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英语复习

 优美的蓝天 2013-01-18
⒈ 单音节形容词的比较级以及以-ly,-er,-ow结尾的形容词在词尾加-er。
如:dark→darker; quick→quicker; clever→cleverer
2. 以e结尾的形容词在词尾直接加-r构成。
如:simple→simpler
3. 重读闭音节双写末位字母再加er。
如:fat→fatter;thin→thinner。
4. 多音节形容词,在其前加more构成。
如:afraid →more afraid; interesting→more interesting; pleased→more pleased。
5.少数形容词的比较级是不规则的。
good/well→better; bad/ill→worse; far→farther(表距离) / further(表抽象);much/many→more;little→less;old→older、elder.
6.以辅音加y结尾的,把y变i,加er。early→earlier;funny→funnier;easy→easier.
clear clearer clearest
small smaller smallest
narrow narrower narrowest
near nearer nearest
late later latest

编辑本段比较级的用法

1. 表示"比...更", 用比较级形容词+than+比较成分, than后主词的述语动词往往省略, 非正式用法的than后的人称代名词可用受格。
He is younger than I (am).
他比我年轻。
I am a better swimmer than he(him).
我游泳比他好。
2. 表示"较...低; 不及..."用less+原级形容词+than+比较成分。
I am less young than he (is).
我不比他年轻。
3. 表示两者之中"较...", 用the+比较级+of the two。
This one is the bigger of the two houses.
这所房子是两座房子中较大的。
4. 定冠词或指示形容词+比较级+名词表示比较。
The taller boy is John.
那个身材较高的男孩子是约翰。
5. 有少数以ior结尾的形容词, 如inferior(次于), junior(年幼的;下级的), posterior(之后), prior(之前), senior(年长的,上级的), superior(优于)等本身就有比较的意思, 常与介系词to连用。
This method is superior to that one.
这种方法优于那种方法。
6. 比较形容词可以被副词如a little(一点),much(得多), even(更加), still(更加), far(...的多)等修饰, 但不可用very修饰。
中文: 现在的生活比二十年前的生活轻松得多了。
(误)Life is very easier than it was twenty years ago.
(正)Life is very much easier than it was twenty years ago.
较级特殊用法
1. no more… than…与。。。一样不。。。
not more…than… 没有。。。那样。。。,不如。。。
not less… than… 不亚于。。。
2.more than…不止,仅仅,非常,极其 This more than satisfied me.
3.more than a little非常
4.not more than不多于 no (not any) more than不过,仅仅
5.no less than有。。。之多,多达 not less than 至少,不下于
6.neither more nor less than恰好,不多不少,简直,和。。。完全一样
7.better than多于,超过 It is better than 20 km to the station.
8.(in) less than no time立即,一会儿
9.(be) little/no better than实际上,简直就是
10.nothing less than完全是,和。。。一模一样
11.all the more越发,更加
12. any (the) less较小/更小一些
13. all the better更好,更加
14. so much the better/worse (for sb./sth.)甚至更好/更坏
15. go one better (than sb./sth.)胜过。。。一筹
16. more…than…与其说。。。不如说。。。
17. would sooner/rather…than与其。。。宁愿
18. (be) more like…than不象。。。倒象
19. rather…than…/rather than宁可。。。而不
20. other than除了。。。,除。。。之外
21. rather…than otherwise不是别的而是
22. no/none other than正是,除。。。之外无其他
23. no more不再,不复存在,也不,也没有
24. less than不。。。
25. more often than no经常,多半t
26. see more/less of someone更常/少见;再/少见到。。。
27. none + the + 比较级 毫不。。。,毫无。。。
28. have seen better days(现在)情况转坏
29. think better of sth.改变。。。的念头
30. for better or (for) worse无论好坏,同甘共苦
31. all the better因。。。而更加
32. more than meets the eye/ear另有隐情,并非表面那么简单的
More is meant than, meets the ear.意在言外
There is more ( to it ) than meets the eyes.现象背后有文章


基本句型

同级比较

⒈ 由“...as + 形容词 + as...”或“...as + 形容词 + 名词 + as...”构成。
My grandpa is as energetic as a young man.
Exercise is as useful a way as any other to lose unwanted weight.
I try to find as much information as I can about what happened.
⒉ 由“...not so (as) + 形容词或副词原型 + as...”或“...not so (as) + 形容词 + 名词 + as...”构成。
Luckily the weather was not so wet as it is today.

降级比较

由“……形容词比较级 + than...”构成。 He is more concerned about others than about himself.
⒉ 由“...many / much more + 可数 / 不可数名词 + than...”
My friend earned much more money than I did last year.

编辑本段特殊句型

⒈表示“越来越……”的意思: “比较级 + and + 比较级”或“more and more / less and less + 原级”结构,与这类结构搭配的常用动词有grow,get,become等。
She felt herself becoming more and more nervous.
As the winter is drawing near,it's getting colder and colder.
⒉表示两者之间更···the + 比较级 + of the two + 名词。
Jane is the taller of the two children in our family.
⒊ 表示“越……”:“the + 比较级……,”,The more magazines you sell,the more money you will get.
⒋ “否定 + 比较级” 相当于最高级
— Wait until we get a satisfactory reply,will you?
— I couldn't agree more. The idea sounds great to me.
⒌ “a + 比较级 + 名词(than...)” 结构常出现在以never构成的完成时态的动词后面。
How beautifully she sings!I have never heard a better voice.
⒍ 倍数表示法:...times as + 形容词原级 + as...;
...times + 形容词比较级 + than...;...times the + 性质名词 + of...。
The dining hall is three times as large as that one.
The dining hall is three times larger than that one.
The dining hall is three times the size of that one.

注意事项

⒈ 为了避免重复,常用the one代替单数可数名词,the ones,those 代替复数名词,that 代替单数或不可数名词。
⒉ 当比较对象属于同一范围时,需使用other来排除自身,否则会造成与自身相比较的矛盾。
Canada is larger than any other country in North America.
⒊ “no + 形容词的比较级 + than”结构表达对两者均否定。
Don't be proud so early. You are no better than me.
⒋ 比较级前面可以用even,still,yet,any,much,a little,a lot,by far等修饰语用以加强语气或表示比较程度。To tell you the truth,my boyfriend is much older than me.

编辑本段考题思路

根据句中的关键词答题

⒈ The new group of students is better-behaved than the other group who stayed here ______.
A. early B. earlier C. earliest D. the earliest
【解析】答案选B。做此题的关键词是new,即把“新来的学生”与“早些时候呆在这儿的学生”进行比较。全句意为:新来的这群学生比早些时候呆在这儿的那些学生表现得更好些。
⒉ —Do you need any help,Lucy?
—Yes,the job is ______ I could do myself.
A. less than B. more than C. no more than D. not more than
【解析】答案选B。做此题要抓的关键词是yes,由于答话者对问话者的“你需要帮助吗?”作了肯定回答,说明答话者独自完成工作有困难,故填more than。
⒊ Of the two coats,I’d choose the ______ one to spare some money for a book.
A. cheapest B. cheaper C. more expensive D. most expensive
【解析】答案选B。关键词是句中的two,因是两者比较,故用比较级,可将答案锁定在B和C之间;再根据句意,排除C。

通过分析的隐含意思答题

⒈ There is an old proverb,“Love me,love my dog. ” But there is ______ wisdom in this: “Love me,love my book.”
A. some B. much C. more D. most
【解析】答案选C。这道题出得非常巧妙,句中既没有显示比较级的关键词,也没有暗示用比较级的than。而是将“Love me,love my dog”与“Love me,love my book”两句进行比较,要求考生根据这两句话的内容确定哪句话更有wisdom。
⒉ With April 18’s railway speedup,highway and air transport will have to compete with ______ service for passengers.
A. good B. better C. best D. the best
【解析】答案选B。句子大意为:由于铁路提速了,所以高速公路和航空业要提高服务质量来竞争客源。因将“高速公路和航空”与“铁路”比较,故用比较级。
⒊ The melon the Smiths served at dinner would have tasted ______ if it had been put in the fridge for a little while.
A. good B. better C. best D. well
【解析】B。题目中将“放入冰箱中冷冻”与“不放入冰箱中冷冻”作比较,故用比较级。句意为:史密斯家人晚餐时上的甜瓜若能放入冰箱中冷冻一下味道会更好些。
⒋ Speaking of all the songs he has written,I think this is probably his ______ one.
A. better-known B. well-known C. best-known D. most-known
【解析】C。因为是从他所写的所有歌中选出一首来比较,故用最高级。

根据相关的修饰关系答题

⒈ After two years’ research,we now have a ______ better understanding of the disease.
A. very B. far C. fairly D. quite
【解析】B。这四个副词中,通常只有far可用于修饰比较。注:quite有时也可用于修饰比较better,但它只用于表示“身体康复”,不用于其他意义。
⒉ Work gets done ______ when people do it together,and the rewards are higher too.
A. easily B. very easy C. more easily D. easier
【解析】C。根据题意可知,说话者是将 when people do it together 和 when people don’t do it together 这两种情况比较,故选比较级。注意不要选 D,因为在此题是要用副词修饰动词,不能用形容词。另外,根据句末的 higher too 也可知道此题是考查比较级。

编辑本段重要考点

一、考查比较等级的基本用法
⒈ Of the two sisters,Betty is _________ one,and she is also the one who loves to be quiet. (安徽卷)
A. a younger B. a youngest C. the younger D. the youngest
【解析】答案选C。根据句中的of the two sisters可知,此题涉及的是两者比较,故用比较级;另外,由于是特指两者中的一个,故其前用定冠词,不用不定冠词。
⒉ Of the two coats,I’d choose the _________ one to spare some money for a book. (四川卷)
A. cheapest B. cheaper C. more expensive D. most expensive
【解析】答案选B。因是两者比较,故用比较级,可将答案锁定在B和C之间;再根据句意,排除C。
⒊ Speaking of all the songs he has written,I think this is probably his _________ one. (全国卷Ⅱ)
A. better-known B. well-known C. best-known D. most-known
【解析】答案选C。因为是从他所写的所有歌中选出一首来比较,故用最高级。
二、在语境中考查比较等级的用法
⒈ I don’t think this film is by far the most boring. I have seen _________. (江西卷)
A. better B. worse C. the best D. the worst
【解析】答案选B。既然前文说“这不是最最烦人的电影”,那么下文说的肯定就“还有更糟的”,故用worse。有意思的是,2006年的这道江西卷的考题与下面这道2004年的湖南卷极为相似:
That doesn’t sound very frightening. Paul,I’ve seen _________. What did you like most about the film? (湖南卷)
A. better B. worse C. best D. worst
由前句“这听起来并不十分令人恐惧”可知,说话人曾见过比这个更令人恐惧的事,所以用比较级worse。
⒊ There is an old proverb,“Love me,love my dog. ” But there is _________ wisdom in this: “Love me,love my book.” (湖南卷)
A. some B. much C. more D. most
【解析】答案选C。由于是将“Love me,love my dog”与“Love me,love my book”进行比较,故用比较级。此题的巧妙之处在于句中没有出现than,而是给出两个待比较的proverb。
⒋ With April 18’s railway speedup,highway and air transport will have to compete with _________ service for passengers. (江苏卷)
A. good B. better C. best D. the best
【解析】答案选B。句子大意为:由于铁路提速了,所以公路和航空业要提高服务质量来竞争客源。因将“公路和航空”与“铁路”比较,故用比较级。
三、考查“否定词+a+比较级”结构
⒈ Your story is perfect. I’ve never heard _________ before. (全国卷Ⅲ)
A. the better one B. the best one C. a better one D. a good one
【解析】答案选C。“否定词(尤其是never)+a+比较级”的意思是“从来没有……一个更……的”,这类结构通常可视为在其后省略了一个than…短语,做题时要注意根据具体的语境作出正确的理解,如:I have never read a better article. 我从未读过(比这篇文章)更好的文章(=这是我所读过的最好的文章)。I have never seen a worse film. 我从没看过(比这部电影)更糟的电影(=这是我所看过的最糟的电影)。本题中的I’ve never heard a better one before的意思是“我从未听到过(比你这个事故)更好听的事故”。
⒉ —Did you enjoy yourself at the party?
—Yes. I’ve never been to _________ one before. (四川卷)
A. a more excited B. the most excited C. a more exciting D. the most exciting
【解析】答案选C。I’ve never been to a more exciting one before实为I’ve never been to a more exciting one before than this one. 其意为“我从未参加过比这个晚会更令人兴奋的晚会”,即“这是我参加过最令人兴奋的晚会”。又如:I’ve never had a worse morning than today. 我哪一天早上也不像今天早上这样倒霉。若意思明确,有时可省略than结构:He is fine,never better. 他很好,比以往任何时候都好。
注意:有时根据不同语法结构的需要,也可能没有不定冠词。如:
No news could be more delightful to me. 这消息最令我高兴。
I have never drunk better beer. 我从来没喝过这么好的啤酒。
四、考查比较等级的修饰语
After two years’ research,we now have a _________ better understanding of the disease. (全国卷Ⅱ)
A. very B. far C. fairly D. quite
【解析】答案选B。这四个副词中,通常只有far可用于修饰比较级。注:quite有时也可用于修饰比较级better,但它只用于表示“身体康复”,不用于其他意义。
五、考查相似比较级结构的区别
—Do you need any help,Lucy?
—Yes. The job is _________ I could do myself. (福建卷)
A. less than B. more than C. no more than D. not more than
【解析】答案选B。比较:less than意为“少于”;more than意为“多于,超过”;no more than意为“只有,只是”;not more than意为“不多于,至多”。做好此题的关键是注意句中的Yes,由于答话者对问话者的“你需要帮助吗?”作了肯定回答,说明答话者独自完成工作有困难,故填more than。
六、考查近义比较的区别
This washing machine is environmentally friendly because it uses _________ water and electricity than _________ models. (北京卷)
A. less; older B. less; elder C. fewer; older D. fewer; elder
【解析】答案选A。less为little的比较级,主要用于修饰不可数名词,fewer为few的比较,主要用于修饰可数名词,据此可排除C和D,因为fewer不能用于修饰water;older与elder的区别之一是前者既可用于修饰人,也可用于修饰事物,而后者只用于修饰人,不用于修饰事物,故只能选A。
七、考查as…as结构的用法及修饰语的位置
⒈ It is reported that the United States uses _________ energy as the whole of Europe. (广西卷)
A. as twice B. twice much C. twice much as D. twice as much
【解析】答案选D。由energy后的as可知,此题是考查as…as…结构。根据英语语法习惯,修饰as…as…结构的副词只能置于as…as…结构之前,不能置于其中。又如:She went out with a man twice as old as her. 她和一个年龄比她大一倍的男子来往。It cost three times as much as I had expected. 它花的钱比我预期的多两倍。
⒉ He speaks English indeed,but of course not _________a native speaker. (上海卷)
A. as fluent as B. more fluent than C. so fluently as D. much fluently than
【解析】答案选C。因为修饰动词speaks要用副词,排除A和B;又因为than只能用于比较级后而不能位于原级后,排除D。句意是:他的英语讲得的确不错,不过,当然不如英语本族人讲得流利。

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