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看图学英语[简单句的五种基本句型]

2013-03-09  止喧

简单句的五种基本句型

句型种类     主语

 

谓语部分

谓语动词

表语

宾语

宾补

S+Vi

Pat

arrived

 

 

 

S+Vt+O

She

plays

 

the piano

 

S+Vt+C

They

are(系动词)

heroes.

 

 

S+Vt+Ino+Do

I

offered

 

him  dollars

 

S+Vt+O+Oc

Ann

made

 

me

cry

  

 

 

 

 

句子成分详解一览表

句子成分

意义

充当词类

例句

主语

 The  Subject

表示句子说的是什么人,或什么事

名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、短语或句子等。

1.We study in No.7 Middle School.

2.Jim is an educated child.

谓语

The  predicate

说明主语做什么,是什么或怎么样

由动词或动词词组充当

1.I expect you to take me.

2.Lucy is dancing under the tree.

3.Her parents hate telling lies.

宾语

The object

表示动作、行为的对象

同主语的充当词类

1.Both of the girls like Spanish.

2.Did she call me just now?

表语

The predicative

与系动词连用,一起构成谓语、说明主语的性质特征

同主语的充当词类

1.Her mother is a chemist.

2.The two states were at war then.

3.What he said sounds reasonable.

定语

The attribute

用来修饰名词或代词

形、代、数、名、副、介词短语或相当于形容词的词或短语

1.The black sweater is mine.

2.What is his father's name

3.We have nine lessons every day.

状语

The adverbial

修饰动词、形容词、副词,表示动作发生的时间、地点、目的、方式等

通常由副词、介词短语或相当于副词的词或短语来表示

1.The miners work very hard.

2.She often helps Mike.

3.They held a party in Hollywood.

宾语补足语

The object complement

宾语的补足语,逻辑上与宾语是“主谓”关系

一般由形容词、名词、介词短语等充当

1.They named the baby Lily.

2.She always keeps the house clean every day.

专题练习

一、指出下列句子

 

划线部分是什么句子成分:

1. The students got on the school bus.

2. He handed me the newspaper.

3. I shall answer your question after class.

4. What a beautiful Chinese painting!

5. They went hunting together early in the morning.

6. His job is to train swimmers.

7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing.

8. There is going to be an American film tonight.

9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow.

10. His wish is to become a scientist.

11. He managed to finish the work in time.

12. Tom came to ask me for advice.

13. He found it important to master English.

14. Do you have anything else to say?

15. To be honest; your pronunciation is not so good.

16. Would you please tell me your address?

17. He sat there, reading a newspaper.

18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy.

19. He noticed a man enter the room.

20. The apples tasted sweet.

 

句子分类一览表

 

分类

说明

例句

按结构分类

简单句

The simple sentence

由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)构成的句子。即:一套主谓关系

1.She goes to work every day.

2.Tom and I found her there.

3.We all breathe, eat and work.

并列句

The compound

sentence

由并列连词(如:and ,so,but, or等)把两个或以上的简单句连在一起而构成的句子

1.I often help her and she helps me ,too.

2.Harry likes eggs,but he doesn't like chicken.

复合句

The complex sentence

由一个主句和一个或以上的从句构成的句子

1.I believe you are right.

2.If he studies harder, he will pass the exam.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

按用途分类

陈述句

The declaratives sentence

用来说明一个事实或陈述说话人的看法。

1.They're practising English.

2.Mother doesn't like dogs.

祈使句

The imperative sentence

用来表示请求、命令等。谓语动词用原形。有肯定、否定两种形式。

1.Keep quiet,please.

2.Don't read in the sun.

3.Let's be friends.

感叹句

The exclamatory

sentence

用来表达强烈的感情

1.What a hot day it is!

2.How fast Liu Xiang runs!

一般疑问句

The general qusetion

yes no 来回答的句子,通常把助动词be ,have 或情态动词放在主语前

1.Is she a student

2.Can you play the piano?

3.Do they like basketball?

特殊疑问句

The special question

用疑问词开头的疑问句,不能用yes no 回答。

1.Who is on duty today?

2.How did he get the news?

3.Where does he live ?

选择疑问句

The alternative question

提出两种或两种以上的情况,要求对方选择,两部分用or连接,其结构是:“一般疑问句+or+要选择部分?”

1.Is she playing or working?

2.Which would you like ,tea or coffee?

 

反意疑问句

The disjunctive question

在陈述句后附上一个简短问句,表示说话者对所叙述的事实虽然有一定的见解,但没有把握,提出相反的疑问,希望得到对方证实。其结构是:“前肯后否,前否后肯”

1. Work is a bag part of your life ,isn't it ?

2. You don't want to stay here,do you ?

3. Don't be so noisy, will you ?

 

类别

结构

例句

备注

What 引导

What +a/an+adj.+ 单数可数名词+主语+谓语!

1.What a silly question he asked!

2.What an interesting story (it is) !

1.在口语中,后面的主语,谓语可以省略。

2.What 感叹句的中心词是名词,但名词前可以加形容词等来修饰。

3.Howadj+a/an+单数名词”,但不能接“Adj+复数或不可数名词”

What +(adj)+ 复数名词+主语+谓语!

1.What lovely girls they are!

2.What beautiful flowers they are !

3.What fools you are!

What +adj.+ 不可数名词(+主语+谓语)!

1.What fine weather (it is) today!

2.What good advice she gave!

How 引导

How +adv./adj.+主语+谓语!

1.How cool it was yesterday!

2.How hard the students study!

其他形式

有时陈述句、一般疑问句、单词或短语也可以用作感叹句

1.She is such a nice girl!

2.Isn't the story interesting!

3.Wonderful!

4.Help !

5.Lovely day,isn't it!

注意

1.感叹句有时可以用HowWhat来转换,但这只能适合于单数可数名词的情况。

2.fun, advice ,information,news,weather等不可数名词或复数名词前,即使其前有形容词来修饰,也不能加a/an.

 

感叹句(Exclamatory sentence)与祈使句(Imperative sentence

 

祈使句结构简表及用法

常见形式

例句

肯定形式

Vi+副词)

1.Stop! Sit down! Get away!

2.Come here,everyone!

Vt+宾语

1.stop talking!

2.Give it to your sister!

Be+ adj.

1.Be careful!

2.Be reasonable, Mary. It wasn't my fault.

3.Be sure to turn off the light!

否定形式(Don't/Never +V

1.Don't take it away!

2.Never put off till tomorrow what can be done today!

Let 结构

1.Let me try!

2.Let him not waste time!

3.Let's be frank with each other!

有主语结构(以示强调)(You+V

1.You clean the blackboard!

2.John ,you be quiet!

加强语气结构(do/does/did+V.

1.Do come ,please!             2. Do be brave!

2.Tom did tell me the news!

无动词祈使句

1.Silence!      2.No smoking!         3.No entry!

注意:祈使句与and or 等连用,可以表示条件。如:

        Work hard,and you'll succeed.

        Don't move ,or I'll fire!

反意疑问句(Tag questions

1.附加问句的肯定与否定

陈述部分

附加疑问部分

例句

hardly, few, little,no, not, never,nobody,nothing,seldom,nowhere等否定词或半否定词

 

肯定式

1.Nobody came here while i was out ,did they ?

2.There's little rice at home ,is there ?

3.Dave can hardly cook,can he ?

no one ,no body, one ,nothing,neither等作宾语

多用肯定式也可用否定形式

1.peter has nothing to say ,does(n't) he ?

2.You got nothing from her,did(n't) you?

含有un-, in-,im-,dis-, --less等否定前、后缀构成的派生词

 

否定形式

1.That's unfair ,isn't it ?

2.The boy is hopeless,isn't he?

3.She dislikes pets,doesn't she?

 

2.一些特殊句式的附加疑问句

陈述部分句式

附加问句部分

例句

I am...

aren't I

I'm your friend,aren't I?

I wish...

may  I

I wish to have a look,may I?

Let's (表建议,包括说着)

shall we (shan't we)

Let's sing an English song, shall we?

Let us (表允许,不包括说话者)

will you(won't you)

Let us make it by ourselves,will you?

Let me /him/ them

will you

Let me do it again,will you ?

Let him join us,will you?

表示邀请、请求的祈使句

will/ won't you

Come here this evening, will you?

You will speak English,won't you?

否定的祈使句(表示请求)

will/ can't you 

Don't make a noise , will/can you?

感叹句

用一般现在时be 的形式

What fine weather ,isn't it ?

并列句

与邻近的分句一致

Mary is a nice girl, but she doesn't like English,does she?

主从复合句

多与主句的主、谓语一致

Jim wouldn't go if it rained, would he?

I don't think/believe/guess...+宾语从句

与从句的主,谓语一致,且用肯定形式

I don't think this story is funny,is it?

I don't believe he knows it, does he?

So..., or..., oh...

前后两部分一致(前否后也否)

He is Michael Jordan,or is he?

 

 

3.附加部分与陈述部分主语不一致的情况

陈述部分主语

附加部分主语

例句

this,that ,anything,something,

nothing,everything,不定式,动名词(短语),从句

 

it

1.This /That is your sister,isn't it?

2.Everything seems all right,doesn't it ?

3.Nothing is serious,is it?

4.To learn Japanese isn't easy, is it?

5.What she said was true,wasn't it?

somenoneof...

it /they

1.Some of the boys have left,haven't they?

2.None of the food was delicious,was it?

these/those

they

These /Those are not parrots,are they?

anybody ,someone, everyone,either,nobody,each of...no one,one,neither

 

he/they

1.Everyone knows this,don't they/doesn't he?

2.Each of boys had an apple,didn't he /they?

3.Nobody saw him,did they?

4.No one called me just now,did they?

复数代词one

one/he

One can't always be young,can one/he?

the +形容词以及由both ...and , either...or, neither...nor, and, not only...but also..., or 等连接的主语

 

复数代词

1.The poor had no right to vote then, did they ?

2.Both Rose and Mary left,didn't they ?

3.Neither you or I am wrong, are we?

 

 

4.附加问句部分与陈述部分谓语不一致的情况

陈述部分谓语

附加部分谓语

例句

have 不作“有”讲

do (does/did)

1.They all had a good time,didn't they?

2.We have to say goodbye,don't we?

need/dare做实义动词

do

1.he needs a lot of money,doesn't he?

2.I've never dared to ask her,have I?

must (必须)

needn't (不必)

We must finish it today, needn't we?

can't (不可能)表示推测

根据can't 后的动词选用相应的形式

1.The person can't be an inspector, is he?

2.They can't have finished it now, have they?

must+be 对现在情况进行推测

作一般现在时或现在进行时处理

1.Ann looks pale. She must be ill,isn't she?

2.The boys must be playing football on the playground now, aren't they?

must+完成时表示对过去情况的推测

作一般过去时的附加疑问句处理

1. The interviewers must have come yesterday,didn't they?

2. He must have been there then, wasn't he?

must+完成时用来推测过去的动作持续到现在

按现在完成时的附加疑问句处理

His cousin must have lived here at least ten years,hasn't he ?

 

used to+ d动词原形

didn't/usedn't + 主语

He used to live in the town, usedn't/didn't he?

 


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