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高考英语语法复习系列-非谓语动词讲与练2

2014-05-29  许愿真

5. 动名词的被动式
如果动名词的逻辑主语为动名词所表示动作的承受者,这个动名词就要用被动式。
       例如:The problem is far from being settled.
动名词的完成被动式往往用一般被动式来代替,以免句子显得累赘。例如:
I still remember being invited(代替having been invited)by a famous artist when I was in Shanghai.

6. 动名词与不定式作主语、宾语的用法比较
<1> 作主语:
(1)多数情况两者可以互换。例如:Seeing is believing.=To see is to believe.
       Talking is easy and doing is difficult.=To talk is easy and to do is    
    difficult.
(2)如果表示一种具体、短期的行为,或表示将来的行为,宜用不定式。例如:
   It took him two hours to finish the work.
   To be a scientist is his desire(愿望).
(3)如果表示一种经常性、习惯性的行为,一般用动名词。例如:
   Getting up early is a good habit.
<2>作宾语:
(1) 有些动词跟不定式、动名词作宾语皆可,意义也差不多,主要有:begin, start,
continue, love, prefer等。
(2) 有些动词后只跟不定式作宾语,主要有:wish, hope, expect, demand, refuse,
decide.
(3) 有些动词后只能跟动名词作宾语,已学过的这类词有:finish, imagine, insist on,enjoy, escape, consider, can?t help, admit, avoid, mind, miss, practise, put off(延迟)=delay, suggest.feel like, look forward to,devote…to(doing),be worth.
(4)有些动词后跟不定式、动名词意义有明显差别,主要有:forget, remember, regret, stop, mean, try, want, need, require, go on
       A.forget to do sth. 忘记要做某事
     forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事=forget having done sth.=forget to have 
   done sth.
   B.remember to do sth. 记住要做某事  remember doing sth.记住做过某事
   C.regret to do sth. 遗憾(要)做某事  regret doing sth. 懊悔做了某事
      D.stop to do sth. 停下(原事)去做某事(不定式作目的状语)
        stop doing sth. 停止做某事
      E.mean to do sth. 决意/打算做某事  mean doing sth.  意味/表明做某事
      F.try to do sth. 努力/设法去做某事
        try doing sth. 试图/尝试用某一方法做某事
      G.want/need/require to do sth. 要/想做某事
        want/need/require dong.      需要/想要被…
      H.go on to do sth.  继续做不同的事  go on doing sth. 继续做相同的事

    7.使用现在分词的几个注意点:
    (1)作状语用的现在分词,其逻辑主语必须同句中主语为同一人或同一事,例如:
       Standing on top of the tall building,we could see the whole city.(正)        
    (Standing=When we stood)
       Standing on top of the tall building,the whole city could be seen.(误)
    Having found the cause, they continued the experiment.(正)(Having found
=After/When they had found)
   Having found the cause, the experiment continued.(误)
(2)短暂动词(即瞬间动词)的现在分词被动式不可作宾补或定语。例如:
   He saw the old man knocked down by the car.(knicked down不可改为being knocked down或having being knicked down)
   Do you like the dictionary bought by Zhang Ming?(bought不可改为being bought或having been bought)
<2>现在分词被动式与过去分词用法的区别:
   现在分词被动式与过去分词都有被动意,但其用法是有区别的:
(5) 作宾语时,现在分词的一般被动式表示一个正在发生的被动动作,过去分词则表示一个已发生过的被动动作或没有时间性的状态。例如:
Do you see the hospital               there?

你看见了那边那个              医院吗?

The continent connected with Asia at the Suez Canal is Africa.在苏伊士运河处与亚洲相连的洲是非洲。(句中connected无时间性)
(6) 作原因状语,现在分词被动式与过去分词可以互换。例如:
Being led(=Led )by the Party,the Chinese people have won great victories.
(7) 作方式或伴随状语,不用现在分词被动式,而用过去动词。例如:
The soldiers lay on the ground,covered with nothing.
(8) 作时间状语,若动作先于句子的谓语动作,且有具体过去时间,不可用现在分词一般被动式或完成被动式。例如:Built in 1192 ,the bridge was very useful.
如果没有具体过去时间状语,可用过去分词或现在分词完成被动式。例如:
Discussed(=Having been discussed)many times, the problem was settled at
last.
如果要强调分词状语的动作发生的时间在谓语动作之前,则宜用现在分词完成被动式,而不用过去分词。例如:
       Not having been invited,she had to stay at home.
(5)在have,get之后宜用过去分词作宾补,不用现在分词被动式或不定式被动式作宾补。例如:I?ll have my hair cut.(cut不能改为being cut或be cut)He got his watch repaired.(repaired不能改为being repaired或to be repaired)
(6)在make, order, want, like, wish等动词后,多用过去分词作宾补,少用现在分词被动式作宾补。例如
The speaker couldn?t make himself heard.(一般不说being heard)
He wanted his house painted.(一般不说being painted)
8.心理状态动词的-ing形式与-ed形式
  所谓心理状态动词是指含有使动意,使人产生某种情感、心理变化的动词。如:surprise使惊讶;interest使感兴趣。它们的-ing形式含主动意义,-ed形式含被动意义。皆可视为形容词。例如:surprising令人惊讶的,interesting令人感兴趣的;surprised(因…)感到惊讶的,interested(因…)感到兴趣的。下面的句子可显示两者的区别:
  The film is so interesting that they are all interested in it.
  She was much surprised at the surprising news.
  已学的心理状态动词有:astonish,bore(使厌烦),delight,disappoint,
discourage,encourage,excite,frighten,interest,move(使感动),please(使高兴),puzzle(使迷惑),satisfy(使满意),surprise,shock,tire(使疲劳),trouble,upset(使不安),worry
      它们的-ing形式多和物连用,如:The news is  pleasing/exciting.a boring report(一个令人厌烦的报告),a tiring walk(累人的步行)。
      它们的-ed形式多和人连用,如:an excited girl,I?m tired.
      但是也有-ing形式和人连用,-ed形式和物连用的现象。如:an inspiring leader一位有感召力的领袖,an amusing girl一个讨人喜欢的女孩,a puzzled expression一种迷惑不解的表情,She said in a frightened voice.她用受了惊吓的声音说着话。

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