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短文改错十见十查

2014-01-15  tonyflora

短文改错十见十查

短文改错所考查的范围,都属典型、常见的病句,很少出现偏、难、怪句。做这类题,一般要依照考纲要求,对可能出现的病句进行分类,按照结构混乱,成分残缺,用词赘余,搭配不当,词义不通,不合逻辑等进行改错。但以上几种做题要求比较笼统,操作性比较差,效果不太明显。

      笔者在多年的复习指导中体会到,在学生完全清楚以上做题原则的情况下,最有效的方法是注意每行中的关键词和关键结构。由于这个词或这个结构的存在,人们在运用语言时常常出错,而命题者也往往在这里设错考查。

      一、见有平行结构,查是否患有用词不一致或成分缺失而引起的句子不均衡病。

      1. The doctor suggested plenty of food, rest and exercising

      句中并列的应是三个结构相同的宾语,但exercising用了动名词形式,与前两个名词不对称,故应改为exercise.

      2. She was eating her sandwich and drank her milk at the table when l arrived .

      主句中并列谓语一个用了过去进行时,一个用了一般过去时,在时态上不一致。应把:“drank ”改为“drinking”。

      二、见有比较结构,查是否患有形容词、副词的级,程度副词,比较的对象及冠词误用之病。

      1. People in the modern world generally live much more longer than people in the past .

         比较级形式重复,去掉 more.

      2. There are more trees in villages than cities.

         比较的对象有误,应在介词结构“in villages”, “ in cities” 之间对比。故在 cities 前加介词 in.又如:The weather here is colder than in Shanghai. 句中对比的双方是“The weather here”和“The weather in Shanghai”,所以应在 than 后加that ,代替名词the weather,补全对比的双方。但该句也可以这样说:It is colder here than in Shanghai.

      3. In some places you may borrow many books as you want. ( NMET‘94)

        这应是一个包含 as...as 结构的句子,但句中只有一个as,前一个遗漏了,所以要在 many 前加上as。 

      三、见有转折、因果、对比等句子结构,查是否患有行文逻辑不一致病。

      1. I like singing,my brother likes dancing.

        汉语中有时不需要连词,讲完一个分句接下去讲另一个分句。英语中连词使用比汉语广泛得多。该句应在后一个分句前加 while ,表示对比。

      2. A lady came to the window with the ball and shouted at the boy, and he ran away.

        男孩跑开了,是因为打破了人家的窗子,而受到喝斥。按逻辑,上下文构成因果关系,所以应把后一个 and 改为so 。

      3. Mr. Lee’s company publishes books and he buys books all over the world.

        前后叙述事实矛盾,不合逻辑,应把 buys 改为sells。

      四、见有多重句,查是否患有时态、语态混乱,引导词不当,成分缺失病。

      1. I always wanted to return to the village after moving away and is really great to see most of my old friends again.

        该句后一个分句与前一个分句时态和人称不一致,应把 is 改为 was 。

      2. Tom asks Mary if she knows the man is speaking to her.

        句法成分多余或缺少。可以在 is 前加 who 或去掉 is 。

      3. And whether you pay the cost of sending a postcard, the librarian will write to you.

        whether 改为if 。whether 引导名词性从句时,作“是否”解,有时可换用if ,这里是条件状语从句,只用 if

      4. He lives in Beijing, where is capital of China.

        在这个非限制性定语从句中,引导词要作主语,所以应把关系副词where改为关系代词which。

      5. He wrote to me immediately as soon as he got there.

        该句错在连词重复使用。immediately 在这里是连词,与 as soon as 同义,引导后面的从句,所以应去掉一个连词。     

      五、见有特殊疑问句,查是否患有疑问词使用不当病。

      1. ---How much was the price of your car?

          ---I bought the car at a cheap price, only 2,000 dollars.

        英语中问价格(price )常以what提问,以high或low回答。所以该句中How much应改为What, cheap改为low。只有在叙述某物的价值时,才用cheap或expensive.如;The car is cheap.

      2. China’s population is more than any other countries in the world.

       问population也不用how much/ many, 而要用what,回答时用large或big, little。所以文中的more应改为larger。另外,address, weight, phone number 等抽象名词,也要用what提问。

      六、见有名词和代词,查是否患有数、格、指代不一致病。

      1. Different people speak different language.

        这里是名词的复数不一致,应该把 language 改为 languages。

      2. Some people read the books or watch television While others have sports.

        句中books前多一定冠词the 。books 在该句中为泛指,而不是特指哪些书。

      3. What a lovely weather we are having today.

        去掉a.  weather是不可数名词,前面不加冠词a。

      七、见有并列主语,从句作主语,不定代词、集合名词、非谓语动词作主语,时间、距离、金钱作主语,together with等引导的成分修饰主语等,查是否患有主谓不一致病。

      1. Playing football not only makes us grow tall and strong but also give us a sense of fair play and team spirit ( NMET `98)

       but also 后面的分句的主语是动名词 “playing football”, 承前省略了。所以give改为gives,与前一个分句的谓语makes一致。

      2. She as well as her brothers are fond of studying English.

        are 改为 is,使主谓保持一致。with, together with, as well as, but, besides, including等起连接作用的词引导的部分只对主语起修饰作用,不视作主语。

      3. About 2,000 dollars have been spent in buying new dress for his beautiful wife this year.

        have 改为has, “about 2,000 dollars” 作为 “一笔钱” 常视作一个整体,谓语用单数。

      八、见有短语、词组,查是否患有固定结构中副词、介词或冠词使用不当病。

      1. Suddenly I caught a sight of my English teacher in the crowd.

        去掉a,“看见” 的固定短语是 “catch sight of”.

      2. When he came back he found someone had broken in his house.

        把in改为into, “break into”是固定搭配,为 “破门而入”之意。

      九、见有特殊动词,查是否患有非谓语动词或虚拟语气使用不当病。

      1. He made me to post a letter for him.

        去掉to。在make, have, feel, let 及感官动词后的复合宾语中,用不带to的不定式作宾语补足语。(但变成被动语态后,主语补足语要用带to的不定式) 

      2. Don’t forget taking your umbrella when you leave here.

        taking改为to take. forget, remember, regret等词后跟动词时,动名词所表示的动作先于谓语动作;后跟不定式,表示“要去做……”。

      3. I suggested to go there with him after work.

       to go 改为going.  suggest及在中学课本中常见的advice, finish, mind, enjoy, require, practice, consider, miss, avoid, admit, delay, imagine, risk, keep, escape, resist等动词,要接动名词作宾语。

      4. He ordered that the work must be started at once.去掉must, 或改为should。 order及demand, require, request, insist, propose, advise, suggest等动词后的宾语从句,常用虚拟语气 “should十原形动词” 作谓语,should可以省略。

      十、见有非谓语动词作状语,查是否患有逻辑主语或逻辑宾语使用不当病。

      1. If it heated, water can be changed into steam.

       显然句中的条件状语是从一个If引起的从句简化而来,这种 “连词十非谓语动词”结构中非谓语动词的逻辑主语就是句子主语。所以这里it是多余的,应去掉。又如:When hearing the news, he burst into tears.  hearing前也不再加he.

      2. The box is too heavy for the little boy to carry it.

        该句型中不定式“to carry”逻辑上的宾语就是句子的主语,所以句中代词it重复,应去掉

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