗?
I would like a coffee and two beers.
物质名词 可数名词 物质名词 可数名词
drink 饮料 two drinks
两杯饮料 sugar 糖 a sugar
coffee 咖啡 a coffee
一杯咖啡 paper 纸 a paper
tea 茶 two teas
两杯茶 hair 头发 a hair

1. We all hold the belief that ________2012 London Olympic Games will be ________success.
A./;a              B.the;/
C.the;a     D.a;a
解析: 第一空为特指,应用定冠词the;第二空success 为抽象名词具体化,“一个成功的人或事”,应用不定冠词a,类似的词还有failure,pleasure 等。
答案: C
2. It’s________good feeling for people to admire the Shanghai World Expo that gives them________pleasure.
A./;a     B.a;/
C.the;a    D.a;the
解析: 句意为:上海世博会给人们带来了欢乐,欣赏世博会是一种美好的感受。有些不可数名词,如knowledge,command,feeling等,前面有“a/an+形容词”修饰时,表示一件具体的事情或一个……的人。pleasure意为“愉快,快乐”,为不可数名词,故不加冠词。
答案: B
(1)accident “意外事件,偶发事件”,一般指(不幸的)事故,如车祸、天灾之类。
(2)incident 多指较小的事件、小插曲或人生中所碰到的虽小但留下较深印象的平凡事情,也可以指外交、政治方面的重大事件。
(3)affair “事物,要事”,头绪繁多的事;恋爱事件。
(4)event “大事”,也可指比赛项目。
①One in seven accidents is caused by sleepy drivers.
②Three people were arrested in connection with the rock-throwing incident.3个人因与扔石头事件有关而被捕。
③The Prime Minister is busy with affairs of state.
④A daughter’s marriage is quite an event for a father.
(1)quantity 表示“数量”。
(2)quality 既可以表示事物的“品质”,还可以表示人的“品德,素质”。
(3)character 泛指性格,无所谓好坏,还可以表示“角色,文字,字母”。
(4)personality 意为“个性”。
①It’s often less expensive to buy goods in quantity,but you’d better exam the quality before buying them.
②(2009?湖北卷)Hiking by oneself can be fun and good for health.It may also be good for character.
(1)condition 意为“条件,情况,状况”,其单数形式指人或物所处的状况,这时与state 意义相近,常可互换,但condition 还常指由于一定原因或条件造成的状态,如人的健康状况、物的完好程度、设备的可用性等。复数形式多指一般、笼统的情况。
(2)situation 指某一时间由各种情况造成的“处境”“形势”。
(3)state 指人或事物所处的状态或状况,常和condition 换用,此外,state 还常表示思想、感情、心理等状态。
(4)position 指人或事物所处的位置,地位。
①(2009?陕西卷)From their position on the top of the TV Tower,visitors can have a better view of the city.
②School children must be taught how to deal with dangerous situations.学生们必须接受如何应付危险情况的教育。
③I’ve had no exercise for ages,and I’m really out of condition.
④They were silent for a long time,in a state of painful hesitation and doubt.
(1)power 主要指做事所依靠的能力、功能,也可指人或机器等事物潜在的或发挥出来的力量,还可以指职权或政权。
(2)strength 指固有的潜力。说人时,指“力气”;说物时,指“强度”。
(3)force 主要指自然界的力量;暴力、势力以及法律、道德或感情的力量;军事力量等。
(4)energy 主要指人的精力或自然界中的能量。
①It’s not within my power to help you.
②A washing machine is a saver of time and strength.
③The UN tries to  limit the use of force in conflicts.
④You’ll need to apply all your energy to this job.
1. The school advisers help you talk through your problems but they don’t give you any direct________.
A.solution     B.target
C.measure     D.function
解析: 句意为:学校顾问会帮你梳理一下你的问题,但是他们不会给你任何直接的解决办法。本题考查名词辨析。solution 解决问题的办法;target目标,靶子;measure措施;function功能,作用。根据句意选A。
答案: A
2. Last year the number of students who graduated with a driving licence reached 200,000,a(n)________of 40,000 per year.
A.average     B.number
C.amount     D.quantity
解析: 句意为:去年毕业时就有驾照的学生数量已达到20万,平均每年4万。本题考查名词辨析。average 平均,平均数;a number of 许多,大量,修饰可数名词;an amount of 许多,大量,与不可数名词连用;a quantity of 许多,大量的,修饰可数和不可数名词。根据句意,选A。
答案: A
3.(2011?黑龙江检测)If you’re looking for a ________,you can make it when it is on sale.
A.price     B.bargain
C.cost     D.bill
解析: 考查名词词义辨析。on sale 表示“廉价出售”,因此应用bargain (特价商品)与之呼应。句意为:如果你在寻找特价商品,减价出售时你就可以买到。
答案: B
4. An experienced doctor usually judges a patient’s illness according to the various________.
A.signs     B.symptoms
C.signals    D.appearances
解析: 考查名词辨析。sign意思是“标记,迹象,记号”;symptom意思是“症状”;signal意思是“信号”;appearance意思是“外观,外表”。显然只有B项符合题意,即医生根据病人的症状判断病情。
答案: B
5. Those who suffer from headache will find they get________from this medicine.
A.relief     B.safety
C.defense    D.shelter
解析: 句意为:患头痛的人将会发现通过使用这种药,他们的头痛会得到缓解。考查名词辨析。relief 轻松,缓和;safety 安全;defense 防御,保护;shelter 居所,庇护。
答案: A
6. James took the magazines off the little table to make________for the television.
A.room     B.area
C.field     D.position
解析: 句意为:James 从小桌上拿走了(堆放的)杂志给电视机腾地方。本题考查了名词在动词短语中的用法。固定短语make room for sb./sth.为某人/某物腾地方。其余选项无此用法。
答案: A
7. The doctor is skilled at treating heart trouble and never accepts any gift from his patients,so he has a very good________.
A.expectation    B.reputation
C.contribution    D.civilization
解析: 句意为:这名医生对心脏病的治疗技术高超,并且从不接受病人送的任何礼品,因此,他名声很好。本题考查名词。expectation 期待,预料;reputation 名誉,名声,声望;contribution 贡献;civilization 文明。
答案: B
8. I haven’t seen Sara since she was a little girl,and she has changed beyond________.
A.hearing    B strength
C.recognition    D.measure
解析: 句意为:自从Sara 还是孩子的时候,我就一直没见过她。她现在已经变得(让人)认不出来了。beyond recognition—impossible to recognize 无法辨认。
答案: C
9. This restaurant has become popular for its wide________of foods that suit all tastes and pockets.
A.division     B.area
C.range      D.circle
解析: 句意为:这家餐馆很受欢迎,因为它提供各种食物,能满足各种口味和各种消费层次。本题考查名词辨析。四个名词选项的主要含义:division 区分,分开,除法,部门;area 区域,面积,范围;range:a number of people or things that are all different,but are all of the same general type 一系列,(变动或浮动的)范围,界限;circle 圆周,循环,社交圈。语境说能满足各种口味和消费层次,由此判断选C。
答案: C
10. After the earthquake,the first thing the local government did was to provide________for the homeless families.
A.accommodation    B.occupation
C.equipment     D.furniture
解析: 句意为:地震发生之后,当地政府所做的第一件事就是为无家可归的家庭提供住宿。本题考查名词辨析。四个名词选项的主要含义:accommodation 住处,停留处,膳宿;occupation 职业,占有期间,占有;equipment 设备,器材,装备,配备;furniture 家具。从语境的“地震之后”“失去家园的家庭”判断,本题选A表示提供“住宿”。
答案: A
11.Hiking by oneself can be fun and good for health.It may also be good for________ building.
A.respect    B.friendship
C.reputation      D.character
解析: 句意为:独自徒步旅行可能会很有趣并且有益于健康,或许对意志的磨炼也有好处。respect尊重,爱戴;friendship友谊;reputation名誉,荣誉,声望;character性格,品格,品质,特点,特性。又如:The little boy showed great character returning to school after earthquake.在地震发生后,小男孩重返学校表现出了他优秀的品质。
答案: D
12. In our class,when the bell rang and the teacher closed his book,it was a________for everyone to stand up.
A.signal       B.chance
C.mark       D.measure
解析: 句意为:在课堂上,铃声响起,老师合上书就是我们要起立的信号。signal信号,导火线;chance机会,运气;mark分数,标志;measure措施,办法,尺寸。又如:This is signal that you are breaking down.这是你身体逐渐变垮的信号。The signal that the war broke out between two countries is oil.两个国家爆发战争的导火线是石油。
答案: A
13. China has got a good________for fighting against the flu with its careful and smooth organization.
解析: 句意为:在抗击流感方面,中国以细致和流畅的组织而获得良好的声誉。reputation声誉;influence影响;impression印象;knowledge知识。
答案: A
14.—He says that my new car is a________of money.
—Don’t you think those words are just sour grapes?
A.lack     B.load
C.question    D.waste
解析: 句意为:——他说我新买的小汽车浪费钱。——难道你不认为这是吃不到葡萄就说葡萄酸吗?lack缺乏;load负荷;question问题;waste浪费。
答案: D
1.(2011?福建毕业班检测)Any help from you will be greatly appreciated.Please give me a reply at your earliest________.
A.interruption    B.instruction
C.consideration    D.convenience
解析: 考查名词辨析。这里表示“请在你方便的时候尽早给我回复”,at your earliest convenience 是固定表达,表示“在你方便的时候请尽早”,符合语境。interruption打断;instruction 指导,指示;consideration 考虑。
答案: D
2.(2011?浙江金华十校联考)If you ask why I plan to study in the United States,the only answer is that it is a(n) ________for me.
A.puzzle    B.advantage
C.challenge    D.average
解析: 考查名词辨析。challenge 意思是“挑战”,即选择在美国学习的理由是因为这样做具有挑战性。其他选项不合语境;puzzle 意思是“困惑”;advantage 意思是“优点,优势”;average 意思是“平均数”。
答案: C
3.(2011?浙江金华十校联考)The conference has been held to discuss the ________of global warming on people’s lives all over the world.
A.importance    B.effects
C.protection    D.attitudes
解析: 考查名词辨析。effects 意思是“影响”,即讨论全球气候变暖对人们生活的影响。其他选项不合题意:importance 意思是“重要性”;protection 意思是“保护”;attitudes 意思是“态度”。
答案: B
4.(2011?潍坊教学质量抽样监测)I am really a bit worried because I have no idea what my parents’ ________will be to my poor examination result.
A.expression    B.reaction
C.appearance    D.expectation
解析: 考查名词辨析。句意为:我真的有点担心,因为我不知道我父母对我不好的考试结果会是什么反应。expression 表情;reaction 反应;appearance 外表;expectation 期望。
答案: B
5.(2011?陕西教学质量检测)There is no________in going to school for the students merely to learn some facts.
A.doubt    B.mind
C.point    D.wonder
解析: 考查名词辨析。固定句式There is no point in doing sth.表示“做……是没有必要的”,其他搭配不正确,所以这里选C项。
答案: C
6.(2011?郑州第二次检测)Here are some ________for you to follow when you take a test in chemistry.
A.patterns    B.tips
C.topics    D.efforts
解析: 考查名词辨析。语境为“下面给你提出几点忠告,当你参加化学测验时应该遵循”。tip 忠告,意见;pattern 样式,花样,图案;topic 题目,论题,话题;effort 努力,尽力。
答案: B
7.(2011?海南五校联考)Mr Li has some trouble sleeping,so drinking a glass of milk before going to bed every night is his common________.
A.practice    B.knowledge
C.experience    D.duty
解析: 考查名词辨析。……因此每晚睡前喝一杯牛奶是他通常的做法。common practice 通常的做法,符合题意。
答案: A
8.(2011?福建检测)—Paul has gone abroad to try his luck.
—In my________,his decision is not wise.
A.word    B.view
C.sight    D.way
解析: 考查名词。句意为:在我看来,他的决定不明智。in one’s view表示“在某人看来”。
答案: B
9.(2011?安徽合肥第一次质检)My English teacher is really very kind.I’ll never forget the________he has done me.
A.favor    B.deed
C.help    D.value
解析: 句意为:我的英语老师实在是太好了。我永远不会忘记他对我的帮助。do sb.a favor 帮助某人。
答案: A
10.(2011?宝鸡检测一)The speech that Mr Smith made today gave a strong________on the students.
A.expression    B.impression
C.reputation    D.expectation
解析: 考查名词的词义辨析。句意为:史密斯先生今天所做的演讲给学生们留下了深刻印象。give/leave/make an impression on sb.给某人留下印象。expression表情,表达;reputation声誉,名声;expectation期望,指望。
答案: B
11.(2011?郑州一模)It was reported that the problem had been settled without much________.
A.affect    B.affair
C.effect    D.effort
解析: 考查词义辨析。affect影响;affair事务;effect影响,效果;effort尝试,努力。据报道,问题没费多大事就解决了。根据语意可知,D项正确。without effort意思是“毫不费力地”。
答案: D
12.(2011?潍坊检测)I am really a bit worried because I have no idea what my parents’________will be to my poor examination result.
A.expression    B.reaction
C.appearance    D.expectation
解析: 考查名词辨析。句意为:我真的有点担心,因为我不知道我父母对我不好的考试结果会是什么反应。expression表情;reaction反应;appearance外表;expectation期望。
答案: B
13.(2011?皖南八校第二次联考)Our government has decided to give________to those environmentally-friendly businesses in many aspects.
A.profit    B.interest
C.preference    D.advantage
解析: 考查名词辨析。profit利益;interest兴趣,嗜好,利息;preference偏爱,优待;advantage优势,有利条件。政府已经决定给那些环保的企业多方面的优惠政策。
答案: C
14.(2011?长春第一次调研)Finding a girl struggling in the water,he threw himself into the water without________.
A.hesitation    B.suggestion
C.order    D.asking
解析: 考查名词。发现一名女孩正在水中挣扎,他毫不犹豫地跳入水里。without hesitation毫不犹豫,符合题意。
答案: A
15.(2011?西安检测)—How do you like the scenery (景色) here,Mr Black?
—Wonderful indeed.Beyond all________,I suppose.
A.explanation    B.introduction
C.description    D.instruction
解析: 考查名词的用法。beyond all description的意思是“无法(用言语)表达”,即这里的景色很美,无法用言语表达。
答案: C



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