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宾语从句专题讲解 (打印材料)

2012-12-13  紫曦唯幂1

宾语从句专题讲解 (打印材料)  

宾语从句是主从复合句中最常见的从句之一。 它作及物动词、介词或者某些形容词的宾语。由于宾语从句涉及到引导词、语序、时态等多方面的内容,所以宾语从句的用法一直是学习的重点难点。本文对宾语从句的用法进行了详尽讲解并附有专项练习,现分述如下:
一.宾语从句的定义
    置于动词、介词等词性后面起宾语作用的从句叫宾语从句。谓语动词、介词、动词不定式,v.-ing形式后面都能带宾语从句。有些形容词(afraid,sure,glad等)之后也可以带宾语从句。
二.
宾语从句中引导词的用法
  在复合句中作主句的宾语,引导词有:
            连词:that (that 常可省略),whether, if
            代词:who, whose, what ,which
            副词:when ,where, how, why 等。
(一)that引导的宾语从句(在非正式场合that可以省略)
        1. 可跟that从句做宾语的动词有:
say, think, insist, wish, hope, demand, imagine, wonder, know, suppose, see, believe, agree, admit, deny, expect, explain, order, command, feel, dream, suggest, hear, mean, notice, prefer, request, require, propose, declare, report等。
例句:The boy believes that he will travel through space to other planets.

     2.引导宾语从句的that在下列情况下一般不省略:
(1). 
宾语从句前有插入语。如:
We hope, on the contrary, that he will stay at home with us. 
恰恰相反,我们希望他和我们呆在家里。
(2). 
有间接宾语时。如:
He told me that he was leaving for Japan. 
他告诉我他要去日本。
(3). that
在与之并列的另一个宾语从句之后。如:
He said (that) the book was very interesting and that(
不省略) all the children like to read it.他说那本书很有趣,所有小孩都喜欢读。
(4). 
“it(形式宾语)+补语之后时。如:
I think it necessary that he should stay here. 
我们认为他有必要留在这里。
(5). that
从句单独回答问题时。如:
—What did he hear? 他听说了什么事?
—That Kate had passed the exam. (他听说)凯特考试及格了。

(6). 
except等介词后。如:
He has no special fault except that he smokes too much.
他除了抽烟太多之外,没有什么特别的毛病。
(7). 
位于句首时。如:
That our team will win, I believe. 
我相信我们队会赢。
(8). 
在较为正式或不常用的动词(reply, object)后。如:
He replied that he disagreed. 
他回答说他不同意。
(二)由whether,if 引导的宾语从句
    由whether(if)引导的宾语从句,实际上是一般疑问句演变而来的。意思是“是否”。宾语从句要用陈述句语序。

一般说来,在宾语从句中whether与if可以互换使用,但在特殊情况下if与whether是不能互换的。
1.只能用whether,不能用if引导的宾语从句
(1)在带to的不定式前
例句:We decided whether to walk there. 
(2)在介词的后面
例句:I’m thinking of whether we should go to see the film. 
(3)在动词discuss后面的宾语从句时
例句:We discussed whether we had a sports meeting next week 
(4)直接与or not连用时
例句:I can’t say whether or not that can come on time. 
2.只能用if不能用whether引导的宾语从句
(1)if引导条件状语从句,意为“如果”
例句:The students will go on a picnic if it is sunny. 
(2)if引导否定概念的宾语从句时
例句:He asked if I didn’t come to school yesterday. 
(3)引导状语从句even if(即使)和as if(好象)时
例句:He talks as if he has known all about it. 
(三)连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句
    这样的宾语从句实际上是由特殊疑问句变化而来的,宾语从句要用陈述句语序。用于这种结构的动词常常是:see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, show, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, discover, understand, inform, advise等。
英语中的连接代词有:who,whom,whose,which,what,在句中担任主语、宾语、定语或者表语。
例句:Can you tell me whom you are waiting for?
英语中的连接副词有:when,where,why,how,在句中担任状语的成分。
例句:None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.
三.
宾语从句的语序
宾语从句的语序是陈述句语序即:连接代词/副词+主语+谓语+其他成分。例句如下:
I don’t know what they are looking for. 
Could you tell me when the train will leave? 
Can you imagine what kind of man he is? 
四.
宾语从句的时态
主句是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。
例句:The headmaster hopes everything goes well. 
主句是过去时态,从句须用过去时态的某种形式。
例句:She was sorry that she hadn’t finished her work on time. 
当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实时,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般现在时态。
例句:The teacher told his class that light travels faster than sound. 
五 宾语从句中的否定前移

        如果主句的谓语动词是believe, think, guess, suppose等,而且主句的主语又是第一人称时,它后面接的宾语从句的否定词通常要前移到主句中,即否定主句中的动词,这也就是我们平常所说的“否定的转移”。 
I don't think (that) it will rain. 
I don't believe he tells lies. 
注意: 
① 这种否定前移的宾语从句,在变成反意疑问句时,反意疑问句的主谓语要与从句一致。 
I don't think (that) he is interested in that thing, is he? 我认为他对那件事不感兴趣,对吗? 
② 如果主句的主语是第二和第三人称时,它后面接的宾语从句的否定词通常不前移,它的反意疑问句的主谓语应该与主句一致,即如果主句是肯定,反意疑问部分就用否定;如果主句是否定,那么反意疑问部分就用肯定。 
She thought that film was not interesting, didn't she? 她认为那部电影不好看,是吗?
You think you can't get up, don't you? 你认为你起不来,是吗?

六 宾语从句的简化(常用六法 )

 方法一:简化为不定式结构

     当主句谓语动词是hope, decide, wish, choose, agree, promise等,且宾语从句的主语与主句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为不定式结构。例如: 
  Li Ming hopes he will be back very soon. →Li Ming hopes to be back very soon.
  We decided that we would help him. →We decided to help him. 
  方法二:简化为“疑问词+不定式”

        当主句谓语动词是know, learn, remember, forget, tell等动词,且主句主语与从句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如: 
  She has forgotten how she can open the window.

       →She has forgotten how to open the window. 
  注:当主句谓语动词是tell, ask, show, teach等动词,且后带双宾语,从句主语和间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如: 
  Could you tell me how I can get to the station? →Could you tell me how to get to the station? 
  方法三:简化为“名词(代词)+不定式”

    当主句的谓语动词是order(命令),require(需要)等时,如果主句和从句的主语不一致,宾语从句可简化为“名词(代词)+不定式”结构。例如: 
  The headmaster ordered that we should start at once.

         → The headmaster ordered us to start at once. 
  方法四:简化为介词加动名词(短语)

        某些动词后的宾语从句,可以用介词加动名词(短语)等其他形式简化。例如: 
  He insisted that he should go with us.

         →He insisted on going with us. 
  The poor boy doesn’t know when and where he was born.

         →The poor boy doesn’t know the time and the place of his birth. 
  方法五:简化为“宾语+V-ing形式(作宾语补足语)”

       某些动词后面的宾语从句可转化为“宾语+V-ing形式(作宾语补足语)”结构。例如: 
  Liu Ping found that there was a wallet lying on the ground. → Liu Ping found a wallet lying on the ground. 
  方法六:简化seem后的宾语从句

      动词seem后的宾语从句,也可以用不定式(短语)来简化,但句型需要进行适当的变化。例如: 
  It seemed that the boys were going to win. →The boys seemed to win. 
  除上述方法外,还有一些特殊句式的转化。例如: 
  I found that it was difficult to learn English well. →I found it difficult to learn English well. 
  Soon we found that the ground was covered with thick snow. →Soon we found the ground covered with thick snow. 
  They found that the box was very heavy. →They found the box very heavy

      七,其他需要说明的问题

           1.标点由主句决定,如主句是陈述句、祈使句,则用句号;是疑问句则用问号。

         eg. I heard she had been to the Great Wall.

                    Can you tell me which bus I should take?
           2.要注意个别句子中主从句人称的一致。
      3.宾语从句和状语从句的区分

               eg. 1 I will go out tomorrow if it is fine.
          2 I don't know if the train has arrived.
        句1)中if引导的是状语从句。这个从句表示“条件”,修饰主句。整个句子的意思是如果明天天气好,我就出去。

        句2)中if引导的是宾语从句,充当谓语动词don't know的宾语。整个句子的意思是我不知道火车是否到达。
判断方法

1.从位置看:

   状语从句一般可以放在主句的前面或后面(个别除外),宾语从句只能放在主句谓语动词之后。
2.从引导词看:

       if充当宾语从句的连接词时,相当于whether词义为“是否”,充当状语从句的连接词时,词义为“如果”。when充当宾语从句的连接词时,意为“什么时候”,充当状语从句的连接词时,意为“当……的时候”。
3.从时态看:

   ifwhen作连接词时,引导宾语从句要注意:从句的谓语动词的时态应根据主句的时态作相应的变化。ifwhen充当从属连词时,引导条件和时间状语从句,若主句的谓语动词用一般将来时,则从句的时态应用一般现在时表示将来(即”主将从现”)。

八。典型错句解析

  1. He doesn’t know that when she can return him his book.

【解析】…know that when she →…know when she …引导宾语从句的连词不可同时使用.

  2. He doesn’t like that I’ve brought him.

    【解析】that→what,what引导宾语从句时,常无疑问意义,表示“所……人(物)”,在从句中作主语,宾语或表语.

  3. It’s a question of if we should help her.

【解析】if → whether介词后接的宾语从句不能用if而应用whether 引导.

  4. Could you tell me where is she?

    【解析】is she→ she is.宾语从句一律用陈述句语序,即谓语动词位于主语后面.

  5. I think you are going to the park, don’t you?

【解析】don’t →aren’t you.在I think that…结构中,其后反意疑问句附加部分,要与that之后的从句主,谓一致.

  6. Could you tell you me which place she lives?

【解析】lives→lives in. 宾语从名中的动词不是及物动词,后面要带介词.

  7. He asked me when the train will arrive.

【解析】will→would.主从时态要前后呼应,主句为过去时,从句要用过去时形式.

  8. I don’t know that I said.

【解析】that → what. that引导宾语从句时,其本身无词义.what作said 的宾语.

 

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