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英语被动语态详解(含练习题及答案)

2013-07-21  紫曦唯幂1

 【本讲主要内容】

被动语态

【知识总结归纳】

一. 概念:表示动作与主语之间是被动关系的句子是被动语态。

二. 主动语态与被动语态之间如何转换

英语被动语态详解(含练习题及答案) - 英语港 - 英语港-Englishhabor

三. 各种不同时态的主动语态与被动语态的对比

时态

主动语态

被动语态

一般现在时

am / is / are + P.P.

(1)Do they speak French ?

(2)They don’t use the room .

Is French spoken by them ?

The room isn’t used by them .

一般过去时

was / were + p.p.

(1)The hunter killed a tiger .

(2)He wrote many stories last year .

A tiger was killed by the hunter .

Many stories was written by him last year .

现在进行时

am / is / are +being +p.p.

(1)These workers are building a new bridge .

(2)He is mending his car .

A new bridge is being built by these workers .

His car is being mended by him .

过去进行时

was / were + being + p.p.

(1)He was selling books .

(2)They were discussing the plan at that time .

Books were being built by him .

The plan was being discussed by them at that time .

现在完成时

have / has + been + p. p.

(1)She has learned many English words .

(2)He has finished the work .

Many English words have been learned by her .

The work has been finished by him .

过去完成时

had + been + p.p.

(1)They has solved the problem .

(2)We had told him the news by then .

The problem had been solved by them .

The news had been told to him by us .

一般将来时

shall / will be + p.p.

(1)I shall make a plan .

(2)They are going to fix the radio in an hour .

A plan will be made by me .

The radio is going to be fixed by them in an hour .

过去将来时

would be + p.p.

was/ were going to be + p.p.

(1)He told me they would paint the room .

(2)They were going to put on a play the next week .

He told me the room would be painted by them .

A play was going to be put by them the next week .

情态动词

can / may / must / should

+ be + p.p.

(1)We should hand in our homework .

(2)You must answer the question in English .

Our homework should be handed in by us .

The question must be

answered in English by you .

 

四. 如何正确使用被动语态

1. 有些动词带有两个宾语,即直接宾语和间接宾语,变被动语态时,可把其中一个宾语变成主语,另一个留在被动结构谓语后面。需要注意的是:若把直接宾语变成被动语态的主语,需要在间接宾语之间加上介词“to”。

eg. He often tells us interesting stories . (主动语态)

   (被动语态)

▲常带双宾语的词有:tell , show , lend , pass等。

2. 在主动语态中,某些动词之后带有复合宾语,即宾语和宾语补足语,这个复合宾语由动词不定式来充当,to被省略,但在被动语态中,这个to还要还原。

eg. I often hear her sing this popular song . (主动语态)

           

   She is often heard to sing this popular song .(被动语态)

▲ 有这种用法的常用动词有:make , let , see , hear , watch , feel , notice等。

3. 有些“be +过去分词”的结构并不是被动语态,它们有可能是“系表结构(即系动词之后由过去分词来充当表语)。”

比较:(1)

  (2)

4. 只有及物动词和可有宾语的动词+介词词组才可以有被动语态。

eg.

 

【题型展示】

1. A talk on Chinese history       in the school hall next week .

A. be given      B. has been given      C. will be given      D. will give

答案:C                                               (2003天津市)

2. To make our city more beautiful , rubbish       into the river .

A. needn’t be thrown              B. mustn’t be thrown     

C. can’t throw                    D. may not throw

答案:B                                                (2003重庆市)

3. You may go fishing if your work       .

A. is done      B. will be done      C. has done      D. have done

答案:A                                                 (2003河北省)

4. The trees must       three times a week .

A. water       B. is watering      C. be watered       D. waters

答案:C                                                 (2003长沙市)

5. — I won’t come to the party unless Sue       , too .

 — You mean if Sue comes you’ll come ?

A. will invite       B. invites       C. invited        D. is invited

答案:D                                                  (2003江西省)

6. I like my new bike . It       very well .

A. rides        B. is riding       C. is ridden      D. has ridden

答案:A                                                  (2003江西省)

7. Mr. Chen has a lond voice . His voice can       clearly even in that big classroom .

  A. hear       B. be heard       C. be hearing       D. have heard

  答案:B                                                  (2003台湾省)

8. — It’s time to do your homework , Jack .

     — Yes , Mum . I’ll turn off the TV as soon as the programme       .

A. ends      B. end         C. will be ended        D. will end

答案:A                                                  (2003广州市)

9. You       to the meeting , why didn’t you go ?

A. be invited        B. will be invited       C. were invited       D. are invited

答案:C                                                  (2003山西省)

10. A lot of trees       along the river last year .

A. planted          B. are planted         C. were planted     

答案:C                                                  (2003四川省)

 

【实战模拟】

一. 选择填空

1. The rivers smells terrible People must       dirty things into it .

A. be stopped to throw       B. be stopped from throwing

C. stop to throw            D. stop form throwing

2. Paper       first invented in China .

A. is      B. are      C. was       D. were

3. — Do you like the flower ?  — Yes , it       sweet .

A. is smelling      B. smelt      C. is smelt       D. smells

4. It snowed heavily last night . The ground       thick snow .

A. was covered with        B. was filled with

C. was made of            D. covered with

5. The light in the room       before you leave .

A. must turn of       B. will turn off       C. are turned      D. must be turned off

6.       the kind of question often       in your class , Ann ?

A. Does , ask        B. Is , asked      C. Has , asked       D. Will , ask

7. The bridge       in three weeks .

A. will build        B. is built      C. will be built      D. builds

8. The old men and the children must        in our country .

A. take good care            B. be taken good care      

C. take good care of          D. be taken good care of

9. Paul doesn’t have to be made       He always works hard .

A. learn       B. to learn      C. learned       D. learning

10. The girl was unhappy because she       by some boys in the class .

A. is laughed       B. was laughed       C. laughed at       D. was laughed at

11. We       that the English test       next Monday .

A. are told , gives            B. tell , will give      

C. are told , will be given      D. told , is going to be given

12. Great changes       place in China since 1978 .

A. have been taken        B. have taken        C. has been taken      D. took

13.       the red pencil-box       by your father last week ?

A. Has , bought      B. Was , bought       C. Does , buy      D. Did , buy

14. Mary       many songs at the party .

A. heard sing       B. heard to sing      C. was heard sing      D. was heard to sing

15.       trees usually       in April ?

A. Have , planted       B. Are , planted       C. Do , plant      D. Were , planted

16. When we got there , the broken road       repaired .

A. is being       B. was being      C. has been       D. /

17. The windows of the room       once a week .

A. has been cleaned       B. is cleaned       C. are cleaned      D. are cleaning

18. In 1620 , about half the USA       forests .

A. was covered       B. was covered by      C. were filled with     D. covered with

19. The young tree       the stick .

A. should be tied to     B. must be tied by     C. should tie to       D. can be tied with

20. A present       me by my friend on my birthday .

A. is giving      B. was given to      C. is given for        D. will give to

21. By       was the book       ?

A. who , wrote      B. whom , write      C. whom , written      D. whom , writing

22. Films about crime and violence(暴力与犯罪)      by young children .

A. should not see            B. should be not seen      

C. should not be seen         D. should be seen

23. In warm weather fruit and meat       long .

A. can’t be kept        B. don’t keep       C. is not kept      D. aren’t keeping

24. Half the world’s telephone calls       in English .

A. are made       B. are making       C. make       D. is made

25. That building       now .

A. is building      B. is built      C. is being built      D. builds

26. The trees in our school       every Friday afternoon .

A. are watered      B. are watering      C. have watered       D. water

27. More “ Great Green Walls ” must       all over the world .

A. build      B. are built      C. be building      D. be built

28. His school bag       by a woman ten minutes ago .

A. took away      B. was taken away       C. was taken off       D. is taken

29. It       that she       very clever .

A. was said , is      B. was said , were     C. is said , is      D. is said , is being

30. Yesterday a visitor       something about his hometown .

A. was asked      B. was asking      C. is asked      D. asked

31. Do you like this kind of paper ? Yes , it       very nice .

A. is felt       B. felt       C. is feeling      D. feels

32. These books       well .

A. sells      B. are being sold      C. are sold      D. sell

33. The boy       lost on his way home yesterday .

A. got      B. is      C. gets       D. has

34. Though the coat is a bit large now , it       me very soon .

A. will be fit        B. will fit       C. fit      D. fits

35. Football       everywhere in the world .

A. is played      B. play      C. is playing      D. plays

36. Everybody here was       a present .

A. gave       B. given       C. To give      D. Giving

37. A new factory       in our city last year .

A. built      B. has built      C. was built     D. is building

38. All trees must       well when it is dry .

A. be watered      B. are watered      C. water      D. be watering

39. This shirt       silk .

A. must be made in     B. make by     C. must be made of     D. must be made by

40. These books       good care of .

A. must taken      B. must take     C. have to take      D. must be taken

41. Stamps       by people for sending letters .

A. use      B. in using     C. used       D. are used

42. More trees       next year .

A. will be planted       B. will plant      C. have planted       D. are planting

43. — When       the People’s Republic of China       ?

    — On October 1.1949 .

  A. did …found      B. was …found      C. was … founded      D. is … founded

44. Today , too many trees are still       in the world .

A. cutting down      B. cut down      C. being cut down      D. cutted

45. This kind of machine       Japan .

A. is made by      B. is made from     C. is made in      D. is made of

46. The teacher says that the man will       .

A. be well taken care     B. well look after    C. take care well   D. be well looked after

47. — I think the shop       .

       — No , It’s open . It       at six .

A. is close … close     B. is closed … closes    C. closed … closes     D. is closed

48. I was astonished(吃惊)to hear that the colour TV set       5 , 000 yuan .

A. has cost      B. cost       C. costed       D. was cost

49. Great changes       place since he came here .

A. have been taken      B. have taken      C. has been taken      D. has taken

50. He was seen       something from the shop .

A. steal        B. to steal      C. to be stolen       D. stealed

51. She has       by her classmates .

A. laughed      B. laughed at      C. been laughed      D. been laughed at

 

二. 用正确的时态和语态填空

1. Nearly everybody here      (know)when the old museum      (build).

2. The building can      (see)from every part of the city ; It      (build)many years ago .

3. Yesterday Tom      (tell)me that his bike      (break)last week .

4. The students       often      (tell)to take care of their desks and chairs .

5. Now he      (be)asked if the meeting      (hold)next Friday .

6. It is known to all that the moon      (turn)round the earth .

7. Miss Li often      (use)a recorder in her English class . But she      (not use)it tomorrow .

8. Vegetables , eggs and fruits      (sell)in this shop .

9. English      (speak)here .

10. The song      (like)by us all twenty years ago .

11. The pictures      (take)by Jack tomorrow .

12. The computer      (can use)in the room .

13. The room      (paint)now .

14. The novel      (translate)into many languages since it was published .

15. That clock      (call)Big Ben .

16. Last week , when I      (ask)about English culture , I couldn’t answer it well .

17. What language      (speak)in your country ?

18. School football games             often       (hold)on Friday evenings .

19. The film      (show)again sometime next week .

20. If anything      (happen)to him , let me know .

21.        the pair of new shoes      (suit)you ?

22. The bottle      (break)by the cat yesterday .

23. A tall tree      (can , see)in the picture .

24. The sports meeting      (hold)last week .

25. We      (tell)yesterday that Jane would come back from Australia .

26. Look , Mr Smith      (take)to the station by Mark in his car .

27. These trees should      (water)after they      (plant).

28. The TV set      (make)in Beijing . It      (make)last April .

29. Colour TVs      (sell)in that shop .

30. When the People’s Republic of China      (found)?

31. Have you moved into the new house ?

   Not yet . The rooms      (paint)now .

32. An American film       often      (show)on TV on Sundays .

33. She      (tell)the good news as soon as she arrived .

34. Look ! A big modern bridge      (build)over the river .

35. Dr Bethune      (remember)by the Chinese people for ever .

36. A recorder       often      (use)in our English class .


[参考答案]

一. 选择填空

1—5 BCDAD      6—10 BCDBD     11—15 CBBDB      16—20 BCBAB

21—25 CCAAC    26—30 ADBCA    31—35 DCABA      36—40 BCACD

41—45 DACBC    46—50 DBBBB    51. D

二. 用正确的时态和语态填空

1. knows , was built         2. be seen , was built        3. told , was broken        

4. are , told                5. is , will be held          6. turns

7. uses , won’t use          8. are sold                9. is spoken

10.  was liked            11. will be taken           12. can be used

13. is being painted        14. has been translated       15. is called

16. was asked             17. is spoken              18. are , held

19. will be shown          20. happens               21. Does ,suit

22. was broken            23. can be seen            24. was held

25. were told              26. is being taken          27. be watered , are planted

28. is made , was made      29. are sold               30. was founded

31. are being painted        32. is , shown             33. was told

34. is being built           35. will be remembered      36. is , used一、被动语态的构成形式

  1. 被动语态的基本时态变化

  被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, 被动语态由be+过去分词构成,be随时态的变化而变化。以do为例,各种时态的被动语态形式为:

   1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时

例Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits.

2) has /have been done 现在完成时

  例All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start.

  3) am/is /are being done 现在进行时

  例A new cinema is being built here.

  4) was/were done 一般过去时

  例I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.

  5) had been done 过去完成时

  例 By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing.

  6) was/were being done 过去进行时

  例A meeting was being held when I was there.

  7) shall/will be done 一般将来时

  例Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes.

  8) should/would be done 过去将来时

  例The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived.

  9) shall/will have been done 将来完成时(少用)

  例The project will have been completed before July.

  2. 被动语态的特殊结构形式

  1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。

  例The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter.

  2) 有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。

  例His mother gave him a present for his birthday. 可改为 He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.

  3) 当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其余不动。

  例Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改为The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.

  4)在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe等后面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式to要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加to。

  例Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可改为A stranger was seen to walk into the building.

  5) 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,也可以用于被动结构,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。

  例The meeting is to be put off till Friday.

  3. 非谓语动词的被动语态

  v.+ing 形式及不定式 to do 也有被动语态(一般时态和完成时态) 。

  例I don't like being laughed at in the public.

 

二、 如何使用被动语态

  学习被动语态时,不仅要知道被动语态的各种语法结构,还要知道在哪些情况中使用被动语态。

  1. 讲话者不知道动作的执行者或不必说出动作的执行者 (这时可省 by 短语)。

  例 My bike was stolen last night.

  2. 借助被动的动作突出动作的执行者。

  例 I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should accept the offer.

  3. 为了更好地安排句子。

  例The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people. (一个主语就够了)

 

三、 It is said that+从句及其他类似句型

  一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think等可以用于句型“It+be+过去分词+that从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.”。有:

  It is said that… 据说,It is reported that…据报道,It is believed that…大家相信,It is hoped that…大家希望,It is well known that…众所周知,It is thought that…大家认为,It is suggested that…据建议。 

  例It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. (=The boy is said to have passed the national exam. )

 

 

四、谓语动词的主动形式表示被动意义

  1.英语中有很多动词如 break,catch,clean,drive,lock,open,sell,read,write,wash等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式 表达被动意义,主语通常是物。

  例 This kind of cloth washes well.

  注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的影响。

  试比较:The door won't lock. (指门本身有毛病)

  The door won't be locked. (指不会有人来锁门, 指“门没有锁”是人的原因)

  2. 表示“发生、进行”的不及物动词和短语,如:happen, last, take place, break out, come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out等以主动形式表示被动意义。

  例 How do the newspapers come out? 这些报纸是如何引出来的呢?

  3. 系动词没有被动形式, 但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词feel, sound, taste, book, feel等在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。

    例Your reason sounds reasonable

 

五、非谓语动词的主动形式表被动意义

  在某些句型中可用动名词和不定式的主动形式表被动意义 。

  1. 在need,want,require, bear等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动意义,其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。

  例The house needs repairing(to be repaired).这房子需要修理。

  2. 形容词worth后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义,但不能跟动词不定式;而worthy后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。

  例The picture-book is well worth reading.(=The picture-book is very worthy to be read.)

  3. 动词不定式在名词后面作定语,不定式和名词之间有动宾关系时,又和句中另一名词或代词构成主谓关系, 不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。

  例 I have a lot of things to do this afternoon. (to do与things是动宾关系,与I是主谓关系。)

  试比较:I’ll go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted? ( 此处用不定式的被动语态作定语表明you不是post动作的执行者。)

  4. 在某些“形容词+不定式”做表语或宾语补足语的结构中,句子的主语或宾语又是动词不定式的逻辑宾语时,这时常用不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。这些形容词有nice,easy,fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting等。

  例This problem is difficult to work out .(可看作to work out省略了for me).

  5. 在too… to…结构中,不定式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应用主动形式表示被动意义。

  例This book is too expensive (for me) to buy.

  6. 在there be…句型中,当动词不定式修饰名词作定语时,不定式用主动式作定语,重点在人,用被动形式作定语,重点在物。

  例There is no time to lose(to be lost).(用 to lose可看成for us to lose;用to be lost,谁 lost time不明确。)

  7. 在be to do结构中的一些不定式通常应用主动表主动, 被动表被动。然而,由于古英语的影响,下列动词rent,blame,let等仍用不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。

  例 Who is to blame for starting the fire?

 

六、介词in, on, under等+名词构成介词短语表被动意义

  表示方位的介词与含动作意义的名词合用,含被动之义,其意义相当于该名词相应动词的被动形式,名词前一般不用冠词。

  1. “under +名词”结构,表示“某事在进行中”。常见的有:under control(受控制), under treatment(在治疗中), under repair(在修理中), under discussion(在讨论中), under construction(在施工中)。

  例The building is under construction( is being constructed).

  2.“beyond+名词”结构,“出乎……胜过……、范围、限度”。常见的有:beyond belief (令人难以置信), beyond one’s reach(鞭长莫及),beyond one’s control(无法控制),beyond our hope. 我们的成功始料不及。

    例The rumour is beyond belief(=can’t be believed).

 3.“above+名词”结构, 表示“(品质、行为、能力等) 超过……、高于……”。

    例His honest character is above all praise.=His honest character cannot be praised enough.

 4.“for+名词”结构,表示 “适于……、 为着……”。如:for sale(出售), for rent(出租)等。

  例That house is for sale. (= That house is to be sold).

 5.“in+名词”结构 ,表示“在……过程中或范围内”常见的有:in print(在印刷中),in sight(在视野范围内),等。 

  例The book is not yet in print.(=is not yet printed)

  6.“on+名词”结构, 表示“在从事…… 中”。常见的有:on sale(出售),on show(展出), on trial(受审)。

  例Today some treasures are on show in the museum (= are being showed).

  7.“out of+名词”结构 ; 表示 “超出…… 之外“,常见的有:out of control (控制不了),out of sight (超出视线之外),out of one’s reach(够不着), out of fashion(不流行)等。 

  例 The plane was out of control (can’t be controlled). 。

  8.“within+名词”结构,“在……内、不超过……”。

    例He took two days off within the teacher's permission.

 

被动语态习题

  1. If city noises ____ from increasing,people ____ shout to be heard even at dinner.

  A. are not kept;will have to  B. are not kept;have

  C. do not keep;will have to  D. do not keep;have to

  2. The fifth generation computers, with artificial intelligence, are ____and perfected now.

  A. developed            B. have developed

  C. are being developed  D. will have been developed

  3. --- ____ the sports meet might be put off.

   --- Yes,it all depends on the weather.

  A. I've been told  B. I've told C. I'm told D. I told

  4. I need one more stamp before my collection ___.

  A. has completed B. completes C. has been completed  D. is completed

  5. Rainforests ___ and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future.

  A. cut  B. are cut  C. are being cut  D. had been cut

  6. The new suspension bridge ___ by the end of last month.

  A. has been designed  B. had been designed

  C. was designed       D. would be designed

  7. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ____.

  A. breaks B. has broken C. was broken D. had been broken

  8. Great changes ___ in the city, and a lot of factories ___.

  A. have been taken place; have been set up

  B. have taken place; have been set up

  C. have taken place; have set up

  D. were taken place; were set up

  9. That suit __ over 60 dollars.

  A. had costed B. costed C. is costed D. cost

  10. --- Look! Everything here is under construction.

  --- What’s the pretty small house that __ for?

  A. is being built B. has been built C. is built D. is building

  11.--- Do you like the material?

  --- Yes, it ___ very soft.

  A. is feeling B. felt C. feels  D. is felt

  12. It is difficult for a foreigner ____ Chinese.

  A. write B. to write C. to be written D. written

  13. I have no more letters ____ ,thank you.

  A. to type B. typing C. to be typed D. typed

  14. Take care! Don’t drop the ink on your shirt, for it __ easily.

  A. won’t wash out B. won’t be washed out

  C. isn’t washed out D. isn’t washing out

  15. Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to ___.

  A. be put up B. give in C. be turned on D. go out

  16. The computers on the table ___ Professor Smith.

  A. belongs B. are belonged to C. belongs to D. belong to

  17. --- What do you think of the book?

  ---Oh, excellent. It’s worth ___ a second time.

  A. to read B. to be read C. reading D. being read

18. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed ___.

A. catching B. to be caught C. being caught D. to catch

  19. This page needed ___ again.

  A. being checked B. checked C. to check D. to be checked

  20. ___ many times, the boy still didn’t know how to do the exercises

  A. Having taught B. Having been taught C. taught D. Teaching

  21)It is said that a new robot ____by him in a few days.

  A) designed         B) has been designed

  C) will be designed   D) will have been designed

  22)We are late. I expect the film ____by the time we get to the cinema.

  A) will already have started   B) would already have started

  C) shall have already started   D) has already been started

 

   23) She will stop showing off if no notice____ of her.

  A) is taken   B) takes   C) will be taken   D) has taken

  24) Diamond ____in Brazil in 1971.

  A) is found   B) has been found

  C) was found  D) had been found

  25)“Have you moved into the new flat?”“Not yet. The room____.”

A) has been painted   B) is painted

C) paints             D) is being painted

  26) My pictures ____until next Friday.

  A) won't develop    B) aren't developed

  C) don't develop    D) won' t be developed

  27) Tim ____since he lost his job three weeks ago.

  A) had been unemployed     B) was unemployed

  C) has been unemployed     D) has unemployed

  28) A great number of colleges and universities ____since 1949.

  A) has been establish   B) have been established

  C) have established    D) had been established

  29) I'll have to push the car to the side of the road because we ____if we leave it here.

  A) would be fined    B) will be fined

  C) will being fined   D) will have been fined

  30)“____two tickets for the new play at the Grand Theatre on Saturday. Shall we go and see it together?”

  A) They have been given   B) I have been given

  C) I am given              D) They have given to me

  31) The subject of these lectures ____by the lecture committee.

  A) is announced       B) have been announced

  C) are announced      D) has been announced

  32) I found an aspirin bottle ____dropped on the floor of David's room.

A) was   B) had   C) had been   D) is

33)The goods ____when we arrived at the airport.

  A) were just unloading   B) were just been unloading

  C) had just unloaded   D) were just being unloaded

  34) If one ____by pride, he will reject useful advice and friendly assistance.

  A) overcomes           B) is overcome

  C) has been overcome   D) overcome

  35) Most environment problems exist because adequate measures for preventing them ____taken in the past.

  A) was not   B) were not  C) were not being   D) had not been

  36) You ought to have put the milk in the refrigerator, now ____sour.

  A) I smell   B) it is smelt  C) it smells   D) it is smelling

  37) After the race____, the celebration began.

  A) had been won   B) is won  C) will be won   D)has been won

  38) He was here for a little while, but I don't know where she ____now.

  A) is   B) was   C) had been   D) has been

  39) The young teacher has ____ competent.

A) been proved to be   B) proved to be

C) been proved       D) proved being

  40) Pluto, the outermost planet of the solar system, ____photographically in March 1930.

  A) discovered     B) was discovered

  C) by discovery   D) when discovered

  41) To get a better view of the stage, ____.

  A)our seats had to be changed    B) our seats were changed

  C) we had to change our seats    D) our seats were changed by us

  42) After synthetic____, engineers had a better choice of material.

  A) created            B) has created

  C) has been created   D) had been created

  43) I think much attention ____your pronunciation.

  A) must be paid to   B) ought to be paid to

  C) must pay to      D) should be paid to

  44) Since 1970, millions of enthusiasts ____Vitamin C, which they believe can remedy the common cold.

  A) have taken         B) have been taken

  C) have been taking   D) have been taking

  45) I don't remember ____the chance to try this method.

  A)having been given   B) to have been given

  C)having given      D) to have given

  46) We could ask someone to do the work privately without it____.

  A) know   B) be known  C) being known   D) to be known

  47) The construction of the laboratory ____by the end of next month.

  A) must be completed    B) must have been completed

  C) will be completing     D) will have been completing

  48) They would tell how the African ____on a ship to an American port.

  A) was brought        B) could have been brought

  C) had been brought   D) was to be brought

  49) He does not possess a bicycle, this one he uses ____to Peter.

  A) is belonged to   B) belonged  C) belongs   D) is belonging

  50) Negotiation ____again with Moscow tomorrow, a great event will be discussed then.

  A) is to be opened    B) is on the point of opening

  C) is going to open   D) opens

  51) The reason for all the changes being made ____to us yet.

  A) has not explained   B) has not been explained

  C) did not explained   D) were not explained

  52) Experiments in the photography of moving objects ____in both the United States and Europe well before 1900.

  A) were conducting       B)were conducted

  C) had been conducted   D) had conducted

   53) When he turned the corner, he found himself ____by a man in black.

  A) tailed   B) been tailed  C) was tailed  D) had been tailed

  54) A candidate for the democratic presidential nomination ____at this moment.

  A) is interviewing         B) being interviewed

  C) is being interviewed   D) interviewing

  55) As we approached the work site, the workers were seen ____the new house.

  A) building   B) build   C) built   D) to build

  56) As we know, all the regulations in school ____.

  A) must keep to   B) must be kept

  C) must keep     D) must be kept up

  57) The composition ____any more.

  A) need not to be corrected     B) doesn't need to be corrected

  C) doesn't need be corrected   D) need not correct

  58) The bank is reported in the local newspaper ____in broad daylight yesterday

  A) to be robbed   B) to have keen robbed

  C) robbed        D)having been robbed

  59) Hurry up, or the tickets ___out by the time we get there.

  A) will have sold   B) will sell

  C) have sold       D) will have been sold

  60) He cleaned the glasses carefully for fear that it ____.

  A) was damaged     B) should be damaged

  C) damaged         D) would be damaged

 

【试题答案】

1—5 ACADC   6—10 BCBDA

11—15 CBCAD   16—20 DCCDB

21—25 CAACD   26—30 DCBBB

31—35 DCDBB   36—40 CAABB

41—45 CDACA   46—50 CACCA

51—55 BCACA   56—60 BBBDB

 

英语被动语态讲解及练习

一、被动语态的含义
       英语中时态很多,但语态不多,只有两种,即:主动语态和被动语态。所谓“被动语态”,相当于中文中常说的“被……”、“由……”的句式,如:“他的自行车被偷了。”,“这座楼房是由他们建造的。”
      二、被动语态的结构
       那么,英语中被动语态是怎么样构成的呢?请看下面的例句(注意划线部分):
       His bicycle was stolen.
       The building has been built in 2000.
       通过上面的例句,可以看出,“被动语态”的构成是:
           be + 过去分词 + (by+动作执行者)
      三、被动语态的运用
       什么情况下要用被动语态呢?一般地说,有下面几种情况:
       (1) 不知道谁是动作的执行者或没有必要。例如:
       Paper is made from wood. (纸是由木材生产出来的。)
       The house is quite old. It was built in 1950. (这座房子太旧了。它是1950年建成的。)
       He was wounded in the fight. (他在战斗在受伤了。)
       Electricity is used to run machines. (电是用来开动机器的。)
       (2) 需要强调动作的对象时。例如:
       Calculator can't be used in the maths exam.

(计算器不能用于数学考试。)
       Books and newspapers in the reading room mustnt be taken away. (阅览室的书籍和报纸不准带走。)
       He was awarded first prize in that contest.

(他在比赛中获得了第一。)
       (3)为了使语气婉转,避免提到是谁做的这件事。例如:
       The construction of the new lab must be completed by the end of next month. (新实验室必须在下个月底前完工。)       
      四、各种时态的被动语态举例
       一般地讲,被动语态可用于英语的各种时态。为了能准确地运用被动语态,重点是要掌握be动词的各种时态变化。各种时态的被动语态举例如下:
      1、 一般现在时的被动语态. am / is / are + 动词的过去分词
      Our classroom is cleaned every day.
      This car is made in China.
      2、一般过去式的被动语态: was / were + 动词的过去分词
      His desk was cleaned just now.
      The station was built in 1928.
      3、现在进行时的被动语态: am / is / are + being + 动词的过去分词
      A new factory is being built in our city now.
      Some trees are being cut down in the park.
      4、过去进行时的被动语态: was / were + being + 动词的过去分词
      A new factory was being built in our city at that time.
      Some babies were being looked after by Miss Chen last year.
      5、一般将来时的被动语态:
      (A) will / shall + be + 动词的过去分词
      (B) am / is / are + going to be +动词的过去分词.
      Some new factories will be built in our city this year.
      Your watch is going to be mended in an hour.
      6、过去将来时的被动语态: (1).would / should + be + 动词的过去分词 (2).was / were +going to be + 动词的过去分词.
      She said that some new factories would be built soon in our city.
      He thought that your watch was going to be mended after an hour.
      7、现在完成时的被动语态:have / has + been + 动词的过去分词
      Some new factories have been built in the city since last year.
      Your watch has been mended already.
      8、过去完成时的被动语态:had + been + 动词的过去分词
      He said that some new factories had been built in the city.
      I didn’t know that my watch had been mended .
      9、含情态动词的被动式:can/may/must + be + done
       例如:He can not be found. / I must be paid for this.
      五、如何将主动语态变成被动语态
      1、从句子意义上说,就是重新找出“什么事物”是“被完成”的。
      例1.
      主动语态:人们说英语。People speak English in many countries.
      被动语态:英语被说。 English is spoken in many countries..
      例2.
      主动语态:我们造这座桥。We built this bridge last year.
      被动语态:这座桥被建造。This bridge was built last year.
      2、从语法的角度说,把原句的宾语改成主语。
      例1.
      主动语态:小王邀请你(宾语) Xiao Liu has invited you to a lunch party.
      被动语态:你(宾语)被邀请。 You has been invited to a lunch party by Xiao Wang.
      例2.
      主动语态:你不准带走杂志(宾语) You must not take these magazines out of the reading-room.
      被动语态:杂志(宾语)不准被带走.These magazines must not be taken out of the reading room.
      例3.
      主动语态:他们授给他(宾语)一枚奖章(宾语).They gave him a medal for his wonderful work.
      被动语态:他(宾语)被授予一枚奖章. He was given a medal for his wonderful work.
      被动语态:一枚奖章(宾语)被授给了他.A medal was given to him for his wonderful work.
    

被动语态复习 ABC

A.熟记结构

被动语态的结构为“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词(p.p)”。被动语态的不同时态是通过be的时态变化来表示的,其人称和数方面应与主语保持一致。其具体变化为:

一般现在时:am/is/are+p.p.

一般过去时:was/were+p.p.

一般将来时:shall /will be +p.p.

现在完成时:have /has been +p.p.

现在进行时:am/is/are+being+p.p.

过去将来时:should /would be +p.p.

含情态动词的被动结构:情态动词+be+p.p.例如:

① Chinese ______ by the largest number of people.

A.speak

B.is speaking

C.speaks

D.is spoken

(② The boy ______ to get supper ready after school.

A.were told

B.is telling

C.was told

D.tells

③ A lot of new roads ______ built in the west of China.

A.must

B.must be

C.has

D.have

B.明确用法

被动语态常用于以下两种情况:

1.不知道谁是动作的执行者,或者没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者;

2.强调动作的承受者。例如:

这棵树是那个男孩弄断的。

The tree ______ ______ by that boy.

(C.熟练转换

1.将主动语态变被动语态的基本方法为:

①将主动语态的宾语作被动语态的主语;

②谓语动词变为“be+及物动词的过去分词”,并通过be的变化来表达出不同的时态;

③主动语态的主语变为介词by的宾语,组成介词短语放在被动结构中的谓语动词之后。(有时by短语可以省略)。

2.被动语态的一般疑问句是将一个助动词置于主语之前;否定句是在第一个助动词后加not;特殊疑问句的语序为:疑问词+一般疑问句。例如:

① You must throw the broken pottery away at once.

The broken pottery ______ ______ ______ ______ at once.(同义句)

(② Where did they grow vegetables?(改为被动语态)

Where ______ vegetables ______ ? D.注意特例

将主动语态变被动语态应注意几个特殊情况:

1.含双宾语的主动结构变为被动结构时,有两种方法:

①将间接宾语变为主语,直接宾语保持不变;

②将直接宾语变为主语,间接宾语用介词to或for引导。例如:

① He told us a story.(变被动语态)

→We were told a story(by him).或:A story was told to us by him.

② Her mother gave her a new pen.(变被动语态)

A new pen ______ ______ ______ her by her mother.

2.短语动词的被动语态:在变为被动语态时,要将短语动词视为一个整体,其后的介词或副词不能省去。例如:

① This dictionary mustn't ______ from the library.

A.take away

B.taken away

C.are taken away

D.be taken away

② She will take good care of the children.(变被动语态)

The children will ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ (by her).

(3.含有复合宾语的主动结构变被动结构时,通常将宾语变为被动句的主语,而宾语补足语就成为主语补足语。注意:省略to的不定式作宾补时,不定式符号to必须补上。例如:

Someone saw him swim in Qianling Lake yesterday.(变被动

He ______ ______ ______ swim in Qianling Lake yesterday.

(4.不定式的被动结构:动词不定式的被动语态为“to be +过去分词”。例如:

The radio says a wild animal zoo is to ______ in our city.

A.be building

B.build

C.be built

D.built

5.以疑问代词开头的疑问句转换成被动句时要注意词序:应将主动句中的疑问代词改为介词by的宾语,但仍然放在句子开头。例如:

Who has broken the cup?(改为被动语态)

→By whom has the cup been broken?

E.注意区别

被动语态和过去分词作表语的区别:

1)含义不同:被动语态强调动作,重点说明动作由谁完成、怎样完成;而过去分词作表语通常用来描写情景,叙述人或事物的特征及所处的状态。试比较:

The window is broken.窗子破了。(系表结构)

The window is broken by him.窗子被他打破了。(被动语态)

2)用法不同:过去分词作表语时可以被 so,very,too等程度副词修饰,而被动语态则不能用so,very,too修饰,而需用much,very much,so much,too much修饰。试比较:

He was very interested in science.他对科学有极大兴趣。(系表结构)

I was so much surprised at the scene that I didn't know what to do.我被那种场面搞得大吃一惊,不知所措。(被动语态)

F.牢记(相关)句型

初中教材中与被动语态相关的句型有:

1.be covered with被……覆盖

2.be made of由……制作(发生物理变化)

be made from由……制作(发生化学变化)

be made in由(某地)制造

be made by被(某人)制造

3.be used for被用来……

be used as被当作(作为)……来使用

be used to do sth.被用来做某事

4.It is said that...据说……

It is hoped that...希望……

It is well known that...众所周知……例如:

①—Your coat looks nice.Is it ______ cotton?

—Yes.It's ————  Shanghai.

A.made of;made by

B.made of;made in

C.made for;made by

D.made for;made in

② This machine is used ______ the room wet.

A.for keeping

B.as keeping

C.keep

D.to keeping

③ 据说在南京长江上又在建一座桥。

______ ______ ______ that ______ ______ is being ______ over the Changjiang River in Nanjing.

(四)几种特殊的被动语态

1.带不定式的被动语态。

The child is sure to be punished for that. 那个孩子肯定会因为那件事受罚的。

2. 带介词的动词短语的被动语态。

 Such a thing has never been heard of. 这件事前所未闻。

3. 带副词的动词短语的被动语态。

The radio has just been turned off. 收音机刚刚被关上。

  4. 当sell, wash, clean, run, ride, wear, write等动词若有状语well, easily, badly来修饰时,用主动形式表达被动意义。

      The pen writes well. 这枝钢笔写字流畅。

   The book sells well. 这本书很畅销。

被动语态专项练习

一、选择题(2×15=30分)
(   )1._____ a new library _____ in our school last year?

A. Is; built          B. Was; built     C. Does; build    D. Did ; build

(   )2. An accident ____ on this road last week.

A. has been happened  B. was happened  C. is happened    D. happened

(   )3.Cotton(棉花) ____ in the southeast of China.

A. is grown          B. are grown      C. grows         D. grow

(   )4.So far, the moon ____ by man already.

A. is visited          B. will be visited   C. has been visited  D. was visited
(   )5.A talk on Chinese history _____ in the school hall next week.
    A. is given           B. has been given   C. will be given   D. gives
(   )6.How many trees ____ this year?
    A. are planted        B. will plant        C. have been planted  D. planted
(   )7.A lot of things ____ by people to save the little girl now.
    A. are doing          B. are being done   C. has been done  D. will be done
(   )8.--When ___ this kind of computers______? --Last year.
    A. did; use           B. was; used        C. is; used       D. are; used
(   )9.The Great Wall ____ all over the world.
    A. knows            B. knew           C. is known       D. was known
(   )10.Who _____ this book _____?
    A. did; written        B. was; written by   C. did; written     D. was; written
(   )11.A story _____ by Granny yesterday.
    A. was told us        B. was told to us     C. is told us       D. told us
(   )12.The monkey was seen _____ off the tree.
    A. jump             B. jumps           C. jumped        D. to jump
(   )13.The school bag ___ behind the chair.
    A. puts              B. can be put        C. can be putted   D. can put
(   )14.Older people ____ well.
     A. looks after        B. must be looked after C. must look after D. looked after
(   )15.Our teacher ______ carefully.
     A. should be listened to B. should be listen    C. be listened    D. is listened
二、用括号内所给动词的正确形式填空。(1×20=20分)(请注意时态和语态两个方面噢)

1.It's said(据说) that the long bridge______________(build)in two months.

2.Where to have the meeting ______________ (discuss)now.

3.Which language _______the most widely_______(speak)in the world?

4.The lost boy_____________(not find)so far.

5.Last year a large number of trees______________(cut)down.

6. The students _____ often _____(tell) to take care of their desks and chairs.
7. The old man is ill. He ______ (must send) to the hospital.
8. Vegetables, eggs and fruits_________ (sell) in this shop.
9. What _______ knives  ______ (make) of ?
  They_______________(make) of metal(金属) and wood.
10. Can the magazine ________ (take) out of the library?
11. The room _____________ (clean) by me every day.
12. The stars can’t _____________ (see) in the daytime.
13. Some flowers _______________ (water) by Li Ming already.
14. This kind of shoes __________ (sell) well.
15. How long _____ your uncle ______(be) in the city?
16. The food _____________ (smell) delicious.

17. Look! Someone __________(dance).
三、按要求改写下列句子,一空一词。 (1×30=30分)

1.Is tea grown in South China?(改为主动语态)

_______ people _________ tea in South China?

2.I am given a birthday present by my parents every year.(同义句转换)

A birthday present _______  _______  _______  _______by my parents every year.

3.The work is going to be finished in two days. (对划线提问)

How_______  _______ the work going to be finished ?
4. The children will sing an English song. (改为被动语态)
  An English song ______  ______  _______ by the children.
5. You needn't do it now. (改为被动语态)
  It ______  ________  ________ by you now.
6. People use metal for making machines. (改为被动语态)
  Metal ________  _________  _______making machines.
7. He made me do that for him. (改为被动语态)
  I ______  ________  ________  ______ that for him.
8.They are watching the football match.

The football match _______   _______  _______  by them.

9.Did they build a bridge here a year ago? (改为被动语态)
  __________ a bridge ____________ here by them a year ago?
10.They have sold out the light green dresses. (改为被动语态)
  The light green dresses ________  _________  ___________ out.
11.We call the game “Lianliankan”. (改为被动语态)

The game _______  ________ “Lianliankan” by us.

四、根据所给汉语完成句子,一空一词。 (1×10=10分)

①The new bike ______  ______  _____  _____ (买给我)by my parents as a present last week.

②_______ your mobile phone _______  _______  ________(是国产的吗)?

③The whole mountain is _________  _________ (覆盖) the snow.

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