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中考英语历年考点总结

2014-04-28  紫曦唯幂1

中考英语历年考点总结                                          捡起,挑选, 接某人pick up 挑选pick out =recognize

  make a noise 制造噪音 =din
  震惊 be shocked=amazed =surprised (at)
  怕 be in fear= frightened / afraid (of)
  满意be satisfied with =pleased
  悲He was painful (in pain) =sad =unhappy
  应该做某事.. be supposed to do sth =should =ought to
  乐He was cheerful =happy =delighted= pleased
  玩得高兴have fun = have a good time = enjoy oneself have fun doing sth
  装扮、打扮dress up 给(某人)穿衣服dress sb (in)
  穿着、戴着(表状态)wear 穿上(表动作put on
  bring 拿来 take 带走 carry 携带,搭乘,运载,抬 fetch 取回=get
  achieve =get / come true
  I believe I will achieve my dream one day.
  = I believe my dream will come true one day.
  出现、出席show up=be present at…=turn up 熬夜stay up
  at times = sometimes有时 sometime 某时 in time on time
  some times几次,几倍 =a few=several some time 一段时间
  for the time being=at present目前 =now one at a time 一次
  at one time=once曾经 for a time = moment
  It's time for you to do it. =It's _____ ____ to do it.
  take turns to do sth.=do sth. in turns 轮流做某事
  the best way to do sth做某事的最好方法
  be famous for 因……而出名 (跟出名的原因) be famous as以……而出名  (跟职业/身份/地位)well-known = famous
  想做某事:want to do sth. = would like to do sth. feel like doing sth.
  ….much too + adj =very=a most beautiful girl =terribly=quite=rather=fairly
  =not …a little =pretty (相当)
  太多….too much +不可数n too many + 可数n
  by the way顺便说一下 in the way妨碍、挡路 on the way在途中
  以这种方式(方法)in this way =by this means =with this method
  Show (=tell) me the way to the shop
  总是,一直all the time =always 仍然、还是all the same=still
  How is the weather today?= What’s the weather like today?
  有点儿a little = a bit =a little bit= kind of
  What’s the matter= What’s the trouble?=What’s wrong? (with)=What’s up?
  Which is the way to…? How can I get to the …? Is there a … near here?
  Can you tell me the way to the …? =show =nearby
  He wasn not in =absent (from) Be in =wear =join =be at home
  What good news / weather / information / work!
  what else:别的什么 easily enough a house nearby the things alike
  The living people= The people alive something wrong nothing serious
  have to :不得不=be forced to do = must = be sure to
  in fact=actually=as a matter of fact:事实上;实际上 =really =truly
  agree with sb.:同意某人意见 =agree with what one says
  agree sb. to do sth.同意某人做某事 He nods =agree
  He has the same idea as mine= He agree with me.
  don’t mind(=care)/like:+doing不介意/喜欢 care about关心
  care for=like =go in for=be keen on =enjoy=prefer=(be fond of)
  常见动词:keep, mind, finish, enjoy, practice, advise.其他重要的动词:
  suggest:Jenny suggested leaving for Paris this afternoon.
  (珍妮建议今天下午动身去巴黎。)
  只能跟ing形式 miss(What a miss doing sth.):He missed winning the first prize.(他错过获得第一名的机会。)
  escape: escape being punished(逃避被惩罚)
  admit: The thief admitted stealing the purse.(小偷承认偷了钱包。)
  risk: risk travelling to the unknown(冒险去没开发地带旅行)
  ask for要求得到、要求见到=request Call for =require=need 需要
  used to do sth. 过去经常… / be (get) used to (doing) sth.习惯于… / be used to do sth. / be used for doing sth.被用来做…
  fall (fell/ fallen) down from…= fall off…从…摔下来 /fall over向前摔倒
  fall into…跌进… feel (felt / felt) drop =go down= fall rise=go up=stand up
  raise = put up one’s hand = lift = bring up养大= come up with提出
  how to deal with …/ what to do with… 怎样处理…
  ◆perhaps / maybe . probably Maybe she is at home. = She may be at home.
  save (v.) 储蓄,节省, 挽救 save time / money save one’s life
  own (vt.) =have owner(s) (n.)
  I own the book.
  =I am the owner of the book.=The book is mine= The book belongs to me.
  on one’s own = (all) by oneself = alone
  (adj.) my own book / a book of my own
  make a deal作成交易 make a face做鬼脸 make friends with与……交朋友
  make one’s living维持生活 make one’s way to前往某处 make use of利用
  make a fool of捉弄,使出洋相 =make fun of
  make jokes about =play jokes (=tricks)on =make fun of取笑
  make a note (notes) of注意,记下来=write down=take down
  make…into把……作成,使变成 sth. be made into
  make it成功,到达某处 succeed in doing sth = be successful in
  make room腾出地方for =space leave room留出地方for
  make up编造 be made up of = consist of
  be made of be made from be made in be made by
  make breakfast, make dinner, make tea do some cooking 做饭
  make a list of 列出清单 make sb do be made to do make sth done
  all over (=around/across) the world全世界,世界各地
  a year or two 一两年=one or two years; a day or two=one or two days一两天an hour or two=one or two hours一两个小时
  move somewhere= move to somewhere搬到(不具体的)某一地方
  at the age of…在……年龄时 = when sb was …years old
  take part in参加、加入 =join the club
  =attend the meeting
  all day = all day long 整天 all night = all night long整夜
  in (不用under) the sun在阳光下 with(不用under) the help of=with one’s help
  in the rain在雨中 in the dark在黑暗中 in the snow在雪中
  at the beginning of…在..开始的时候 at first = first of all
  at the end of…在……结束的时候,在……的尽头 in the end= finally
  take photos=take a photo=take pictures=take a picture照相
  it’s easy to do sth. 做某事容易 =simple
  it’s hard to do sth. 做某事难 =difficult
  It’s essential to do sth. 做某事必要 =necessary
  It’s helpful to do sth =useful
  It’s nice of you =kind He is kind =friendly
  It’s a fine day =nice He is fine. =well
  put up举起,抬起,挂起,张贴,建造; put on穿上,戴上,上演(戏剧);
  put down=write down=copy down 写下来;put out 伸出,扑灭;
  put away 收起来,收好; put off推迟;
  put one’s heart into…全神贯注于……,全身心投入…
  go to lots of parties经常参加聚会 =often go to the party
  try to do sth. 努力(企图)做某事 try doing sth.试着做某事
  try one’ best to do sth. 尽力做某事
  Please keep quiet! 请保持安静 =remain calm
  keep+形容词表示“保持某种状态”
  keep+(sb.)+doing 表示“(使某人)不停地做某事”
  keep sth. 保存某物
  use sth. to do sth.=do sth.. with sth. 使用…做…
  区别:use…for… use…as…
  给某人打电话的几种说法:call (up) = phone = ring
  call sb. up, call sb. phone sb., phone to sb.
  telephone sb. telephone to sb. phone sb. up,ring sb.
  give sb. a ring, give sb. a phone
  with the name= called = named call for=require=need
  the number of….的数量,谓语是单数 a number of=many 许多
  number前可用large(=huge=big), great, small (=tiny)修饰其谓语是复数
  become a member of =be in=join
  have a large / small population of 人口不能用:many/much/a few /a little
  what is the population? 不能用: how many/how much
  doing sth. takes sb. Some time/ money =It takes sb. some time/money to do sth.
  =sb. spends some time/money (on sth.)
  =sb. spends some time/money (in) doing sth.
  =sth. costs sb. some time/money
  =sb. pay some money for sth.
  take the subway 乘地铁 ride a bike 骑自行车 take the bus乘公共汽车
  take the train乘火车 take a taxi乘坐出租车 go in a parent’s car 坐父母的车
  He went there by bus. =He a bus there
  He went there by bike. =He a bike there
  He went there by car. =He a car there
  He went there by air . =He there
  He went there on foot. =He there
  He went by the shop. He went across the street.
  He went into the classroom. He went down the street.
  He went back there. My dog goes after me to school.
  区别older / elder与farther / further
  older(年龄较老的)
  elder(指兄弟姐妹中排行在前的)
  My ______ brother is ______ than me.
  farther (指距离“较远的”)
  further(指抽象事物的“更进一步的”)
  He went abroad for ________ studies.
  Tom is _________ from our school than Alice.
  表示“是……几倍”时用“twice; three times等 + as…as”
  This book costs twice as much as that one. 这本书的价钱是那本书的两倍。
  表示二者相差多少用 “具体数量 + 比较级”
  My brother is two years older than me.
  = My brother is two years as old as me.
  = My brother is older than me by two years.
  not as / so… as = less than 不及;不如
  This book isn’t as interesting as that one
  = This book is ___ ________ _____ that one
  比较级:两者进行比较(常与than/or连用)
  I picked more apples than Jim.我比你摘的苹果多。
  Which is more interesting, this one or that one?
  最高级:三者(或三者以上)进行比较(常与表范围的in , of短语连用)
  ( 注意:of + 个体名词单数 in + 集合名词 )
  He runs fastest in our class.
  He is the tallest of the three boys.
  Which is the easiest, Lesson1, Lesson2 or Lesson3 ?
  表并列关系的and, both…and, not only…but also, neither…nor等。
  表选择关系的or, either…or等。
  表转折关系的but, while(然而)等。
  表因果关系的because,for, so等。
  and: “和”在肯定句中表并列 另外:1)or “或者”用于选择疑问句
  or: “和”在否定句中表并列 2)or “否则”
  ①.Which do you like better, tea or milk?
  ②.Hurry up, or you’ll be late for school.
  but “但是”表转折: 注意:1)though(虽然), but(但是)不能连用
  2)not … but 不是…而是
  I listened, but I heard nothing. =I listened, however, I heard nothing.
  =Though I listened, I heard nothing.
  =didn’t hear anything.
  This book isn’t mine but yours. =This book is yours mine.
  both… and : 既…又(连接主语为复数)
  neither…nor: 既不…也不 连接两主
  either…or: 或者…或者 语后者决
  not only … but also:不但…而且 定单、复
  Both he and I are students.
  Neither he nor I am a student.
  1.Help others whenever you can _____ you’ll make the world a nicer place to live.
  A. and B. or C. unless D. but
  2.______ scientists have done a lot of research on A (H1N1) flu, there are still some cases for further study.
  A. As B. Once C. If D. Although
  3.---Did you call Sara back?
  ---I didn’t need to, ______ we’ll have a meeting together tonight.
  A. though B. unless C. because D. if
  4.______ they may not succeed, they will try their best.
  A. Though B. When C. Because D. Unless
  5.He will come here right away __________ he hears the news.
  A. so B. as soon as C. because D. though
  in , on , to表方位
  in(范围内);on(范围外且接壤);to(范围外但不接壤)。
  Taiwan is _____ the southeast of China.
  Hubei is _____ the north of Hunan.
  Japan is _____ the east of China.
  cross: 动词“跨过,越过”=go across
  across: (表面)跨过
  through: (内部)穿过,贯穿 介词
  Can you swim _____ the river?
  The road runs _____ the forest.
  _____ the bridge, you’ll find a cinema.
  in + 时间段:与将来时连用
  after + 时间段:与过去时连用
  但after + 时间点:可与将来时连用。
  I’ll leave _______ three o’clock.. That is, I’ll leave ________ about ten minutes.
  They left _______ two weeks.
  in the tree(外加在树上的事物)
  on the tree(树上自身具有的花、果、叶等)
  in the wall(镶嵌在墙内部的事物)
  on the wall(墙表面的事物)
  There is a map ___ the wall
  There are four windows ___ the wall.
  by bike / bus / car / ship (单数且无冠词)
  但当这些交通工具名词前有其它修饰词时,则应使用相应的介词。
  by bike = on a(the; his) bike by car = in a(the ; her) car
  on: 在…(表面)上——接触
  over: 在…的正上方
  above: 在…的斜上方 未接触
  The moon rose ______ the hill.
  There is a bridge _____ the river.
  There is a book ______ the desk.
  between: 在(两者)之间
  among :在(三者以上)之间
  Tom sits ________Lucy and Lily.
  on与about : 关于
  on用于较正式的演讲、学术、书籍等
  about用于非正式的谈话或随便提及
  He gave a talk ____ the history of the Party
  in front of :在…前面/方(范围外)= before
  in / at the front of:在……前部(范围内)
  There is a big tree _______ of the classroom.
  A driver drives _________ of the bus.   类似区别:at the back of与behind
  with和in: 表示“用”:
  with: 指“用工具、手、口等”
  in: 指“用语言、话语、声音等”
  Please write the letter ____ a pen.
  Please speak ____ a loud voice.
  on a farm ; in a factory ; the girl in the hat ; leave for: 动身前往某地
  一些固定搭配:listen to , laugh at, get to, look for; wait for, hear from, turn on, turn off, worry about, think of, look after, spend…on…, 等。
  介词与名词的搭配:on time, in time, on foot, with pleasure, on one’s way to, in trouble, at breakfast, at the end of, in the end等。
  介词与形容词的搭配:be late for, be afraid of, be good at, be interested in, be angry with, be full of, be sorry for等。
  We're all going to the games, why don't you come _______.代入
  A.up B.across C.along D.to
  Some students often listen to music ____ classes to refresh themselves.陷阱反应
  A.between B.among C.over D.during
  --It is said that a new zoo will be built in our town.
  ---I’m ___________it. Zoos are terrible for animals.
  A. through B. besides C. against D. except
  Look, Tina is waiting _________ the bus stop.
  A. for B. at C. in D. to
  We must take care of the baby. Take good care of
  →The baby must be taken care of. =Look after well
  The boss made the workers work 12 hours.
  →The workers made 12 hours.
  My bike needs to be mended.
  →My bike .
  Lesson 5 = the fifth lesson three fifteen = a quarter past three.
  分数的表达:one third 三分之一 two thirds 三分之二
  注意:1.分子超过1时,分母加s
  2.含分数的短语作主语由分数后的词决定谓语
  One third of the students are girls.
  一二三,特殊记;词尾分别tdd:one—first two—second three—third
  八去t ,九去e ;ve则以f替: eight—eighth nine—ninth twelve—twelfth
  ty 则变作 ti ; 后面还有一个e: twenty—twentieth
  要是遇到几十几;只将个位变成序:twenty-one –-twenty-first
  1.---There are sixty students in our class. And ______ of us are boys.
  ---Wow! You have forty girls!
  A. one fourth B. one third C. two fifths D. two thirds
  2.A new study proves a_____ walk every day is enough to keep people away from becoming fat.
  A.30-minute B.30 minute’s C.30-minutes D. 30 minutes
  3.Today is my mother’s ________ birthday. I will buy her a gift.
  A. fourteen B. fourteenth C. forty D. fortieth
  4.---How long will Philip stay here?
  ---Two ______ weeks till he lives. (many)
  5.Today is my mother’s ________ birthday. I will buy her a gift. (forty)
  当宾语从句是指客观事实、普遍真理、自然现象时,则只能用一般现在时。
  She said (that) the sun rises in the east.
  此类宾从的主语与主句的主语(或宾语)相同时,可替换为“疑问词 + to do”
  ①.I haven’t decided where I will go what to do
  =I haven’t decided where to go = what I can /should do
  ②.He asked me what I bought we,he,she,they
  = He asked me what to buy.
  “so… that +否定句”与“too… to”的替换:
  1)He is young he go to school.
  = He is too young to go to school(主、从句主语相同)
  2)He ran fast that we catch up with .
  = He ran so fast that us to catch up with. (主、从句主语不同)
  3)The box is so heavy that I can’t carry it
  = The box is heavy me to carry.(注意carry后省去宾语it)
  “so… that +从句”与“enough to”的替换:
  1)He’s so weak that he can’t carry the box.
  = He’s to carry the box.
  2)The question is so easy that I can answer it
  =The question is me to answer.
  用whether不用if的几种情况
  后接不定式: I can’t decide (A.whether B.if ) to go to Beijing.
  接or / or not: want to know (A.whether B.if ) you will go to the park or not.
  定语从句引导词(关系词):位于从句与先行词之间,起连接作用,同时在从句中充当一定的成分。先行词分两类:
  1.关系代词 who(作主语), whom(作宾语), whose(作定语), which(作主语、宾语), that(作主语、宾语).
  2.关系副词 when, where, why.
  注意:1.如果关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时,引导词可以省略.
  The trees (that) we have planted grow well.
  2.关系代词作宾语时,可放在介词后。但当关系代词是that时,不能放在介词后。This is the house Lu Xun once lived
  = This is the house Lu Xun once lived .
  =This is the house that Lu Xun once lived in
  =This is the house Lu Xun once lived
  如何选用引导词:一般情况引导词的选用是受先行词决定的——先行词是人时用that , who , whom , whose; 先行词是物时用that , which; 先行词是时间、地点时用when , where.
  The boy who / that is standing under the tree is Jim.
  Do you know the girl whose mother is a driver?
  Have you been to the factory where your father works?
  但注意区别:who / that (指人);which / that (指物)
   1.修饰人只用who的情况:
  a. 先行词是one , ones , anyone , those 时。
  b. there be句型中修饰名词时。
  c. 先行词后有一个较长的定语。
  1)Anyone who hasn’t handed in his home- work should stay after school.
  没交作业的任何人放学后都要留下。
  2)There is a girl who wants to see you at the school gate.
  校门口有位想见你的女孩。
  3)Did you see the man in the park yesterday afternoon who wore a red shirt?
  昨天下午在公园你见过那个穿红衬衫的人吗?
  2.修饰人或物只用that的情况:
  a.先行词为指物的不定代词all , much , little, few , everything , something , anything , nothing
  b.先行词前有最高级、序数词及last , only , very , all , no时
  c.先行词既有人,又有物时
  d.主句是who / which引导的特殊疑问句,而先行词又指人或物时。
  1) Is there anything that I can do for you? 有让我做的事吗?
  2) He is the only one that can help us at the moment.
  他是现在能帮助我们的唯一的人。
  3) He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited.
  他谈论着他拜访过的老师和参观过的学校。
  4) Which is the machine that we used last Sunday?
  我们上周星期天用过的机器是哪一台?
  3.修饰物只用which的情况:
  a. 先行词在定语从句中作介词的宾语时
  b. 先行词为that时
  1)This is the house in which Lu Xun once lived . 这就是鲁迅以前住过的房子。
  2)What’s that which you are holding in your arms? 你抱着的那个是什么?
  定语从句可简化为短语:
  1.定语从句为被动语态时可简化为过去分词短语;定语从句为现在进行时可简化为现在分词短语。
  2.定语从句的谓语(be)后是介词短语,可简化为介词短语作定语。
  3.定语从句的谓语动词含情态动词,可简化为不定式。
  1)I bought a book that was written by Lu Xun.
  = I bought a book by Lu Xun.
  2)Tell the children who are playing there not to do that.
  = Tell the children there not to do that.
  3)The book on the table is mine.
  = The book on the table is mine.
  4) We have nothing that we should fear.
  = We have nothing .
  反意疑问句:陈述部分含否定意味的词(few, little, never, nothing, nobody, no, hardly, none),附加疑问句应使用肯定形式(但前缀词unhappy, unlike, disappear等列外)
  They are unhappy, aren’t they?
  陈述部分的主语是everything, something, nothing, anything时,附加疑问句的主语应用it;陈述部分的主语是everybody, somebody, nobody, everyone, no one时,附加疑问句的主语应用they。
  1)Everything is ready, ___________?
  2)Everyone is here, ____________?
  陈述部分是祈使句时,附加疑问句一般用:will you? 但注意:
  Let’s … , shall we? Let us … , will you?
  陈述部分含must时,附加疑问句一般用needn’t.
  I must finish my work now, _________?
  陈述部分是there be结构时,应用there be结构来完成。
  There’s little water, ___________
  陈述部分含宾语从句时,疑问部分通常与主句一致。但当主句的谓语动词是think, believe且主语是I , we时,即:I / We think (believe) + 宾从,则附加问句应与从句一致。I’m sure + 宾从也是如此
  1)She said I did it, ____________?
  2)We don’t think you are right, ________?
  3)I’m sure you’ll help me, ____________?
  I’m… , aren’t I? I am older than you, __________?
  陈述部分含had better, 疑问部分应用had better来回答。
  You’d better go out , ___________?
  陈述部分是感叹句,附加问句的人称代词应与主语一致。
  1)What a kind girl, __________?
  2)What a fine day, ___________?
  新目标英语八年级(初二)下册预习(复习)资料unit 1 Will people have robots?
  知识点:
  1. 形容词,副词的比较等级考查热点透视:
  a) 表示A与B在程度上相同时, “as+形容词或副词的原级+as”结构。表示A不如B时,可用“not as/so+形容词或副词的原级+as”结构。
  b) 表示A比B在程度上“更…..”时,可用“形容词或副词的比较级+than”结构
  c) 表示三者或三者以上的比较,其中一个在程度上“最…..”时,常用“the+形容词或副词的最高级”结构,后面可带“of/in的短语”来说明比较的范围。(注意:副词的最高级在句中常省略“the”.)
  d) 在形容词或副词的比较级前,可以用“a little, even, far, much,still”的等词语来修饰,以加强语气。
  e) 表示“越来越….”时,常用“形容词或副词的比较级+and+形容词或副词的比较级”结构,但要注意,对于多音节和部分双音节形容词,副词而言,若要表达此意时,要用“more and more+形容词或副词的原级“结构。
  f) 在表示“其中最….之一“的含义时,常使用 “one of+the+形容词最高级形式+名词复数”结构,其中的定冠词the不可以省略。
  g) 如果强调“两者中比较…的(一个)”的意思时,可使用“the+形容词比较级+其它”结构。
  h) 表示“越….越….”, 可使用“the+形容词或副词的比较级,the+形容词或副词的比较级”结构。
  2 .一般将来时
  a) 一般将来时的构成:由助动词shall或will加动词原形构成,shall用于第一人称。在口语中,will在名词或代词后常简略为’ll, will not常简略为won’t。这个时态的肯定,否定和疑问结构可表示如下:
  肯定句否定句疑问句
  I (We)shall(will) go.
  You(He, She, They) will go.I(We)shall(will) not go.
  You(He, She, They)will not go.Shall I(we) go?
  Will you (he, she, they) go?
  用”be going to +动词原形”也可表示将来时,表示将要发生的事,打算或决定要做的事。
  b)一般将来时的用法:1)表示将要发生的动作或情况;2) 不以人的意志为转移,肯定要发生的事情。The day after tomorrow will be National Day.后天是国庆日。
  3. in/after:in是指以现在时间为起点的“在一段时间以后”。也可以表示“在将来多少时间之内”,句子中的谓语动词要用一般将来时态;after常指以过去时间为起点的“一段时间之后”,所以它与过去时态连用。当after指某个特定的未来时刻或日期之后,或指以将来某一时间为起点的若干时间之后时,它可以与将来时态连用。
  4.more, less, fewer的用法区别:more为many, much的比较级,意为“更多”,可修饰可数与不可数名词。Less是little的比较级,意为“更好,较少”,修饰不可数名词。Fewer是few的比较级,意为“更少”,修饰可数名词复数。
  【注意】few, little表示否定“几乎没有”。a few, a little表示肯定“一点,几个”。
  5.would like sth意思为“想要某物“; would like to do意思为”想要做某事“。回答would like句型的一般疑问句时,其肯定回答为 “Yes, please.”;否定回答“No, thanks”或 “I’d like /love to, but….”
  6. Such作形容词,意思是“如此的”“这样的”,修饰各种名词。
  ? Such这样的。如It is such bad weather.天气如此恶劣。
  ? Such常和as搭配,表示一种类别。如We enjoy such a voice as hers.我们喜欢象她那样的嗓子。
  ? Such常和表示结果的that从句搭配,表示“如此….以至于…”如
  It was such a hot day that we all had to stay at home.
  A.Such…that…和so…that…都可用来引出一个结果状语从句。由于such是形容词,所以that从句前有一个受such修饰的名词;而so 是副词,用以修饰形容词或副词,因此that从句前一般不出现名词。如
  They are such kind-hearted teachers that people in the village all respect them.
  The exam was so difficult that many students failed to pass it.
  (3)如果名词是可数名词的单数形式,such和so的位置不同:
  such+a/an+形容词+单数名词
  so+形容词+a/an+单数名词
  (4)如果名词是不可数名词或名词复数,只可用such,不能用so.:
  such+形容词+不可数名词或复数名词
  (5)如果被修饰的不可数名词被much, little, 或复数名词被many, few等表示量的形容词修饰时,用so,不用such.
  (6)当little表示“年纪小的”时,可用such+little+名词。
  7.be able to 为“能,会”,表示能力,在这个意义上与can的意思相同,一般情况下两者可以互换,但can只有现在式和过去式(could)而be able to则用于更多的时态,主要体现在be的变化。两者在用法上有一些差异:can (could)表示主观能力不表示意愿,它的将来时用will be able to而 be able to表示主观意愿强调克服困难做某事。
  unit 2 What should I do?
  知识点:
  1..loud是形容词,loud-louder-loudest意思是“响亮的”;作副词时,常与talk, sing, laugh 等词连用,如speak loud; loudly “大声地”带有喧闹的意味,常用来修饰shout, cry, call, knock等动词,通常没有比较级和最高级,作状语;aloud 副词,出声地,大声地,仅指发出声音(以使能被听得见)。
  2.Enough为形容词,意思是“足够的”;enough +n.修饰名词enough money; adj/adv+enough修饰形容词或副词;enough to do 足够做某事
  3.present, gift礼物:gift带有一定的感情色彩,通常指昂贵的“礼物”,强调送礼人的诚意,有时有“捐赠”之意,多用于正式场合;present指为表达情谊,敬意或出于礼节,在某特定时刻或场合赠送的“礼物”,此礼物价值不一定高。make sb a present of把…作为礼物送给
  4.borrow, lend: borrow“借入,借给”即说话人向他人借东西borrow sth from sb.; lend-lent-lent“借出,借给”即说话人把自己的东西借给他人lend sb sth= lend sth to sb
  5 except,besides除…之外: except除了…都,besides强调“除了…之外还有…”在no one, nobody, nothing等词后加介词but也表示“除了”。
  6.find out, find, look for: find out“找出,发现,查明”多指通过调查,询问,打听,研究之后搞清楚,弄明白或指找出较难找到的,无形的抽象的东西;find“找到,发现”通常指找到或发现有形的东西也可指偶然发现某物的某种情况,强调找的结果;look for“寻找”强调动作。
  7.talk about谈到,谈论;talk of谈到,说到;have a talk with与..谈谈,做报告;talk to sb对…谈话;talk with sb与…交谈;talk to sb和talk with sb 均表示“和某人谈话”,“讲话”。talk to sb比较常用,侧重一方谈,一方听;talk with sb侧重双方交谈;talk about sb则表示“谈论某人”
  8.miss 和lose:miss意思为“发现丢失”“觉得不在”;lose意思为“丢失”“失去”。在本质上,miss是一种主观感觉,而lose是一种客观结果。
  9.be used to doing习惯于做某事;used to do过去常常,暗含与现在明显的不同,只用于过去时;be used to do是use的被动语态,意思是….被用来做某事。
  10.own 与 have: own强调的是拥有,占有某物为自己的财产,但所占有的东西目前不一定是由人使用,强调所有权;have为普通动词,表示的所有关系。own +n. egWho owns the dog? ;own +宾语+宾补 eg. He owns himself wrong.;own+从句eg. He owns that he is wrong. ;of one’s own完全属于某人自己的;on one’s own独立地,自愿地;with one’s own ears亲耳
  11. attend, join, take part in: attend“出席,参加,上学”attend school 上学,attend meeting出席会议;take part in 参加,是指参与某项活动 take an active part in积极参加;join 参加,当join用于加入某个团体或组织,成为其中的一员,后面直接跟名词,当join表示参加某项活动时后面跟介词in .
  unit 3 What were you doing when the UFO arrived?
  知识点:
  1. 过去进行时
  a) 过去进行时由“was/were+动词ing形式”构成。以动词work为列,其肯定式,否定式,疑问式以及简略答语见下表:
  肯定式:I/He/She/It was working. We/You/ They were working.
  否定式:I/He/She/It was not working. We/You/They were not working.
  疑问式和简略答语:Was I working? Yes, you were.
  Was he working? No, he wasn’t.
  【注意】was not常简略为wasn’t; were not常简略为weren’t
  b) 过去进行时的用法:过去进行时表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间正在进行的动作。这一特定的过去时间,除有上,下文暗示以外,一般用时间状语来表示
  2. not …until直到…才。表示动作在某时之前尚未开始,直到此时动作才开始。not…until可以用after或when来代替,但主句谓语动词要用肯定形式。Until为连词时后接时间状语从句,until作介词时,后面接表示时间的名词。Until 用于肯定句多表示动作或状态一直延续到until所表示的时间为止,意思为“直到…” from..till…中till往往表示不太具体的时间。From …to…或from…until常用来表示具体的时间。
  3. find it…to do,it在此句中为形式宾语代表动词不定式,动词不定式为真正的宾语,常用于这种用法的动词有find, feel, think, make等。
  4. “疑问词+不定式“结构相当于一个名词性从句,常常可用同等成分的从句代替。改写时,只需在疑问词后面加一个适当的主语(这个主语一般与主句的主语一致),并将不定式改成适当形式的谓语即可。如,Where to go is still a question.= Where we should go is still a question.
  5. when 与while:when连接的状语从句是个特殊句型,“前一个分句(谓语动词用过去进行时)+when(作并列连词,意思为“这时,突然”)+后一个分句(谓语动词用一般过去时)”表示在前一个动作正在进行的过程中突然发生了后一个动作, when强调动作的突然性,when后面的动词为非延续性动词;while表示“在….过程中”,强调在一段时间内,所以while引导的从句中的谓语动词必须为延续性动词。在状语从句中,若从句放在句首时,应用逗号与主句隔开。
  6. 感叹句的构成:What +a/an+形容词+单数名词+主语+谓语!What a good book it is!
  What+形容词+复数可数名词+主语+谓语!What easy questions they are!
  What+形容词+不可数名词+主语+谓语!What cold weather it is!
  How+形容词+主语+be动词!How nice the watch is!
  How +副词+主语+谓语!How hard they are working!
  8.take place, happen“发生”:take place指“发生事先计划或预想到的事物”;happen指“一切客观事情或情况的偶然或未能预见地发生”。两者都是不及物动词或短语,后面不能跟宾语,也不能用于被动语态;happen的意义很广泛,而take place 仅用于历史上的事件,集会等,是先行布置而后发生或举行的事件,它不用于地震等自然界的现象。
  happen to do 巧遇 sth happens to sb某人遭遇某事
  9.不定代词all, both, each,every与not连用时,只表示部分否定,在否定句中用and连接两个宾语,表语,定语,状语时,只表示部分否定,并且否定 and后面的部分;如用or连接句中两个部分,则表示全部否定。如,She isn’t a bright and beautiful girl.她并不是一个既聪明又漂亮的女孩。(部分否定) She isn’t a bright or beautiful girl.她是一个既不聪明又不漂亮的女孩。(全部否定)。    unit 4 He said I was hard-working.
  知识点:
  A.在称述句中直接引语和间接引语的转换:
  B.直接引语:说话人直接引用别人的原话。
  C.间接引语:说话人用自己的话把别人的意思转述出来。
  D.直接引语一般前后要加引号;间接引语不用引号。
  E.规则:1)人称变化:从句中的第一人称多改为第三人称;第二人称根据情况改为第一或第三人称;第三人称不变。2)时态变化:如果主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,直接引语变为间接引语时从句的谓语动词在时态方面要做以下变化:
  直接引语间接引语
  一般现在时一般过去时(客观真理除外)
  一般将来时过去将来时
  现在进行时过去进行时
  如果主句的谓语动词是一般现在时,直接引语变为间接引语时,从句的动词时态保持不变;直接引语如果是客观真理变为间接引语时,时态保持不变。3)其他指示代词,时间状语,地点状语和动词等的变化。直接引语中的一些指示代词,时间状语和地点状语须作相应的变化:
  直接引语间接引语
  指示代词this这 these这些that那 those那些
  时间状语now现在then那时
  today 今天that day 那天
  tonight 今晚that night那天晚上
  this week 这星期that week那个星期
  yesterday 昨天the day before前一天
  last week 上星期the week before前一个星期
  ago以前before 以前
  tomorrow明天the next/following day第二天
  next week 下星期the next week 第二个星期
  地点状语here 这里there 那里
  动词come来go 去
  【注意】1)直接引语中的时间状语根据实际情况转述为间接引语时,有时不需要改变,如tomorrow。如果转述的动作发生在当天,无需改变;如果转述的动作不在当天,则需将tomorrow变为the next day.
  2.habit, practice, custom: habit指“个人由于自然条件,社会环境,爱好或经常接触而导致可以为常的行为或特性”;practice语气比habit弱,指“个人或大家都习惯了的做法或工作与生活的方式。”;custom指“经过一段时期在某人,地区或社会中形成的传统习惯或风俗。”
  3.bring, take, carry: bring指“从别处把东西或人带来”“拿来”,表示将人或物带到或拿到说话者所在的位置的这个动作;take指“把东西带走或拿走”,表示将人或物拿开或带离说话者所在的位置的这个动作; carry指“随身携带(不说明方向)有时含有 “负担”的意思。
  4.Surprise用法:1)surprise作名词,表示“惊奇,诧异”;2)surprise作几物动词(后接某人作宾语)表示“使…惊奇”;surprise的过去分词作表语,表示“感到惊奇”;to one’s surprise表示“使…吃惊的是”;be surprised at sth/sb表示“对…感到惊奇”。
  5.however 与 but:两者均可作“但是,然而”,而且都引出并列分句。从语义上看,but所表示的是非常明显的对比,转折的意味较however要强;从语法上看,but是并列连词,而however却是连接副词;从语序上看,but总是位于所引出的分句前,而however却可位于句首,句中和句末,但是译成汉语时一定要把它放在分句之首;从标点符号上看,but之后一般不使用逗号,而however则必须用逗号分开。However当连词用时,“无论以何种方式,不管怎样”,引导让步状语从句。
  6.first, at first与first of all:1)first可以做副词,意思是“首先,第一次,最初地”,指第一次做某事或首先做某事,first还可以用作形容词,意思是“第一的,最初的,主要的,一流的”,first作名词,意思是“首要,第一,最初”2)at first的意思是“起初,当初”,指刚刚开始做某事的时候,暗示后来的情况有所改变3)first of all的意思是“第一,最初,首先”,同first的用法相同,但语气上比first要强,常常用来加强语气。
  7.true, real: true意思为“真的”“真正的”,强调与实际相符,而不是杜撰的,它与real相对。与to连用,意思是“忠实的”,true用作名词,与定冠词the连用,表示“真实,真理”等;real无此意。Real是形容词,强调客观存在的“真实”“实在”,不是想象的。
  8.above, on,over:三者都有“在…上”之意。1)on表示两者上下紧贴在一起2)over表示一种直接的垂直概念,但没有上下紧贴的意思,反义词为under.3)above既不表示垂直的上下概念,也无相互紧贴的意思,反义词是below.
  unit5 If you go to the party, you’ll have a great time.
  知识点:
  1. If引导的条件状语从句:1)构成:if引导的条件状语从句表示“如果…”。构成形式为“主句+一般将来时时态+if从句+一般现在时态”,或“If从句+一般现在时态,主句+一般将来时态”。2)用法:表示假设或条件
  2. half 与half of的用法:1)half the class中的“half”为形容词,意思“一半的,半个的”2) “half of+代词/the+名词”中的half为名词,意思为“一半,半个”。当该结构在句子作主语时,谓语动词必须和该词组中的代词或名词保持数的一致。即当代词或名词为单数时,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式;若所接名词或代词为复数,则谓语动词用复数形式。
  3. all the time与always: all the time是个副词性的短语,意思为“一直”“始终”,表示某一特定阶段开始一直到结束,不表示频度,多置于句末。除此,all the time还有“不断”的意思;always为表示频度的副词,意思为“总是”,表示动作的反复,状态的继续,中间没有间断,其反义词为never。它与进行时态连用时,常翻译成“总是”,“老是”,带有赞美,厌烦,不满等感情色彩。
  4.Enough的用法:1)enough to do sth表示“足够…可以做…”2)enough也可以用“for+宾语+to do sth的结构”3)enough修饰名词时前面不用冠词4)当主语是代词时,enough可以作表语。当主语是名词时,enough不能做表语。
  5.Choose的用法:1)choose+名词 意思为“选择…”;2)choose+between/from从…中选择;3)choose to do选择做某事
  6.Exercise的用法:1)运动,锻炼,是不可数名词2)体操,练习,是可数名词。3)动词,使….运动
  7.wear, put on, have on, dress: wear“穿着”“戴着”,表示状态,是延续性动词,一般现在时表示经常状态,现在进行时表示暂时状态;put on“穿上”“戴上”,表示动作,是非延续性动词;have on“穿着”“戴着”,表示状态可以与wear互换;dress“穿上”“穿着”,既表示状态,也表示动作,既可以作及物动词,也可以作不及物动词。Dress作及物动词,表示“给自己或别人穿(衣服)”,宾语是人,常用被动语态。dress oneself给。。穿衣服。dress up化装
  8.a lot, a lot of与lots of三者都有“许多,很多”的意思。a lot of, lots of一般用于肯定句,后接可数名词复数或不可数名词;a lot作名词时=a lot of thins,作副词,修饰动词或形容词,副词比较级。
  unit 6 How long have you been collecting shells?
  知识点:
  1.现在完成时的意义:1)表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。常用的时间状语有already, yet,ever, never, just等2)表示从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态,常常和表示一段时间的状语连用。常见的表示一段时间的状语有:for+一段时间,since+时间点。2)构成形式:助动词have/has+动词的过去分词3)a.It is the first / second time…. that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。
  b.This is the… that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时.
  注意:非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动作不发生的状态是可以持续的。
  2.怎样区别现在完成时和现在完成进行时现在让我们来比较一下现在完成时和现在完成进行时。在比较这两个时态时,关键在于对现在完成进行时的基本概念是否理解,因为对于现在完成时我们已经有了一个基本的理解了。
  现在完成进行时是一兼有现在完成时和现在进行时二者基本特点的时态。由于它有现在完成时的特点,所以它可以表示某一动作对现在产生的结果或影响。由于它有现在进行时的特点,所以它也可以表示某一动作的延续性、临时性、重复性、生动性乃至感情色彩。
  现在就现在完成进行时的这些特点和现在完成时作一简单的比较:
  (1)现在完成进行时和现在完成时皆可表示动作对现在产生的结果,但前者所表示的结果是直接的,而后者所表示的则是最后的结果。
  (2)现在完成进行时有时有延续性,现在完成时往往没有。如:
  Mr. Smith has been living in London since 1978.(a)
  Mr. Smith has lived in London since 1979.(b)
  (a)句有“史密斯先生在伦敦久居”的含义,(b)句则没有。
  (3)但现在完成进行时并不总是具有临时的性质,如:
  My moth! er has been teaching English for twenty years.(a)
  My mother has taught English for twenty years.(b)
  (a)句在此并无临时性质,但较口语化。(b)句则较为正式。又,(a)句表示动作现在仍在继续.并将延续下去,(b)句的动作是否延续下去,须由上下文决定,但在一般情况下都是延续下去的。
  (4)现在完成进行时往往表示动作在重复,现在完成时则常常不带重复性。如:
  Have you been meeting her lately?(a)
  Have you met her lately?(b)
  (a)句有“经常相会”之意,(b)句则没有。(b)句如与often,every day等时间状语连用,当然也表示动作在重复。
  (5)现在完成进行时比较生动,有时含有明显的感情色彩,而现在完成时往往只说明一个事实,一种影响或结果,平铺直叙,没有什么感情色彩可言。如:
  What have you been doing?(a)
  What have you done?(b)
  (a)句表示惊异。(b)句只是一个问题。
  下面还有一例,颇为有趣:
  Who's been eating my apples?(a)
  Who's eaten my apples?(b)
  (a)句有强烈的感情色彩,表示愤怒不满,(b)句只是希望回答的一个问题。又,(a)句兼有进行时态,所以有“苹果未被全部吃光”的意思,(b)句是完成时态,说明“苹果一个不剩了”。
  3.现在完成进行时的含义:表示过去某一时间开始到现在经常重复的动作。
  现在完成进行时的构成:助动词have/has been+v.ing形式。当主语为第三人称单数十,助动词用has,其他人称用have.
  现在完成进行时的用法:主要表示现在以前这一段时间里一直在进行的一个动作,这个动作可能仍然在进行,也可能停止了一会儿。
  4。for 的用法:1)在回答How long…?的问句时,for表示所指时间或距离的全部,在这个含义上与表示“特定期间中某个长度”的during 不同。2)可以用在过去时,现在时,将来时中,但是若表示持续进行到现在为止时,则不能用现在时,而要用现在完成时。3)表示某事物在所述时间要发生。
  5.since 用法:1)conj.自…以后;自从,后接从句表示以过去的某个时间为起点,持续到现在或过去的某个时候。Since之后可以接过去时的句子,也可以接表示过去的时间点。2)prep.自…来,从…(至今)
  【注意】since除了可以与现在完成时连用外,还可以与过去完成时,现在完成进行时连用。
  【扩展】since, for都可以与完成时态连用。Since用来说明动作的起始时间,而for用来说明动作延续时间,因此,since后跟表示某一时间点的名词短语,for后面跟表示一段时间的名词短语。
  6.each 的用法:1)adj.各个的,各自的,每一个的。置于单数可数名词之前。2)pron.各个,各自。谓语动词用单数形式。
  Each, every: each指两个或两个以上的人或事物中的“每个”;every指三个以上的人或事物的全体,和all的意思相近;every只修饰单数名词,谓语动词用单数,each为形容词修饰单数名词,谓语动词为单数。作代词,单独使用,接单数动词,放在复数名词和代词后作同位语,接复数谓语动词;代表each与every的物主代词可以用his也可以用their.
  【扩展】each of之后接名词或代词的复数形式,接名词时一定要附加the或my等词,即“each of+代词的复数形式”或“each of+the/my+名词的复数形式”,但谓语动词要用单数形式。
  7.ago与before“以前”:ago表示从现在算起一段时间“以前”,和动词的一般过去时连用。放在所修饰词的后面。Before则表示从过去某时算起若干时间以前,用于完成时。ago,before前可以与具体时间连用“多少时间之前”
  8.含有half的表达方式:数词+名词(单/复数)+and +a half; 数词+and+a half+名词(复数)
  9.Because, since, as, for:四个词都表示“原因”的连词。以上连词的语气由强到弱依次为because-since-as-for其中because,since,as从属连词,引导原因状语从句;for为并列连词,连接两个并列句。a)because“因为”,表示直接原因回答why的提问,一般放在主句之后,可单独存在。b)since“因为”“既然”,侧重主句从句表示虽然的或已知的理由。c)as“由于”,主从句并重,从句说明原因,主句说明结果。d)for“因为,由于”,表明附加或推断的理由,引导的从句前常有逗号,for从句不放在句首。
  10.Probably副词,相当于almost certainly,意思为“或许,大概,很可能”一般不放在not等含有否定意义的词之后。
  11.run out, run out of: run out“用完了”,主语通常为时间,食物,金钱,不用于被动语态;run out of“用完了”,表示主动含义,主语一般为人,多用于进行时和完成时。
  14.Teach的用法:teach sb sth教某人学某事;teach doing教导做…, 教…;teach sb to do教某人做某事;teach sb+that从句 教育人….    15.被动语态:1)被动语态的基本构成形式:主语+助动词be+构成形式2)被动语态的时态:被动语态的时态是通过助动词be的变化来体现。这个助动词必须与主语的人称和数相一致。3)主动语态和被动语态的结构相比(箭头表示动作方向)
  主动语态:主语(动作发出者)→谓语(及物动词)→宾语(动作承受者)
  被动语态:主语(动作承受者)←谓语(be+动词过去分词)←宾语(动作发出者)
  He wrote the letter. →The letter was written by him.
  4)主动句变被动句的基本句式:
  a) 主:主语+助动词(情态动词)+谓语+宾语
  被:主语(原宾语)+助动词(情态动词)+be+动词过去分词+by+原主语
  如,We will help him.→He will be helped by us.
  b) 主:主语+动词短语+宾语
  被:主语(圆宾语)+be+动词短语的过去分词+by+原主语
  如,They looked after the babies.→The babies were looked after by them.
  c) 主:主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语
  被:主语(间接宾语)+be+动词过去分词+原直接宾语
  主语(直接宾语))+be+动词过去分词+to(for)+原间接宾语+(by+原主语)
  如,We gave him some magazines.→He was given some magazines.
  Some magazines were given to him by us.
  【注意】一般将主动句中表示人的间接宾语变为被动句中的主语。
  d) 主:主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语
  被:主语(原宾语)+be+过去分词+原宾语补足语
  如,They elected him their monitor.→He was elected their monitor.
  【注意】如果主动句中宾语补足语是不带to的不定式,变成被动语态后一般要加to.
  I saw him go to the church.→He was seen to go to the church.
  【扩展】一般在以下几种情形时,需要使用被动语态。
  1) 不知道动作的执行者,只知道动作的承受者时。
  When we got there, the room had been cleaned already.
  2) 不必要说出或出于礼貌不便说出动作的执行者时。
  I was told that you were not honest enough.
  3)有必要突出或强调动作的承受者时。
  You were asked to answer this question.
  16.if与whether:if和whether均可用于宾语从句中,意为“是否”;if用于条件句中,表示“如果”,不能和or连用;whether常与or连用,表示两种条件或情况。
  【扩展】if not..如果不是…,表示惊讶或憎恶等情绪;if only意为“若…那就好了,我多么希望…”相当于how I wish;only..if..意为“决不…除非…”
  If it hadn’t been for the doctor’s care, I should not be speaking to you now.如果不是医生的照顾,我现在就不会和你说话了。
  If only he arrives in time!若他及时到达就好了。
  I’ll only come if you promise me that you won’t invite Henry.除非你答应不请亨利,否则我不会来。
  unit 7 Would you mind turning down the music?
  知识点:
  1. 基本用法:1)Would you mind doing?=Do you mind doing..?“你介意…?” “请你…好不好?”是一种比较客气的表达方式。2)如果要表示“请你不要做…好吗?”只需在doing 前面加not.应答用语:1)如果同意表示不介意时,可用如下用语来表达:Certainly not.; Of course not.;No,not at all.;Not at all.“好,可以”2)如果不同意表示介意时,常用“Sorry.”“I’m sorry, but…”及陈述某种理由来表示拒绝或反对。;这一句型中的逻辑主语只能是谈话的对方you,如果想要对方允许自己做某事,可以用 “Would you mind my doing..?句型。
  2. 形容词与副词之间的转化:1)以le结尾去e变y,possible→possibly;2)在形容词后直接加ly,usual→usually;3)在以辅音字母+e结尾直接加ly,wide→widely;4)以元音字母+e结尾,去e加ly,true→truly;5)以辅音字母+y结尾变y为i+ly,happy→happily
  3. put on, wear, dress,have on, in: put on强调动作过程“穿上”为瞬间动词;wear表示结果或状态“穿着”,持续动词;dress强调穿的动作,后面不能跟宾语(衣服)等,还可以作名词,意思是“服装”,dress up化装,dress oneself 给某人穿衣服,dress in穿衣服,have on表示“穿…”,相当于wear,但没有进行时态;in介词,后跟表示颜色的名词,表示穿着某种颜色的衣服。
  4. in a minute, soon等多用于将来时,表示即将去做某事
  in+时间段,after+时间段:1)“in+时间段”只能用于一般将来时,“after+时间段”可以用于过去时和将来时2)当二者都用于将来时的时候“in+时间段”表示从现在算起在一定时间内,动作将在未来一周之内的某一个具体时间内发生。“after+时间段”是从这段时间之后算起,动作将在这段时间之后发生。
  5. very, too, so, quite以上几个副词均修饰形容词,副词表示程度,“很,太,非常”;very应用最普遍“很”,只是一个表示程度的副词,它表示的程度比quite要强得多,very只用来修饰形容词和副词的原级;too“太”,一般表示“相对某人而言”;so“如此…,那么…”,往往表明某一事物的程度时,会引起另一种后果。换言之,so所修饰的人或物表示原因后面会有表示结果的句子。So…that…如此…以致于;quite既可以表示充分肯定,意思是 “完全;十分”,也可以表示程度,意思是“完全,十分”,也可以表示程度,意思是“相当”,quite可修饰动词,v.ing,形容词,副词,分词等。quite a +adj+n. a very+adj.+n
  6. move from…to …从…搬到…,迁移;move on继续向前走
  7. yet, already,still:yet用于疑问句中,意为“现在,已经”;用于否定句中,意为“还没”;already与still用于肯定句中,already意为“已经”,still意为“还,仍然”,already若用于疑问句中,表示惊讶或意外;yet与still都可以修饰比较级,意为“更加,益发”。
  8. put away收好,储蓄,放弃;put down放下,扑灭,写下;put…into…把…翻译成…;put off延期;put up举起,张贴,修建;put on穿上,上演
  9. See的用法:1)see+从句,意为“看到…,留意…”如,I saw that you weren’t among the students.2)see sb do sth.看到某人做某事;see sb doing看到某人正在做某事;see+名词 看到
  10. voice, sound, noise:在这组词中,voice可以作名词或动词;sound可以作名词,动词,形容词和副词;noise只能用作名词。这里仅就它们作名词表示“声音”时的用法进行辨析。1)voice专指人的声音(如说话,唱歌,笑的时候发出的声音等)。偶尔也指禽,虫鸣叫的声音,但一般不用于指其他动物的叫声。2)sound表示能听见的任何声音。3)noise通常是指大而令人不快的噪音,嘈杂声,喧闹声等。4)sound和noise常与动词make连用,而voice则不能和make连用。
  11. take care意为“当心”,可单独使用或后接从句和动词不定式。同义词组为be careful和look out;take a seat坐下同义词组为sit down;take an interest in对…感兴趣;take away拿走,使离开,消失;take back收回(语言,话语);take care of照顾,注意,保养;take charge of负责,接管;take down拿下来,取下来,记下来,拆除;take for granted 想当然,认为,后接宾语从句,此时常以it作形式宾语;take hold of抓住;take in接受,理解,包括;take off脱下,匆匆离开,起飞,停止使用;take office就职;take on接受,雇佣;take out取出,带。..出来;take part in参加;take place发生,没有被动语态;take pride in为。..感到自豪;take sb’s place代替某人;take up从事,占用;take it easy不要过于紧张,别着急。unit 8 Why don’t you get her a scarf?
  知识点:
  1. get, receive,accept:get有“得到”“获得”的意思,在表示“获得”某物时,可能是被动接受也有可能是主动争取;receive指收到了什么东西,不一定接受,receive a letter from…收到…的来信;accept着重指以愉悦的态度或经过自己的争取而得到或取得某物。
  2. 情态动词should:1)表示义务,意为“应该,应当,最好”,比must较为委婉;2)与疑问词连用,表示意外,纳闷,惊讶等,意为“究竟是…;到底…”.
  3. 表示建议:1)How/What about+名词/代词/动词-ing形式?2)Why don’t you +动词原形?=Why not+动词原形?3)Let’s…以let’s开头的祈使句,表示建议对方和自己一起做某事。Let’s后接动词原形。4)Shall we…?以Shall we…?开头的疑问句,用于建议对方和自己一起做某事。回答时如赞成,常用Yes, let’s.
  4. too…to……而不能…,to后面接动词原形具有否定含义。这一句型常可以转换成so…that…句型。当这种too…to…句型转换成so…that句型时,为保持句意的一致,that引导的结果状语从句要根据时态用情态动词can’t或couldn’t加动词原形,that从句中的谓语动词要带宾语。
  The boy is too young to go to school.=The boy is so young that he can’t go to school.
  The box is too big for me to carry.= The box is so big that I can’t carry it.
  【注意】当动词不定式和主语在逻辑上构成动宾关系时,该动词后面不能再用it或them作宾语,该动词如果是不及物动词,则必须在其后面加上相当的介词或副词,方可与主语构成搭配。如,The ice is too thin for me to skate on.
  5. instead, instead of: instead为副词,在句中独立作状语,instead of为介词短语,后面一般接名词,代词,介词和接动词-ing形式。
  6. for example, such as: for example例如,诸如。多作插入语,当它表示“例如“时,其后面必须有逗号;such as相当于like,意思为 “象…那样,例如,诸如”,其后面直接加名词。
  7. contest, compete,contend三者都有“竞争”的含义,均为动词:contest指在竞争中毫无保留地展示自己;compete指在体育或辩论等需要竞争的活动中,为征服或取胜而进行的努力。有时暗指在奖赏的鼓励或刺激下进行竞争;contend暗示竞争的紧张程度。通常指双方成功的机会相等,所以为取胜或征服对方就需要艰苦的努力。强调奋斗或斗争的必要性。
  8. contest,competition:contest指双方或多方对垒比赛,多指体育比赛,并且在比赛中的每一个人或每一个队都力图战胜对方;competition多指能力,技巧,知识等方面的比赛,竞争。
  9. By的用法:by后跟表示交通工具的名词,意思为“乘,坐”;by意思为“凭借,用,靠”,表示方法或手段,常与v.-ing连用;by意思为“在…旁边”,用来表示地点,意义和用法近似于beside;by意思为“按照…,根据…”;by意思为“经过”,后常跟go, run, walk之类的动词;by用于被动语态中,后跟的名词表示行为的执行者,意思为“被,由”;by意思为“按…(计算)”,用来表示计量;by oneself独自;by the way顺便
  10. as well的同义词为too,意思是“也”;as well as意思为“同,和,也”。用来连接名词和代词等。谓语动词用单数还是复数形式,要根据as well as前的名词或代词确定。与动词连用时,用v-ing形式;as well as同义词组为not only…but also…但侧重顺序不同。
  unit 9 Have you ever been to an amusement park?
  知识点:
  1. 现在完成时表示发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。通常表示短暂动作或位置转移的动词(非延续性动词,不能与表示一段时间的状语连用;也可以表示过去开始,一直延续到现在的动作或状态。也就上说,现在完成时虽与过去有关,但实际上强调的是对现在的影响或结果,句中谓语动词通常是延续性动词,且常与表示一段时间状语连用(these days,all this year, recently,for+时间段,since+时间点)
  2. 通常与现在完成时连用的几个副词:already,recently,just, ever,never,before,yet等。表示不确定时间的时间词连用。Already,just多用于肯定句;yet,ever,never多用于疑问句或否定句。
  3. 现在完成时的结构:主语+have/has+动词过去分词
  4. have been to, have gone to:have been to“到过某地”说话时此人很可能不在那里,已经回来,侧重指经历;have gone to“已经去了某地”,说话时此人在那里,或可能在路上,反正不在说话现场。
  5. neither开头的倒装句:在英语中“Neither+助动词/情态动词/+主语”这个倒装结构是一种否定形式,表示“两者都不”。如,I can’t work out the problem. Neither can Li Ming.
  6. be from, come from:两者都为“从…来,出自…”;表示“出身于…”,应用come from
  【注意】问别人的出身或叙述自己的出身时,时态一定要用一般现在时,如果时态为一般过去时,则表示“从…地方来”。
  7.Population的用法:1)population是个集合名词,意思为“人口,人数”,常用来指人口的总称。被看作一个整体时,一般不加-s,在句中作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。如,The population of China is about1,300,000,000.
  2)如果指一个整体中有多少人数是干什么的时候,谓语动词要用复数形式,这时强调的是一部分人。如,Half of the population in that country are farmers.3)表示“…的人口”时,既可用“the population of+地名”,也可用“the population in +地点”,作主语中心词时谓语动词用单数形式。如,The population in Shenyang is about 8 million.4)表示某国,某城市有多少人口时,用have/has a population of…结构。如,New Zealand has a population of 3,800,000.5)对人口数量提问用what或what large。用large或big表示人口多,用small表示人口少。
  8.If的用法:if引导的条件状语从句表示“如果…”。构成形式为“主句+一般将来时态+if从句+一般现在时态”,或“If从句+一般现在时态,主句+一般将来时态”;if还可以引导虚拟语气,表示假设的情况或是发生的可能性不大的情况,从句用过去的某种时态。
  9.Sleepy,sleeping:sleepy可作表语或定语,意思为“想睡的,困的”,可用very 修饰;sleeping所修饰的名词可以是人也可以是物。
  unit10 It’s a nice day, isn’t it?
  知识点:
  1. 反意疑问句:1)反意疑问句的含义:当对所陈述的某种情况不确定而反问对方时,常用反意疑问句来表达。2)反意疑问句的构成:陈述句+简略疑问句→前部分肯定陈述句+后部分否定疑问句;前部分否定陈述句+后部分肯定疑问句。3)使用反意疑问句时的注意事项:a.前后两部分要在人称上保持一致。b.时态要保持一致(或动词要保持一致)c.回答的一致性(特别注意中文翻译)。注意:yes与no后面的回答部分要一致。4)使用反意疑问句时的特殊情况:a.在祈使句后进行附加疑问句时,用will you表示请求。b.在Let’s后面,常用shall we,表示征询意见。c.在Let us…后面进行附加疑问时,用will you,这一点属于祈使句范围。d 在英语口语中,I am 后面的附加疑问句部分常用aren’t I .e 由nothing作主语的句子,附加问句中人称代词用it.f.由nobody作主语的句子,附加问句中用they代替nobody.g.如果陈述句部分主语是everyone,someone,anyone,no one等不定代词,其附加疑问句部分的主语可以用he,也可用they.h There be…后面的附加疑问句部分仍用there. i.s如果陈述句部分含有否定副词never,few,little等词时,则其附加疑问句部分用肯定形式。J.反意疑问句要求用yes或no来回答,当陈述句部分为否定形式时,回答要特别注意两种语言的表达习惯的不同,注意根据实际情况前后保持一致。
  2. cost, price:cost作名词时表示“费用”,通常指服务费,学习费,生活费或房租费等,price通常指具体物品的价格。询问价钱用how much来提问。
  3. at lest:至少,最少。其中least为little的最高级,little的比较级为less; 无论如何
  4. Prepare的用法:1)prepare for为…做准备,相当于get ready for2)prepare+名词+for +名词,意思为“为…准备…”.3)prepare+名词+to do sth意思为“为…而做准备。”4)prepare to do准备做某事  

中考英语冲刺复习:易错题汇编及分析一、名词、冠词

  1.– What can I do for you? -- I’d like two _______.
  A. box of appleB. boxes of applesC. box of applesD. boxes of apple
  答案: B. (选择其它三项的同学要注意仔细看题.不要马虎, 这里box 和apple都是可数名词)
  2.Help yourself to _________.
  A. some chickensB. a chickenC. some chickenD. any chicken
  答案: C (选择A的同学要注意chicken当鸡肉讲时不可数)
  3..________ it is today!
  A. What fine weatherB. What a fine weatherC. How a fine weatherD. How fine a weather
  答案: A. (选择B的同学要注意weather不可数. 选择C和D的同学要注意weather是名词, 要用what来感叹.)
  4.Which is the way to the __________?
  A. shoe factoryB. shoes factoryC. shoe’s factoryD. shoes’ factory
  答案: A. (选择D的同学注意这里不是指名词所有格, 而是名词作形容词的用法.类似的用法如: pencil box; school bag等.)
  5.This class ______ now. Miss Gao teaches them.
  A. are studyingB. is studyingC. be studyingD. studying
  答案: A. (选择B的同学要注意, 当这种概念名词当 “人”讲的时候要做复数处理.类似的还有: the police are running after the thief等)
  6.We will have a _______holiday after the exam.
  A. two monthB. two-monthC. two month’sD. two-months
  答案: B (选择C的同学要注意应用two months’; 选择D的同学要注意名词之间有 “— ” 后的组合词当作形容词来用, 因此就不用所有格形式了.)
  7.____trees are cut down in the forests every year.
  A. ThousandB. ThousandsC. Thousand ofD. Thousands of
  答案: D. (选择C的同学注意词组记忆的准确性)
  8.Our sports meeting will be held ________.
  A. on 24, Tuesday, April B. in April 24, TuesdayC. on Tuesday, April 24D. in April Tuesday 24
  答案: C. (选B的同学是受到中文的影响,要特别注意中英文的差异)
  9_________ people here are very friendly to us.
  A. The B. / C. A D. An
  答案: A. (选择B的同学要注意这里的people是特指这里的, 因此要用定冠词the)
  10..There is no enough ________ in the corner to put the table.
  A. placeB. roomC. floorD. ground
  答案:B (根据句意知道,这里表示没有地方放桌子。选A的同学要注意place表示地点,是可数名词)
  二、代词
  11.Some people like to stay at home, but ________ like to go to the cinema.
  A. anotherB. otherC. othersD. other one
  答案: C. (选择B的同学要牢记: some…., others….)
  12.-- Is this your shoe? -- Yes, but where is _________?
  A. the other oneB. other oneC. another oneD. the others
  答案: A. (选择C的同学要注意鞋是两只, another指的是三者或者三者以上)
  13.– When shall we meet again next week?
  -- ______day is possible. It’s no problem with me.
  A. EitherB. NeitherC. EveryD. Any
  答案: D. (选择C的同学要注意every指的是每一天都见面, any指的是任何一天都可以.注意中文的干扰)
  14.Have you ever seen _______big panda before?
  A. a suchB. such aC. so aD. a so
  答案: B (选择A的同学要注意词组记忆的准确性)
  15.-- _______ do you write to your parents?
  -- Once a month.
  A. How longB. How soonC. How oftenD. How far
  答案: C. ( 选择A的同学要注意中文的干扰. 由回答知道这里指的是写信的频率, 用how often表示.)
  16.Robert has gone to _____ city and he’ll be back in a week.
  A. otherB. the otherC. anotherD. any other
  答案:C (选择其它三项的同学要注意,这里没有说只有两座城市,因此不能用.)
  17.– A latest magazine, please.
  -- Only one left. Would you like to have ________?
  A. itB. oneC. thisD. that
  答案:A (选择B的同学要注意这里指的是上一句中提到的那本杂志,不能用表示泛指的不定代词one )
  18.– Which book would you like to borrow?
  -- ________ of the two books is OK with me.
  A. EitherB. BothC. AnyD. None
  答案:A (选择B的同学要注意is 表示单数.)
  19.He knows _________ English ________ French. But he’s very good at Japanese.
  A. either; orB. both; andC. neither; norD. either; nor
  答案:C (选择A和B的同学要注意语境.)
  20.– What do your parents do?
  -- One is a teacher; _________ is a driver.
  A. otherB. anotherC. the otherD. that one
  答案: C (选择其它三个选项的同学要注意, one is …, the other is …的用法)
  21.Mrs. Lee teaches ________ math. We all like her.
  A. weB. usC. ourD. ours
  答案: B (选择C的同学要注意, teach +人+科目, 而不能用teach +某人的+ 科目)
  22.There are many trees on ________ side of the street.
  A. eitherB. anyC. allD. both
  答案:A (选择D的同学要注意side为单数。选择B的同学要注意:街道只有两边,因此不能用any)
  23.________ is the population of the city?
  A. How many B. What C. How many peopleD. How much
  答案:B (在问到人口是多少时,其实是在说“人口数是什么”,因此不能用A,要注意排除中文的干扰。)
  三、介词、连词
  24.Japan is ________ the east of China. A. inB. toC. onD. at
  答案: B ( in 表示在范围里的, on表示紧挨着的; to 表示在范围以外的)
  25.The postman shouted, “ Mr Green, here is a letter ________ you.”
  A. to B. fromC. forD. of
  答案: C ( 选择A的同学要注意to 表示动作的方向, for表示有从属关系或者利益关系)
  26.We can’t do it ________ your help.
  A. withB. ofC. underD. without
  答案: D. (选择C的同学要注意中文的干扰, 借助某人的帮助要用with,反之用without)
  27.He hasn’t heard from his friend __________ last month.
  A. sinceB. by the end ofC. forD. until
  答案: A (选择B的同学要注意B选项为过去完成时的时间;选择C的同学要注意, for+时间段; 选择D的同学要注意不是not…until 句型.until + 句子)
  28.I didn’t buy the dictionary yesterday _________ my aunt would give me one.
  A. untilB. becauseC. ifD. before 答案: B (选择A的同学要注意语境)
  29.I’m going to look for another job ________ the company offers me more money.
  A. afterB. unlessC. whenD. for
  答案: B ( 选择其它三项的同学要注意语境, 这里是指除非公司给我更多工资,否则我就要找其它工作.)
  30.Don’t hurry. The bus won’t start ______everybody gets on.
  A. sinceB. asC. untilD. when
  答案: C (选择D的同学要注意前面是否定.)  31.Please show me _________ to send an e-mail, John. It’s the first time for me to do it.
  A. howB. whatC. whenD. where
  答案:A (选择C的同学要注意认真看题,这里的time不是时间,而是指第一次)
  32.You’ve passed the exam. I’m happy ______ you.
  A. onB. atC. inD. for
  答案:D (选择A的同学要注意记忆词组的准确性.)
  33.I wonder ________ they finished so many different jobs in such a short time.
  A. whyB. howC. whenD. where
  答案:B (选择A的同学要注意语境,这里指他们怎么能在如此短的时间里完成如此多的困难的工作.)
  34.-- Do you speak English?
  -- Yes, I speak __a little English ___ some French.
  A. neither, notB. both, orC. either, orD. not only, but also
  答案:D (选择C的同学要注意语境.)
  35.______ the maths problem is difficult, I’ll try very hard to work it out.
  A. ThoughB. WhenC. BeforeD. After
  答案:A (选择B的同学要注意语境.不能说当题目难的时候,我将努力.而是说尽管题目难,但我将努力解决.)
  36.The accident took place ________ a cold February evening.
  A. onB. inC. atD. for
  答案:A (选择B的同学要注意,在特指的早上、下午、晚上,不用in要用on)
  37.He turned ________ the radio because his father was asleep.
  A. onB. downC. upD. over
  答案:B (根据语境:他爸爸睡着了,因此不能用A-打开,也不能用C-调大.D表示反过来)
  38.I don’t know the homework _______ today.
  A. onB. inC. ofD. for
  答案:D (选择C的同学要注意of表示从属关系,要注意中文的干扰.)
  39.– Oh, it’s raining heavily.
  -- Please don’t leave ________ it stops.
  A. whenB. afterC. sinceD. until
  答案: D (选择其它选项的同学要注意读懂句子, 只有把语境搞清楚才能答对问题.)
  40.Jane said she would come here ________ 9:00 and 9:30 tomorrow morning.
  A. fromB. atC. betweenD. around
  答案: C (选择B的同学没有把体看完整; 选择A的同学没有注意到from…to…的搭配.)
  四、动词
  41.My father went to Shanghai yesterday. He ______ back in two weeks.
  A. comesB. has comeC. will comeD. came
  答案: C ( 选择D的同学要注意in +时间段, 表示在未来的一段时间,应用将来时)
  42..It’s spring now. The students _______ trees these weeks.
  A. plantB. are plantingC. will plantD. planted
  答案: B (选择A的同学要注意 these weeks 并不表示经常做某事,而是强调这几个星期同学们一直在种树.)
  43..-- __________ you ________ your book to the library?
  -- Yes. I returned it yesterday.
  A. Did, returnB. Have, returnedC. Will, returnD. Do, return
  答案: B ( 选择A的同学过分注意回答用了一般过去时, 但在上一句中, 并没有给出过去的时间,强调你现在是否还书了, 应用现在完成时.)
  44.– Must I finish it now? -- No, you ________.
  A. mustn’tB. needn’tC. can’tD. shouldn’t
  答案: B (选择A的同学要注意mustn’t意思指不允许, needn’t指的是不必要.)
  45..Though it’s cloudy now, it _________ get sunny later.
  A. can B. mayC. mustD. need
  答案: B ( 选C的同学要注意语境, 这里强调过些时候也许会晴天, 表示推测性.)
  46.It is in the library, you _______ talk loudly.
  A. may notB. can’tC. needn’tD. mustn’t
  答案: D ( 选择B的同学要注意中文的干扰.can’t表示不能够。)
  47..If anyone wants to say something in class, you ________ put up your hands first.
  A. mustB. mayC. shouldD. can
  答案: A ( 选其他三个选项的同学要注意语境,anyone暗示出语气。表明是一个规定,而不是建议。)
  48.– I called you last night but no one answered the phone.
  -- I ______ dinner with my friends in the restaurant.
  A. haveB. hadC. was havingD. have had
  答案:C (选择B和D的同学要注意分析语境.这里指我当时正在和朋友在饭馆吃饭.)
  49..If you have lost a library book, you have to _________ it.
  A. find outB. look afterC. pay forD. take care
  答案:C (选择A的同学要注意语境)
  50..He will call me as soon as he _______ the city.
  A. reachesB. reachedC. will reachD. is reaching
  答案:A (选择B的同学要注意主将从先)
  51.The pen _________ him ten yuan.
  A. paidB. costC. tookD. spent
  答案:B (选择C的同学要注意took通常用在时间上;选择A和D的同学要注意,这里的主语是物品,因此不能用paid 和spent)
  52..The train _________ for twenty minutes.
  A. leftB. has leftC. is leavingD. has been away
  答案:D (选择B的同学要注意,当用完成时表示持续动作时,要选择可持续动词,不要用瞬间动词.)
  53..– How many books _____ they ________?
  -- Five. But they haven’t finished reading even one.
  A. did…borrowB. had…borrowedC. will…borrowD. do…borrow
  答案:A (选择B的同学要注意,这里只是问过去发生的一件事,并不是过去时间之前发生的.)
  54.He _________ his bike so he has to walk there.
  A. lostB. has lostC. had lostD. loses
  答案:B (选择A的同学注意句子并没出现两个时间点,因此要注意时态的前后一致.)
  55.– Why did the policeman stop us?
  -- He told us not _______ so fast in this street.
  A. driveB. drivingC. to driveD. drove
  答案:C (这里考查的是tell sb. not to do sth.)
  五、形容词、副词
  56.The population of the world in 20th century became very much _________ than that in 19th.
  A. bigger B. larger C. greater D. more
  答案: B.(选择其它三项的同学要注意population的固定搭配是large)
  57.Miss Li is one of _______ in our school.
  A. a popular teacherB. more popular teacherC. most popular teacherD. the most popular teachers
  答案:D.(选择其它三项的同学要注意one of + 复数的用法.)
  58.The magazines are ________ easy that the children can read them well.
  A. suchB. soC. tooD. very
  答案: B (选择A的同学要注意easy是形容词,要用so…that, 而不用such…that)
  59.– Would you like ________ more tea?
  -- Thank you. I’ve had ________.
  A. any, muchB. some, enoughC. some, muchD. any, enough
  答案:C (选择B的同学要注意enough是形容词, 不能说had enough)
  60.I think basketball is _______. I like to watch it.
  A. boringB. boredC. excitingD. excited
  答案:C (选择D的同学要注意basketball本身很令人激动,excited表示被什么所感染而激动。)
   61.This dinner looks _______ to me, and I like it.
  A. terribleB. goodC. badlyD. nicely
  答案:B (选择D的同学要注意look在这里是系动词,后面要加形容词。)
  62.The math problem is so hard that ________ students can work it out.
  A. a fewB. a littleC. manyD. few
  答案:D (选择A、C的同学要注意语境,这里指没有什么学生能做出来。)
  63.– What’s the weather like tomorrow?
  -- The radio says it is going to be even ______.
  A. badB. worstC. badlyD. worse
  答案:D (选择A的同学要注意,even+比较级)
  64.Though she talks ______, she has made ____ friends here.
  A. a little, a fewB. little, fewC. little, a fewD. few, a few
  答案:C (选择A的同学要注意语境,这里指虽然她不怎么说话,但她有一些朋友.)
  65.He never does his work _______ Mary.
  A. as careful asB. so careful asC. as carefully asD. carefully as
  答案:C (选择A和B的同学要注意work 是行为动词,要用副词来修饰.)
  六、句法
  66..If it ________ tomorrow we’ll go to the park.
  A. will not rainB. doesn’t rainC. is not rainingD. didn’t rain
  答案: B (选择A的同学要注意if引导的条件状语从句主句用将来时, 从句用一般现在时.)
  67.The radio says the snow ______ late in the day.
  A. stopsB. will stopC. has stoppedD. stopped
  答案: B. (选择A的同学要注意语境, late in the day表示 “晚些时候”, 要用将来时)
  68.The nurse told the children the sun ______ in the east.
  A. risesB. roseC. will riseD. has risen
  答案: A ( 选择B的同学要注意, 虽然主句中用了told, 但太阳从东方升起是真理性事实, 应用一般现在时表示.)
  69.– Are you sure you have to? It’s been very late.
  -- I don’t know ______ I can do it if not now.
  A. whereB. whyC. whenD. how
  答案: C ( 选择D的同学要注意语境, 根据语境知道这里强调的是必须先在做,否则就没有时间了)
  70.- Could you tell me _______ she is looking for?
  -- Her cousin, Susan.
  A. thatB. whoseC. whomD. which
  答案: C (选择其它三项的同学要注意语境,这里是指找Susan这个人)
  71.– When are the Shutes leaving for New York?
  -- Pardon? -- I asked ___________.
  A.when are the Shutes leaving for New York
  B.when the Shutes are leaving for New York
  C.when were the Shutes leaving for New York
  D.when the Shutes were leaving for New York
  答案: D ( 选择B的同学注意到了宾语从句的语序,但同时要注意时态要用相应的过去时.)
  72.Would you please tell me ________ next, Mr Wang?
  A. what should we doB. we should do whatC. what we should doD. should do what
  答案: C ( 选择A的同学要注意宾语从句的语序为陈述语序.)
  73.Mr. King didn’t know _______ yesterday evening.
  A. when does his son come backB. when his son comes back
  C. when did his son come homeD. when his son came home
  答案: D ( 选择C的同学要注意考虑宾语从句的陈述语序)
  74.Alice has gone to the classroom and she didn’t say ________.
  A. when did she come backB. when would she be back
  C. when she came backD. when she would be back
  答案:D (选择C的同学要注意语境,这里要用过去将来时.)
  75..– I’m sorry I broke your coffee cup.
  -- Oh, really? _________.
  A. It doesn’t matterB. I don’t knowC. it’s OK with meD. You’re welcome
  答案:A (选择C和D的同学要注意中文的干扰.D是用来回答别人的致谢的.)
  76.– Would you mind calling me back tomorrow again? -- _________.
  A. Not at allB. You’re welcomeC. You’re rightD. Nice to meet you
  答案:A (同62题)
  77.He hardly had anything to eat, ________ he?
  A. didn’t B. hadn’t C. had D. did
  答案:D (选择A的同学要注意hardly表示否定;选择B和C的同学要注意,反意疑问句要用助动词.)

2014中考英语高频易错词总结 一、将下列名词变成复数形式:

  month watch stomach hero photo city play
  三、易写错的数词
  ① 将下列基数词变成序数词:
  five nine twelve twenty
  ②将下列数词写成英语:
  14 40 3/4
  四、将下列形容词转换成副词:
  fortunate immediate safe true possible comfortable terrible simple gentle lucky happy angry shy (repeat-- hurry--- expect---)
  五、写出下列动词的过去式,过去分词:
  carry destroy pay lay lie write feel bite fall stop plan occur rise throw flow choose drive eat fly run beat steal strike stick cost cut hurt spread shut shine hold hide
  六、写出下列动词的现在分词:
  study carry pay refer prefer offer sit develop write eat swim
  七、注意归纳下列动词的变化形式。
  bend, spend, send, build, lend(from “d” to “ t”)
  lead,flee,bleed,feed, speed(from“ead or ee(d)” to “ed”)
  grow, blow, fly, throw (ew; own)
  ride, write, forget(from “i” to “o”; “dden” or “tten”)
  drive, rise, arise, awake(from “i” to “o” ; “en” )
  ring, begin, sing, sink, drink, swim ( i---a---u)
  bid, forbid(i--a—idden) dig, spin, swing(i-u-u)
  buy, fight, think, seek, bring(--ought)
  catch, teach(--aught)
  bear, wear, swear (---ore; ---orn)
  burst,cast,cost,cut,hit,hurt,let,put,read,rid,set,shut,split,
  spread(the same form)
  答案:
  一、months watches photos cities plays
  三、①fifth ninth twelfth twentieth
  ②fourteen forty three-fourths/three quarters
  四、fortunately immediately safely truly possibly comfortably terribly simply gently luckily happily angrily shyly(shyness) (repeatedly; unhurriedly; unexpectedly)
  五、carried、carried; destroyed、destroyed; paid、paid; laid、laid; lay、lain; wrote、written; felt、felt; bit, bitten; spent、spent; fell、fallen; stopped、stopped;planned、planned; occurred、occurred; rose、risen; threw、thrown;flowed、flowed; chose、chosen; drove、driven; ate、eaten; flew、flown; ran、run; beat、beaten; stole、stolen; struck、struck ; stuck、stuck; cost、cost; cut、cut; hurt、hurt; spread、spread; shut、shut; shone, shone ; held, held; hid, hidden
  六、studying carrying paying referring preferring offering sitting developing writing eating

初中英语语法:不定冠词的10个重要考点和易错点英语不定冠词(a/an)的用法较复杂,以下几点须注意:


  1. 用 a还是 an:一般说来,辅音或半元音[j, w]开头的词要前用a。如:

  He has a computer (watch). 他有一台电脑(一块手表)。

  He’s a university student (European). 他是大学生(欧洲人)。

  元音开头的词前要用 an。如:

  This is an egg (honest boy). 这是一只鸡蛋(诚实的男孩)。

  注意,有的字母(如 a, e, f, h, i等)或缩略词,若第一个音是元音也应用an。如:

  He missed an “n” in the word. 他写的这个单词漏了一个 n。

  2. 不要从汉语习惯出发,漏掉必用的 a/an。如:

  他父亲是着名诗人。

  误:His father is famous poet.

  正:His father is a famous poet.

  3. 用于转化为普通名词的专有名词前,表示某某人或某某人的一部作品、艺术品等。如:

  A Mr Smith wants to see you. 一位叫史密斯先生的人想见你。

  He bought a complete Lu Hsun. 他买了一套鲁迅全集。

  4. 用于转化为普通名词的物质名词前,表示相应的产品或种类,有时表示数量关系。如:

  It’s a good wine. 这是(一种)好酒。

  Two coffees and a tea, please. 请来两杯咖啡和一杯茶。

  5. 用于具体化的抽象名词前,表示与该抽象名词意义相关的人或事等。如:

  The party was a great success. 晚会开得非常成功。

  It’s a pleasure to talk with you. 同你谈话是件愉快的事。

  6. 用于某些由动词转化来或具有动作意味的名词前,表示一次、一番等意义。如:

  Let me have a look. 让我看看吧。

  I’ll give the car a good wash. 我要把车好好洗一洗。

  7. 用于序数词前表示数量或序数的增加。如:

  He bought a second computer. 他又买了一台(即第二台)电脑。

  Later she borne a third son. 后来她又生了第三个儿子。 8. 有的不可数名词或本来应该带定冠词(the)的名词,由于受定语(尤其是形容词)的修饰,其前一般要用不定冠词或改用不定冠词,表示某种状态,此时的不定冠词通常含有 a kind of 的意思。如:

  have breakfast 吃早餐→have a quick breakfast 吃快餐

  the world 世界→a world like ours 像我们这样的世界

  注:有些不可数名词即使受形容词的修饰也不能用不定冠词,容易弄错的有:news(消息),advice(忠告),luck(运气),fortune(运气),work(工作),fun(娱乐,有趣的事),weather(天气),homework(家庭作业),housework(家务活),information(情报),behavior(行为),harm(伤害),damage(损害),progress(进步),furniture (家具),baggage(行李),luggage(行李),poetry(诗),scenery(风景)等。

  9. 两个单数可数名词连用表示一个整体时,只用一个不定冠词。如:

  He is a teacher and poet. 他既是老师又是诗人。

  There’s a horse and cart on the road. 路上有一辆马车。

  10. 不定冠词可用来表示“类属”,这是其基本用法,它表明的是某一类属中的每一个人和东西都能说明该类属的整体情况 (有类似汉语的“举一反三”或“以此类推”的含义)。此时也可用定冠词或名词复数形式来表示。如:

  马是有用的动物。

  正:A horse is a useful animal.

  正:The horse is a useful animal.

  正:Horses are useful animals.

  若不是说明每一个人和东西的情况,而是说整个类属,则不能用不定冠词,而要用定冠词:

  The tiger is in danger of becoming extinct. 老虎面临绝种的危险。

  Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. 亚历山大·格雷汉母·贝尔于1876年发明了电话。                                                  中考英语易错题:语境·交际·常识

  打好语境基础

  所谓语境就是指上下文。解答中考单项填空 题,不要只盯在空格那个地方,也不要只盯在含空格的那一个句子,而要理解整个上下文的意思才能作出选择。请看下面这道中考题:

  -You’re very ______, aren’t you? -Yes. Our team has won the game.

  A. happyB. worriedC. sadD. afraid

  解答此题时你若只看问句,填任何一个答案都是正确的,当看到答句中的has won the match才知道只有答案A正确。

  打好交际基础

  就是指考生还要懂得英语国家的人与中国人由于历史文化和思维方式的不同所造成日常交往中语言表达的不同。请看下面这道中考题:

  -Your spoken English is much better! -______.

  A. Oh, noB. You’re right C. thank you D. Not at all

  当被别人称赞时,谦虚的中国人常说“不,哪里哪里”或“不,还差得远咧”等等,若按这种思维,很容易错选答案A或D;而西方人却是向对方表示感谢,所以答案是C。

  打好常识基础

  有的中考试题既不是考词汇知识也不是考语法规则,而是考查考生的生活经验和科普常识,比如超市、加油站、公园、学校等公共场所的标志和电视中的一些图标等等。因此,在平时的日常生活中要细心观察,多看书报多看电视,广泛涉猎,并注意生活经验和科普常识的积累。请看下面这道中考试题:

  Which of the following weather signs means “windy”?

  答案是D,因为这个图表示windy。答案A表示cloudy,B表示rainy,C表示sunny。 初中英语易错题考点分析:名词、冠词

  1.-What can I do for you? -I'd like two _______.

  A. box of apple B. boxes of apples C. box of apples D. boxes of apple

  答案:B.(选择其他3项的同学要注意仔细看题。不要马虎,这里box和apple都是可数名词。)

  2. Help yourself to _________.

  A. some chickens B. a chicken C. some chicken D. any chicken

  答案:C.(选择A的同学要注意chicken当鸡肉讲时不可数。)

  3. ________ it is today!

  A. What fine weather B. What a fine weather C. How a fine weather D. How fine a weather

  答案:A.(选择B的同学要注意weather不可数。选择C和D的同学要注意weather是名词,要用what来感叹。)

  4. Which is the way to the __________?

  A. shoe factory B. shoes factory C. shoe's factory D. shoes' factory

  答案:A.(选择D的同学注意这里不是指名词所有格,而是名词作形容词的用法。类似的用法如:pencil box;school bag等。)

  5. This class ________ now. Miss Gao teaches them.

  A. are studying B. is studying C. be studying D. studying

  答案:A. (选择B的同学要注意, 当这种概念名词当“人”讲的时候要做复数处理。类似的还有:the police are running after the thief等。)

  6. We will have a _________ holiday after the exam.

  A. two month B. two-month C. two month's D. two-months 答案:B.(选择C的同学要注意应用two months';选择D的同学要注意名词之间有 “- ” 后的组合词当作形容词来用, 因此就不用所有格形式了。)

  7.____ trees are cut down in the forests every year.

  A. Thousand B. Thousands C. Thousand of D. Thousands of

  答案:D.(选择C的同学要注意词组记忆的准确性。)

  8. Our sports meeting will be held ________.

  A. on 24, Tuesday, April B. in April 24, Tuesday

  C. on Tuesday, April 24 D. in April Tuesday 24

  答案:C.(选B的同学是受到中文的影响,要特别注意中英文的差异。)

  9. _______ people here are very friendly to us.

  A. The B. / C. A D. An

  答案:A. (选择B的同学要注意这里的people是特指“这里的”, 因此要用定冠词the。)

  10. There is no enough ____in the corner to put the table.

  A. place B. room C. floor D. ground

  答案:B.(根据句意知道,这里表示没有地方放桌子。选A的同学要注意place表示地点,是可数名词。) 初中英语时态常考易错点

  1) 表时刻表的情况下,一般现在时代替将来时态用;

  The plane takes off at 10p.m.

  2) 主将从现 符合的原则是:if条件句,时间状语从句,方式状语从句和让步状语从句。如:

  If he comes, I'll let you know.

  He will be happy when I tell him.

  Next time I'll do as you say.

  Even if it rains tomorrow, the sports meet will take place.

  3) be to do 表示有责任、有义务做某事

  be about to do 表示正要做某事

  I was about to leave when the telephone rang.

  be going to do 表示有计划性、准备做某事

  will do 一般情况下使用

  4)现在进行时注意以下情况:

  1) 和always, constantly, forever, continually连用表示说话人的感情色彩,责备,埋怨等;

  He is always thinking of others.

  He is always making the same mistake.

  2) 强调情况的暂时性;

  He is walking to school because his bike is being repaired.

  5). 一般将来时注意以下三点。

  1) 表倾向,习惯性动作。意为"会,不能,没法";

  We will die sooner or later. The medicine won't help.

  2) 表推测

  The man in the middle will be visiting president.

  3) 表容量

  The hall will seat 500 people. 6). 现在完成时的适用范围。

  1) 过去动作对现在的影响和结果;

  I've already finished my homework, so I can leave now.

  2) 过去开始持续到现在;

  Great changes have taken place in China in the past five years.

  7). 过去完成时注意两点。

  1) 它是和一般过去时对应存在的,没有一般过去时,就不存在过去完成时。

  His family hadn't heard from him for six months until he came home.

  2) 用在no sooner…than, scarcely…when, hardly…when,等句型中。

  No sooner had I seen him than I told him.

  8.下列 that从句用完成时:(注意:主句用is从句用have/has+过去分词 ;主句用was 从句用had+过去分词)

  1.It/This/That is the first/second/last time that… 如:

  This is the first time that I have been in Beijing.

  2.It/This/That is the only…that… 如:

  That is the only book that I have really enjoyed in my life.

  3.It/This/That is the + 最高级…that…

  It is one of the most interesting book that I have ever read.

  4.It is/ has been……since

  It is/ has been 10 years since I last saw him.(从我上次见到他以来已经10年了。)

初中英语因定短语知识点:重点短语句型详解 1. She used to be a Chinese teacher. 她过去是一位汉语老师。

  [用法] used to + 动词原形,表示过去经常性的动作或存在的状态,含有现在不再如此之意。
  [搭配] used to do的否定式可以是usedn't to do或didn't use to do.
  [比较] used to do sth. 过去常做某事;be/ get used to doing sth. 习惯于做某事;be used to do sth. 被用来做某事。
  2.…return it sooner or later.
  ……迟早要将它归还。
  [用法] l)sooner or later意为"迟早"、"早晚"。
  2)return此处用作及物动词,意为"归还",相当于give back.
  [拓展]return还可用作不及物动词,意为"返回",相当于go back或come back。
  3.No matter what the weather is like…无论天气……
  [用法]no matter what 相当于whatever,其意为"无论什么",引导状语从句。
  [拓展]类似no matter what的表达方式还有:
  no matter when无论什么时候
  nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;no matter where无论什么地方
  no matter who无论谁
  no matter how 无论怎么样
  4. A young man practised speaking English with Mr. Green.
  一位年经人与格林先生练习讲英语。
  [用法]practise doing sth. 表示"实践、练习(做)某事"。
  [拓展]practice名词,"实践"、"实施"、"练习";put a plan into practice实行某计划。
  5. He encouraged everyone to take part in protecting our lakes, rivers, seas and oceans.
  他鼓励大家参加保护我们的湖泊、河流和海洋的活动。
  [用法]1)encourage用作动词,意思是"鼓励"、"支持"。
  2)take part in"参加",常表示参加活动。
  3)protect 是动词,表示"防御"、"保护"。
  [搭配]1)encourage sb. in sth.在某事上鼓励或支持某人
  nbsp;encourage sb. to do sth.鼓励某人干某事
  2)protect sh. from sth.使某人不受某事侵袭或伤害
  6. …to warn people about sharks in the water. ……警告人们当心水里的鲨鱼。
  [用法] warn用作动词,意思是"警告"、"警戒"。
  [搭配]1)warn sb.+ that从句
  2)warn sb. of sth. 警告某人某事
  3)warn sb. to do sth.告诫某人做某事
  4)warn sb. against(doing) sth.告诫某人当心某事/不要做某事

初中英语固定短语知识点:初中12重点句型解析1.I think…意为"我认为……",是对某人或某事的看法或态度的一种句型。其否定式常用I don't think…,


  2.give sth. to sb./ give sb. sth. 意为"把……给……",动词give之后可接双宾语,可用这两种句型;若指物的宾语是人称代词时,则只能用give it/ them to sb.


  3.take sb./ sth. to…意为"把……(送)带到……",后常接地点,也可接人。


  4.One…, the other…/One is…and one is…意为"一个是……;另一个是……",必须是两者中。


  5.Let sb. do sth. 意为"让某人做某事",人后应用不带to的动词不定式,其否定式为Don't let sb,do sth.,或Let sb. not do sth. 另外,Let's 与Let us的含义不完全相同,前者包括听者在内,后者不包括听者在内,


  6.help sb. (to) do sth./help sb. with sth.意为"帮助某人做某事",前者用不定式作宾补,后者用介词短语作宾补,二者可以互换.


  7.What about…?/How about…?意为"……怎么样?"是用来询问或征求对方的观点、意见、看法等。about为介词,其后须接名词、代词或V-ing等形式。


  8.It's time to do…/ It's time for sth. 意为"该做……的时间了",其中to后须接原形动词,for后可接名词或V-ing形式。


  9.like to do sth./like doing sth.意为"喜欢做某事", 前一种句型侧重具体的一次性的动作;后一种句型侧重习惯性的动作,


  10.ask sb.(not) to do sth. 意为"让某人(不要)做某事",其中ask sb.后应接动词不定式,


  11.show sb. sth. / show sth. to do. 意为"把某物给某人看",该句型的用法同前面第2点。


  12.introduce sb. to sb. 意为"把某人介绍给另一人";introduce to sb.则是"向某人作介绍"。another


  [误] I have two sisters, one in America and another in English.


  [正] I have two sisters, one in America and the other in English.


  [析] 要注意英语中another, other, the other, the others, others的不同用法,现分别说明如下:another作形容词其意为:泛指的另一个或再一个,别的,类似的。一般在句中作定语,如: This is not good enough, please show me another one. another还可以作为代词用,如:One student said:"I want to play baskball."another said:"I want to play football." other作形容词其意为"泛指其余的,别的"。如:I have other books besides these. 又如:Ask some other people please. the other则为特指,作形容词时其后面可接单数或复数名词,如:She has two flowers. One is white, the other one is yellow. (特指,单数)又如:There are fifty students in our class, twenty five are boys, the other students are girls. (特指,复数)但当the other作为代词时,它代表的可以是单数,也可以是复数,如:He has a book in one hand, and a pen in the other. (单数)又如:There are some people in the room. Four are girls, the other(复数)are boys. 要注意的是当the other作主语时,其后面的谓语动词要视具体情况而定,它可能是单数,也可能是复数。others则只能作代词,其意为other ones即为:泛指某些,某一部分人或物,如:Each of us must think of others. 而the others只能作为代词,它是特指某一些人或物,如:I know only one or two of the students; the others are unknown to me. 中考英语热点考题:spend/take/pay/cost

  稍微研究一下历年中考英语真题,不难发现,英语中的四个“花费spend/take/pay/cost几乎是中考英语的常客,所以,一定要完全掌握这四个词的用法。下面我们具体讲解一下。
  一、spend的主语通常是人,句型有:
  1. (sb) spend some money/some time on sth
  2. (sb) spend some money/some time (in) doing sth
  例如:
  I spent fifty yuan on the coat. = I spent fifty yuan (in) buying the coat. 我花50元买了这件大衣。
  He spent three days on the work. = He spend three days (in) doing the work. 他干这项工作用了3天。
  3. spend money for sth. 花钱买……
  例如:His money was spent for books. 他的钱用来买书了。
  二、take常用于“占用、花费”时间,后面常跟双宾语,其主语通常为形式主语"it"或物。句型有:
  1. It takes/took sb. some time to do sth
  例如:It will take me two days to do the work. 这项工作将会花去我2天时间。
  2. Doing sth./sth. takes sb. some time.
  例如:The work will take me two days. 这项工作将会花去我2天时间。
  Repairing this car took him the whole afternoon. 他花了一下午修车。
  It took me three years to draw the beautiful horses. =Drawing the beautiful horses took me three years. 画这些漂亮的马花费了我3年时间。
  三、pay为“付款、赔偿”之意,主语通常是人,句型有:
  1. sb. pays some money for sth
  例如: I paid fifty yuan for the coat. 我花50元买了这件大衣。
  2. pay (sb.) money for sth. 付钱(给某人)买……
  例如:I have to pay them 20 pounds for this room each month. 我每个月要付20英磅的房租。
  3. pay money back 还钱
  例如:May I borrow 12 yuan from you? I'll pay it back next week. 你能借给我12块钱吗?下周还你。
  4. pay off one's money 还清钱
  四、cost的主语是物或某种活动, 还可以表示“值”。句型有:
  1. sth. costs (sb.) +money 某物花了(某人)多少钱
  例如:A new computer costs a lot of money. 买一台新电脑要花一大笔钱。
  2. (doing) sth. costs (sb.) +time 某物(做某事)花了(某人)多少时间
  例如:Remembering these new words cost him a lot of time. 他花了大量时间才记住了这些单词。
  注意:cost的过去式及过去分词都是cost,并且不能用于被动句。 重点、难点、考点
  一、重点是:
  (1)常见的构词法
  1)合成词:合成词是由两个或两个以上的词构成一个新的词。如:blackboard(黑板),newspaper(报纸),afternoon(下午) ,pencil-box(铅笔盒)。
  2)派生词:派生词是由词根加派生词缀构成的词,词根是派生词的基础,同一词根加不同的派生词缀可以表示不同的意义,还可以表示不同的词的词性。
  动词变名词:+后缀er drive(驾驶)——driver(驾驶员)
  teach(教)——teacher(教师)
  read(阅读)——reader(读者)
  +后缀or invent(发明)——inventor(发明家)
  visit(访问)——visitor(访问者)
  +后缀tion invent(发明)——invention(发明)
  operate(手术)——operation(手术)
  名词变形容词:+后缀y wind(风)——windy(刮风的)
  sun(太阳)——sunny(晴朗的)
  +后缀ful help(帮助)——helpful(有帮助的)
  care(小心)——careful(小心的)
  +后缀ly friend(朋友)——friendly(友好的)
  形容词变名词:+后缀ness good(好的)——goodness(善良,美德)
  kind(和善的)——kindness(和善)
  形容词变副词:+后缀ly bad(坏的)——badly(糟糕地)
  quick(快的)——quickly(迅速地)
  改变词义:+前缀un happy(高兴的)——unhappy(不高兴的)
  usual(平常的)——unusual(不平常的)
  3)转化词:转化词是指由一种词类转用作另一种词类的词。例如:
  hand(n .)手, hand(v .)传递, dry(adj .)干燥的, dry(v .) 烘干
  [说明]初中总复习中,词汇的复习十分重要。掌握单词和词组的用法是学好语言的前提之一。没有一定的词汇量,不掌握词语的基本用法,就失去了英语知识复习的基础,也就更谈不上灵活运用和综合分析能力了。
  (2)词形变化
  英语词汇的词形变化除了前面讲的词根+派生词缀构成的派生词的变化外,还存在有一些单词词尾的屈折变化,它们是:
  1)表示名词复数的词形变化。例如:
  hand—hands(手) picture—pictures(图片)
  knife—knives(小刀) city—cities(城市)
  2)表示形容词、副词的比较级和最高级的词形变化。例如:
  cheap—cheaper—cheapest(便宜的)
  late—later—latest(迟来的,迟来地)
  early—earlier—earliest(早的、早地)
  3)表示动词一般现在时第三人称单数的词形变化。例如:
  clean—cleans(打扫) catch—catches(按住) carry—carries(携带)
  4)表示动词过去时和-ed分词的词形变化。例如:
  catch—catched(捉住) carry—carried(搬运)
  close—closea(关闭) stop—stopped(阻止)
  5)表示动词-ing分词的词形变化。例如:
  walk—walking(走) make—making(做) sit—sitting(坐)
  二、难点是:如何运用词或词组。
  三、考点是:(1)单词拼写。(2)词形变化。(3)对词语的理解运用和相似词语的辨析。有关词汇的考题在中考中有10分左右。
  【经典范例引路】
  例1 按要求写出下列单词的适当形式。
  1 .Well(最高级)_______________ 2.begin(现在分词)____________
  3 .busy(反义词)_______________ 4.he(反身代词)_______________
  (2001年甘肃省中考题)
  简析:此题是对词形变化和单词的正确拼写的考查。要正确解答,应熟练掌握规律性的变化形式,并牢固记忆一些特殊的词形变化。
  第1小题是考查副词的最高级。形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的构成分为规则变化和不规则变化。well的最高级属于不规则变化,为best。
  第2小题是考查现在分词的构成。现在分词的构成为:(1)直接在动词原形后加-ing。(2)以不发音的e结尾的动词,先去e ,再加-ing。(3)以重读闭音节结尾且末尾只有一个辅音字母,先双写这一辅音字母,再加-ing。此题符合第三条。故答案为beginning。
  第3小题是考查词义及单词拼写。busy意为“繁忙的,忙的”它的反义词应为“空闲的,闲的”free。故答案为free。
  第4小题是考查人称代词对应的反身代词。答案为himself。
  例2 选择与句中划线部分意思相同或相近的词或短语。
  ( )1 .Mary called him three times yesterday , but nobody answered .
  A .visited B .gave a message to C .told D .phoned
  ( )2 .Jim comes to visit us sometimes . That is always the happiest time for the whole family .
  A .on time B .all the time C .at times D .many times
  ( )3 .Jimmy tried hard , and in the end he did it well .
  A .at first B .at the beginning C .at the end D .at last
  ( )4 .—Oh , sorry . John . I forgot to post your letter .
  —That’s all right . I’ll post it myself.
  A .Never think about it B .It doesn’t matter
  C .Don’t be sorry D .I don’t care
  ( )5 .—Hello !May I speak to the headmaster ?
  —Hold on , please .
  A .Speak louder B .Wait a moment
  C .Call again D .Speak out
  (2001年河北省中考题)
  简析:选出能替换划线部分的选项,这是一种常见题型。做此类题时应注意以下几点:
  (1)弄懂句意,特别是划线部分意思,以及各选项的意思。
  (2)能替换划线部分的选项与划线部分意思要相同。
  (3)选项与划线部分在句法功能上保持一致。
  第1小题划线部分called后接him(sb),首先要知道它在句中的意思,为“给……打电话”。A选项意为“访问”,B选项意为“给……捎口信”,C选项意为“告诉”,只有选项D .phoned意人“给……打电话”,与划线部分意思相同。且phoned与called的句法功能也相同。故答案为D。
  第2小题划线部分sometimes意为“有时,某时”。A选项意为“准时,按时”,B选项意为“一直总是”,C选项意为“有时,某时”,D选项意为“许多次”。故答案为C。
  第3小题划线部分in the end意为“最后,终于”。A选项意为“起初,开始”,B选项意为“在开始时”,C选项意为“在末尾”,D选项为“最后,终于”。故答案为D。
  第4小题划线部分That’s all right在此处意为“不要紧,没关系”,用来回答别人道歉的用语。A、B、C、D四个选项中只有It doesn’t matter与That’s all right意义相同。故答案为B。
  第5小题划线部分Hold on在此处意为“等一会儿”,是打电话时的交际用语。只有wait a moment与Hold on 意义相同,故答案为B。
  例3 单项选择。
  ( )1 .Students are usually interested in sports . Some like running ;some like swimming ;_______like ball games . (2001年上海市中考题)
  A .the others B .others C .the other D .other
  ( )2 .—Can you speak Chinese ,Peter ? (2001年北京市海淀区中考题)
  —Yes , but only_______ .
  A .little B .few C .a little D .a few
  ( )3 .Don’t worry ,I’ll take good care Polly .(2001年天津市中考题)
  A .for B .of C. with D .to
  简析:此题是考查词语意义和用法上的区别,以及词语的固定搭配。在做此类题时,我们应注意:
  (1)先读懂题意,找出考查点。
  (2)观察分析空格与它的前后部分的联系及空格在句中的句法功能。
  (3)根据题意及分析结果,对比所有选项,选择最恰当的选项。
  (4)对于难度较大、很难直接从正面找到答案,就可采用排除法——根据题意和所学知识排除错误答案。剩下的便是正确答案。
  第1小题是考查the others ,others ,the other ,other这四者在意义和用法上的区别:the others特指某一范围内的“其余的人(物)”而others泛指“其余的人(物)”它常和some对比使用,即“some . . .others . . .”,the other特指“(两个中的)另一个”,other泛指“另一个”。故答案为B。
  第2小题是考查little ,few ,a little ,a few的用法:某一语言不可数,因此B、D两选项不成立。而little是表示否定意义,a little表示肯定意义。根据题干的意思应为肯定,故答案为C。
  第3小题是考查take care of这一固定词组。故答案为B  

初中英语知识点:-ed形容词与-ing形容词的语法区别  以后缀-ed结尾的形容词(如ashamed, delighted, excited, frightened, interested, moved, pleased, surprised, worried等)通常用于说明人,不用于说明事物,即使它们所修饰的名词是事物,那它们指的也是与该事物相关的人;以后缀-ing 结尾的形容词(如delighting, exciting, frightening, interesting, moving, surprising, worrying 等)主要用于说明事物,表示事物的性质或特征,若用它们说明人,则表示此人具有此性质或特征。如:


  He had a pleased smile on his face. 他脸上露出了满意的微笑。


  He told me the news in a very excited voice. 他告诉了我这个消息,声音很激动。


  The story is very interesting. 这个故事很有趣。


  The man is very interesting. 这个人很有趣。


  比较并体会以下例子:


  a frightened look 害怕的表情(指带有这种“表情”的人感到害怕)


  a frightening look 吓人的表情(指这种“表情”令人害怕)


  an excited talk 心情激动的谈话(指“谈话”的人心情激动)


  an exciting talk 令人激动的谈话(指听“谈话”的人心情激动)

2014中考英语57个句型及中文释义   1

  1 as soon as
  一…就…
  2 as…as
  和…一样
  3 as…as possible
  尽可能…
  4 ask sb. for sth.
  向某人请求,要求某物
  5 ask / tell sb. (how) to do sth.
  问/告诉某人(如何)做某事
  6 ask/tell sb. (not) to do sth.
  让/告诉某人(别)做某事
  7 be afraid of doing sth. / be afraid that
  担心,害怕…
  8 be busy doing sth.
  忙于做某事
  9 be famous/late/ready/sorry for…
  因,为…而…(famous 出名的/late 迟到/ready 准
  备好的/sorry 抱歉的)
  10 be glad that 很高兴去做……
  11 buy/give/show/bring/lend/send/pass/tell sth. to sb.
  (buy 买/give 给/show 展示/bring 带来/lend 借出/send 发送/pass 传递/tell 告诉)某事
  给某人
  12 buy/give/show/bring/lend/send/pass/tell sb. sth. 意思同上
  13 either…or…
  或者…或者…, 不是...就是...
  14 enjoy/hate/like/finish/stop/mind/keep/go on doing sth.
  (enjoy 喜欢/hate 讨厌/like 喜欢/finish 完成/stop 停止/mind 介意/keep 保持/go on 继
  续)做某事
  15 find it + adj. to do sth.
  发现做某事是…的
  16 get + 比较级
  更…
  17 get ready for/get sth. ready 为某事做准备, 把某事准备好
  18 had better (not) do sth.
  最好(别)做某事
  19 help sb. (to) do
  帮助某人做某事
  help sb. with sth.
  在某方面帮助某人
  20 I don’t think that
  我认为不…
  2
  21 I would like to /Would you like to…?
  我想做…/你想做…吗?
  22 is one of the + 最高级 + n(pl.)…
  是最…中的一个
  23 It is +adj. for sb. to do sth.
  对某人来说做某事是怎么样的
  24 It is a good idea to do sth.
  做某事是个好主意
  25 It is the second + 最高级 +n.
  这是第二最…的
  26 It looks like …/It sounds like …
  这看起来像…/这个听起来像…
  27 It seems to sb. that…
  对某人来说似乎是……
  28 It sounds +adj. /It looks +adj.
  这听起来…/这个看起来…
  29 It takes sb. some time to do sth.
  做某事花费某人多少时间
  30 It’s bad/good for…
  对…是好的/坏的  31 It’s time for…/to do sth.
  到做某事的时间了
  32 It’s two meters (years) long (high, old). 这个有 2 米长/2 年之久……
  33 keep (sb.) doing
  (让某人)一直做某事
  34 keep/make sth. +adj.
  保持/使某人/物…
  35 like to do sth.
  想做某事
  like doing sth.
  喜欢做某事
  36 make / let sb. (not) do sth. 让某人(不要)做某事
  37 neither…nor…
  即不…也不
  38 not…at all
  一点也不…
  39 not…until
  直到…才…
  40 One…the other…/Some… others… 个……,另一个……/一些……,另一些……
  41 prefer…to
  同…相比,更喜欢…
  42 see/hear sb. doing sth. 听见/看见某人正在做某事
  see/hear sb. do sth.
  听见/看见某人做了某事
  43 so…that …
  太…以至于…
  44 spend…on /(in) doing sth.
  花费…在…上(主语为人)
  3
  45 stop to do sth. /stop doing sth.
  停下来去做某事/停下正在做的事
  46 such a +adj. +n. that…
  如此……以至于……
  47 take/bring sth with sb.
  随身带去/带来某物
  48 thank sb for sth.
  因……而向某人感谢
  49 The more…the more
  越…, 就越…
  50 There is sth. wrong with… …出了点毛病
  51 too…to…
  太…以至于不能…
  52 used to
  过去常常…
  53 What about /How about…?
  …怎么样?
  54 What’s the matter with…?
  …有什么问题/毛病吗?
  55 What’s wrong with…?
  …有什么问题/毛病吗?
  56 Why not…?
  为什么不…?
  57 Will (would, could) you please…?
  请问您能…?  

七年级至九年级非谓语动词搭配最全总结  一.接动词不定式 ( to do/ do sth )

  1.like to do sth
  2.like sb to do sth
  3.Let’s (not ) do sth
  4.want to do sth
  5.want sb to do sth
  6.love to do sth
  7.ask sb (not ) to do sth
  8.stop to do sth
  9.tell sb (not ) to do sth
  10.watch sb do sth
  11.It’s time (for sb) to do sth
  12.help sb (to ) do sth
  13.help do sth
  14.make sb do sth
  15.decide (not ) to do sth
  16.find it +adj + to do sth
  17.have to do sth
  18.try (not ) to do sth
  19.try one’s best to do sth
  20.It’s +adj +(for)of +sb + to do sth
  21.plan to do sth
  22.S.p.+be a good place to do sth
  23.It takes sb +some time + to do sth
  24.send sb to do sth
  25.invite sb to do sth
  26.forget to do sth
  27.live to be +时间
  28.be able to do sth
  29.have sth to do
  30.seem to do sth
  31.get sb /sth to do sth
  32.疑问词+ to do sth
  33.need sth to do sth
  34.use sth to do sth
  35.follow sb to sth
  36.need to do sth
  37.a good time to do sth
  38.the best time to do sth
  39.the best way to do sth
  40.be the first / last one to do sth
  41.would like to do sth
  42.be excited /surprised to do sth
  43.be useful to do sth
  44.be allowed to do sth
  45.allow sb to do sth
  46.It’s better to do sth
  47.It’s best to do sth
  48.take care (not) to do sth
  49.see sb do sth
  50.why not do sth ?    51.have enough time to do sth
  52.too… to do sth
  53.not… enough to do sth
  54.encourage sb to do sth
  55.choose to sth
  56.wait to do sth
  57.be happy/glad/pleased to do sth
  58.make it +adj + to do sth
  59.be careful to do sth
  60.be afraid to do sth
  61.It’s our duty to do sth
  62.used to do sth
  63.can’t afford to do sth
  64.make a decision to do sth
  65.have an opportunity to do sth
  66.wait for sb to do sth
  67.would do sth rather than do sth
  68.would rather do sth than do sth
  69.hurry to do sth
  70.refuse to do sth
  71.agree to do sth
  72.pretend to do sth
  73.pretend to be doing sth
  74.prefer to do sth
  75.prefer not to do sth
  76.prefer to do sth raher than do sth
  77.be willing to do sth
  78.volunteer +时间/ 钱 + to do sth
  79.volunteer to do sth
  80.offer to do sth
  81.rush to do sth
  82.in order (not ) to do sth
  83.be certain to do sth
  84.be sure to do sth
  85.make plans to do sth
  86.go out of their way to do sth
  87.lead sb to do sth
  88.It’s one’s job to do sth
  89.It’s one’s turn to do sth
  90.urge sb to do sth
  91.Could /Would you please (not) do sth ?
  92.be supposed to do sth
  93.warn sb to do sth
  二、接动名词 (doing sth )
  1.like doing sth
  2.enjoy doing sth
  3.have fun doing sth
  4.be interested in doing sth
  5.Thanks for doing sth
  6.look at sb doing sth
  7.stop sb doing sth
  8.stop sb from doing sth
  9.go + v-ing
  10.do the (some )+v-ing    11.What/How doing sth ?
  12.practice doing sth
  13.watch sb doing sth
  14.find sb doing sth
  15.mind (one’s ) doing sth
  16.can’t stand doing sth
  17.think about doing sth
  18.spend … (in)doing sth
  19.finish doing sth
  20.be busy doing sth
  21.keep doing sth
  22.keep sb from doing sth
  23.keep sb doing sth
  24.be good at doing sth
  25.hate doing sth
  26.There be +名词+doing sth
  27.make a living by doing sth
  28.have a difficult time doing sth
  29.feel like doing sth
  30.allow doing sth
  31.see sb doing sth
  32.by doing sth
  33.end up doing sth
  34.do a survey about doing sth
  35.be afraid of doing sth
  36.be used to doing sth
  37.be terrified of doing sth
  38.give up doing sth
  39.instead of doing sth
  40.have nothing against doing sth
  41.be serious about doing sth
  42.have a chance of doing sth
  43.before/ when /while +doing sth
  44.start doing sth
  45.have a lot of experience doing sth
  46.prefer doing sth
  47.consider doing sth
  48.dream of / about doing sth
  49.continue doing sth
  50.put off doing sth
  51.be used for doing sth =be used to do sth
  52.prefer doing sth to doing sth
  53.without doing sth
  54.be comfortable doing sth
  55.can’t stop/help doing sth
  56.look forward to doing sth
  57.be against doing sth
  58.have trouble/problems/difficulty (in) doing sth
  59.suggest doing sth
  60.be busy doing sth
  61.be worth doing sth   

2014年中考英语必考点:重点短语与重点句子一、重点短语 


  1 过去常常——used to  

  2 过去很害羞----used to be shy

  3 害怕黑暗-----be afraid(terrified) of the dark 

  4 等一等--------wait a minute  

  5在游泳队-----on the swim team

  6 对-----感兴趣—be interested in   

  7 讨厌体育课---- -hate gym class     

  8 担心考试-----wory about tests  

  9吃糖---------eat candy          

  10 吃口香糖------chew gum   

  11聊天-----------chat with

  12花----时间做某事spend----(in) doing    

  13 想念过去的时光---miass the old days 

  14 我的日常生活---my daily life     

  15 不得不-----------have to    

  16 招惹麻烦---------cause trouble

  17 在他爸爸去世以后----after his father’s death  

  18 照顾-----------look after      

  19 入睡---------go to sleep               

  20 最后,终于-----in the end   

  21 做决定,下决心----make a decision      

  22 校长-------head teacher 

  23 陷入困境----------get into trouble          

  24 放弃戒除-----give up  

  25 以-----为骄傲----take pride in         
  
  26 令某人惊讶的是----to one’s surprise 

  27 不再----------no longer           

  28 在过去的几年里-----in the last few years 

  29 使我的妈妈更加关心我 

  make my mother pay more attention to me 

  30 把他送到一个男子寄宿学校-----

  send him to a boys’ boarding school

二、重点句子 

  1 你过去很矮,不是吗?---------You used to be short,didn’t you?

  2你过去弹钢琴吗?不,不弹。 

  ------Did you used to be play piano?No,I didn’t. 3 我过去很安静。------------------I used to be really quiet.

  4你过去有长头发。----------------You used to have long hair.

  5 你以前不喜欢考试。------------You didn’t used to like tests.

  6 人们确实发生了变化。---------People sure change. 

  7 我开着卧室的灯睡觉。 

  I go to sleep with my bedroom light on.

  8 我很少有时间去看音乐会。----I hardly ever have time for concerts.

  9 他的妈妈不能支付起他孩子的学费。 

  ---His mother couldn’t pay for her child’s education.

  10 马丁是一个十五岁的男孩。----------Martin is a fifteen-year-old boy. 

  11 我一直害怕孤独。-----------------I have been afraid of being alone.

  12 我对音乐不感兴趣。--------------------I’m not interested in music.

  13 他并没放弃帮助他们。---------He didn’t give up helping them.

  14 我的变化多大啊!-----------------------How I have changed!

  15看上去他变化了许多。--------------It seems that he has changed a lot.

  16 他是班里做好的学生之一。He’s one of the best students in his class. 

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