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高中英语:书面表达中的高级结构【备战高考、英语高分】

2013-11-09  yfpy1234

书面表达中的高级结构

[L]     我们高三英语教师在讲评书面表达时,经常告诉学生说,书面表达要得高分,就得有高级句型和高级词汇;但很多同学在写书面表达时,总认为高级句型和高级词汇很神秘,高不可及。其实,未必如此!通过研读一些优秀的学生习作和历年高考书面表达的范文,我们发现,很多所谓的高级句型和高级词汇正是我们老师反复讲解和训练的。下面列举一些常见且高级的词汇和句型,供同学们参考。
[/L]
[L]一.高级词汇[/L]
[L]1.occur 替换 think of[/L]
[L]   Suddenly I had an idea that someone had broken into my house. →[/L]
[L]   An idea occurred to me that someone had broken into my house.[/L]
[L]   It occurred to me that someone had broken into my house.[/L]
[L]2.devote替换spend[/L]
[L]   He spends all his spare time in reading. →[/L]
[L]   He devotes all his spare time to reading.[/L]
[L]3.seek替换want / look for[/L]
[L]   They sought ( wanted ) to hide themselves behind the trees.[/L]
[L]4.average 替换ordinary[/L]
[L]   I’m an average ( ordinary ) student.[/L]
[L]5.but替换very[/L]
[L]   The film we saw last night was very interesting. →[/L]
[L]   The film we saw last night was nothing but interesting.[/L]
[L]   The film we saw last night was anything but boring.[/L]
[L]6.seat 替换sit[/L]
[L]On his way to school, he found an old lady seated (sitting) by the road, looking worried.[/L]
[L]7.suppose 替换should[/L]
[L]   He is supposed to ( should ) have driven more slowly.[/L]
[L]8.appreciate 替换thank[/L]
[L]   Thank you very much for you help. →[/L]
[L]   We appreciate your help very much. / Your help is much appreciated.[/L]
[L]9.the case替换 true[/L]
[L]   I don’t think it is the case ( true ).[/L]
[L]10on替换as soon as[/L]
[L]   As soon as he arrived, he began his research. →[/L]
[L]   On his arrival, he began his research..[/L]
[L]11due to替换because of[/L]
[L]He arrived late due to ( because of ) the storm. [/L]
[L]12cover替换walk/read[/L]
[L]    After covering (walking) 10 miles, we all felt tired.[/L]
[L]13contribute to替换  be helpful/useful[/L]
[L]Plenty of memory work is undoubtedly helpful to English study. →[/L]
[L]    Plenty of memory work will undoubtedly contribute to English study.[/L]
[L]14round the corner 替换 coming soon/ nearby[/L]
[L]    ① The summer vacation is round the corner ( coming). Do you have any plans?[/L]
[L]② Li Ming studies in a school round the corner (nearby). [/L]
[L]15come to light替换discover[/L]
[L]The family were so pleased when they discovered the lost jewels. →[/L]
[L]The family were so pleased when the lost jewels came to light.[/L]
[L]16have a ball替换have a good time/ enjoy oneself[/L]
[L]    After visiting the workshop, we went back to school. Every one of us had a ball ( had a good time ).[/L]
[L]17come up with替换think of[/L]
[L]    Jack is very clever. He often comes up with ( thinks of ) new ideas.[/L]
[L]18set aside替换save[/L]
[L]    Some students think that they should set aside some of their pocket money for books. (2004天津卷)[/L]
[L]19be of + n. 替换adj.[/L]
[L]    The products are of high quality (very good ) and are sold everywhere in China.[/L]
[L]20refer to  替换talk about/of, mention[/L]
[L]    The professor you referred to (talked about ) is very famous.[/L]
[L]21can not but / can not help but替换have to do[/L]
[L]I could not but (had to) go home.[/L]
[L]22more often than not替换usually[/L]
[L]    More often than not (Usually), the meaning of many words can be easily guessed.[/L]
[L]23lest替换so that /in order that[/L]
[L]    I wrote down his telephone number so that I would not forget it. →[/L]
[L]    I wrote down his telephone number lest I (should) forget it.[/L]
[L]24be long for sth. / be long to do sth. 替换want to do sth./wish for[/L]
[L]    I want to see you very much. →[/L]
[L]    I am long to see you.[/L]
[L]25be caught up in/be crazy about/be absorbed in/be addicted to替换be interested in [/L]
[L]He is caught up in ( very interested in ) collecting stamps.[/L]
[L]26more than替换very[/L]
[L]    ① I’m very glad to learn that you are coming in September. →[/L]
[L]     I’m more than glad to learn that you are coming in September.  ( NMET 2003 )[/L]
[L]   ② If there is anything I can do for you, I would be more than glad to help.(2004全国卷)[/L]
[L]27perfect (ly) 替换good/ very well[/L]
[L]He speaks perfect ( good ) English./ He speaks English perfectly ( very well ).[/L]
[L]28do sb a/the favor 替换help[/L]
[L]    Would you please do me the favor ( help me ) to turn down the radio?[/L]
[L]29the other day替换a few days ago[/L]
[L]    The other day my brother and I went to the cinema by bicycle. ( NMET 1997 )[/L]
[L]30in the course of替换during [/L]
[L]    In the course of (During) the mountain-climbing, please help each other and pay special attention to your safety.[/L]
[L]31the majority of替换most[/L]
[L]    The majority of (Most of ) the interviewees prefer watching TV at home to going to the cinema.[/L]
[L]32consist of替换be made up of[/L]
[L]    Our class consists of ( is made up of ) 50 students.[/L]
[L]33be worn out替换 be tired / broken[/L]
[L]    ① After five hours’ non-stop work, we were all worn out (tired).[/L]
[L]    ② My shoes are worn out (broken). Please buy me a new pair.[/L]
[L]34become of替换 happen[/L]
[L]    What do think has become of ( happened to ) him ?[/L]
[L]35attend to替换look after [/L]
[L]36on condition that替换as long as[/L]
[L]37nevertheless替换however[/L]
[L]38express one’s satisfaction with替换be satisfied with [/L]
[L]39spare no efforts to do替换try one’s best to do[/L]
[L]40many a 替换many[/L]
[L]41be rushed off one’s feet  替换be busy in doing[/L]
[L]42a handful of替换a little / some[/L]
[L]43meanwhile替换at the same time[/L]
[L]44get to one’s feet替换stand up [/L]
[L]45beneath替换under[/L]
[L]46occasionally替换sometimes /once in while[/L]
[L]47for instance替换for example[/L]
[L]48seldom替换not often[/L]
[L]49wealthy替换 rich[/L]
[L]50amazing替换surprising [/L]
[L]51as a matter of fact 替换in fact

[L]二.高级句型结构[/L]
[L]◆ It句型[/L]
[L]① It will be + some time + before…[/L]
[L]    It won’t be long before humans visit the Mars.[/L]
[L]② It is + adj./n.+ for sb to do sth.[/L]
[L]    It is very important for us to learn computer well, because it has changed our life so much.[/L]
[L]He said since it was a new model in China, it was impossible to fix it without the right spare parts.2008年湖北卷)[/L]
[L]③ It is + 被强调部分 + that…[/L]
[L]  1)  It is what Yang Liwei has done that encourages us a lot.[/L]
[L]  2) Those who like reading extensively say it is through reading that we get our knowledge.[/L]
[L]◆ more …than any other 表示最高级[/L]
[L]         Among the optional courses, spoken English and computer study are more popular than any one else.[/L]
[L]◆ 名词从句[/L]
[L]① It would mean a great deal to me to listen to the tape and learn what is covered in the talk. ( 2004 全国卷 Ⅲ )[/L]
[L]   ② My hometown is no longer what it used to be.[/L]
[L]◆(非限制性)定语从句[/L]
[L]   ① The flat is in a building on Fangcao Street. It is not far from Jianxin Chinese School.→[/L]
[L]      The flat is in a building on Fangcao Street, which is not far from Jianxin Chinese School. (NMET 2003)[/L]
[L]   ② It was quite an experience for us both, which I’ll never forget for the rest of my life. (2002 北京卷)[/L]
[L]◆ 分词结构[/L]
[L]① I don’t know about others, but I used to have to work even at weekends doing endless homework and attending classes as well. (NMET 2001)[/L]
[L]② We’ll mostly stay at home in the evening watching TV, playing games, and meeting people. (2004 全国卷Ⅱ)[/L]
[L]③ Hearing this, a few people began to run after him.2004 辽宁卷)[/L]
[L]④ Born in American, Thomas Edison was a great scientist and inventor.(2008年湖南卷)[/L]
[L]◆ with结构[/L]
[L]   ① A terrible accident happened yesterday, with nine people killed and almost eighty injured.[/L]
[L]    ② He was carrying a bedroll and a large bag on his shoulder, with a large suitcase in his left hand. [/L]
[L]◆ 倒装句[/L]
[L]① The library is to the east of the teaching building. →[/L]
[L]   East of the teaching building is the library.[/L]
[L]② Although we are tired, we are happy.→[/L]
[L]     Tired as we are, we are happy.[/L]
[L]   ③ Only in this way can he grow to be a useful man. (2002 上海卷)[/L]
[L]④ May all your dreams come true! May our friendship last till the end of the universe.!(2007年湖南卷)[/L]
[L]◆ 被动语态[/L]
[L]   ① Opinions are divided on the question. (NMET 2002)[/L]
[L]② All classes are taught by teachers with rich experience in teaching foreign students. (2004全国卷 Ⅳ) [/L]
[L]③ New factories, houses and roads have been built.(2004 江苏卷)[/L]
[L]◆ 巧妙的改写[/L]
[L](1).Only 改成no one but   [/L]
[L]Only Tom passed the exam last week. → No one but Tom passed the exam.[/L]
[L]2).as soon as …改成No sooner…than…/Hardly…when…/Immediately…/The  moment No sooner had we arrived at the cinema than the film started.[/L]
[L]3).have sb/sth do/done [/L]
[L]      The girl was knocked off her bicycle and had her leg broken (her leg was broken.).[/L]
[L]4).变换插入语的位置[/L]
[L]      ① However, they suggest fees should be charged low. → [/L]
[L]         They suggest, however, fees should be charged low. (NMET 2002)[/L]
[L]      ② I think this is a good chance for you to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese. →[/L]
[L]        This is a good chance for you, I think, to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese. (2004 全国卷Ⅰ)[/L]
[L](5). 用同位语代替非限制性定语从句[/L]
[L]        Meimei, who is seven years old, has been learning to ride a bicycle for several days.→[/L]
[L]Meimei, a girl of thirteen, has been learning to ride a bicycle for several days.            (2002上海卷)[/L]
[L]Shakespeare, a son from a poor family, a man of little education, wrote plays and poems that are read all over the world.(2008年湖南卷)[/L]
[L]     ◆ 其它[/L]
[L]       (1)注重句子的开头[/L]
[L]           ① 用with复合结构开头[/L]
[L]            With the sun setting in the west, we had to wave goodbye to the workers.[/L]
[L]            With his help, we've learned how to analyze and settle problems.(2006年湖南卷)[/L]
[L]With the functions of inserting, deleting, moving and copying, it enables us to edit test, browse web page and download what we want.2009年江苏卷)[/L]
[L]           ② 用非谓语动词形式开头[/L]
[L]              ⅰ)In order to improve our English, our school held an English contest.[/L]
[L]              ⅱ)Walking towards the cinema, he met a foreigner.[/L]
[L]        (2)长短句交错使用(注意:应突出主题句;长句子并非越长越好)[/L]
[L]◆◆ 相关过渡语[/L]
[L]1). 表示时间顺序: first, then, afterwards, meanwhile, laterfirst of all, finally, at last…[/L]
[L]2). 表示空间顺序: near, next to, far from, in front of, on the left, on one side…[/L]
[L]3). 表示比较、对照: like, unlike, such as, but, however, on the other hand, on the contrary, nevertheless, otherwise…[/L]
[L]4). 表示因果关系: because, for, as a result, therefore, thus…[/L]
[L]5). 表示递进关系: besides, what’s more, what was worse, moreover, furthermore,    in addition, on top of…[/L]
[L]6). 表示并列关系: and, as well as, also…[/L]
[L]7). 表示总结性: in general, in a word, in short, on the whole, to sum up, in brief,      to conclude…[/L]

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