许愿真 2014-06-06
 ● 关系词的选择 ●
  ◆ 关系代词that、which、who(m)、whose引导定语从句
  1) 关系代词that只能用于限定性定语从句,并在从句中作主语或宾语(不可作介词的宾语)。例如:
  Do you still remember the chicken farm ____ we visited three months ago?(2005北京春)
  A. whereB. when C. that D. what
  解析:C。先行词是the chicken farm,定语从句缺宾语,所以应用关系代词that、which或省略关系代词,选C。本题所给选项中,where、when都是关系副词,而what不能指代地点。
  2) 关系代词which可引导非限定性定语从句,作从句的主语或宾语,指代整个主句或主句中的部分内容;此时,其引导的定语从句一般位于主句后面,常译为“这(那) 件事……”。例如:
  His movie won several awards at the film festival, ______ was beyond his wildest dream. (2007 上海)
  A. which B. that C. whereD. it
  3) 关系代词who和whom引导定语从句,都可用于指人,用法类似。区别主要在于:whom在从句中只能作宾语;而who在从句中可以作主语,也可以代替在从句中担任宾格的whom,但它的前面不能有介词;如果用于介词后指人时,必须用宾格的whom。在非限定性定语从句中,whom不可用that或who替代。例如:
  Women _______ drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those ________ don't. (2006北京)
  A. who; 不填 B. 不填; who
  C. who; who D. 不填; 不填
  4) Whose引导定语从句时,其后应紧跟一个名词,构成名词短语,即“whose + 名词”的形式;whose引导的定语从句,其先行词不仅可指人,还可指物;若指物时,还可用of which代替,但词序不同,即“whose + 名词 = the + 名词 + of which”。例如:
  ·Look out! Don't get too close to the house _______ roof is under repair. (2006福建)
  A. whose B. which
  C. of which D. what
  解析:A。关系代词whose意为“……的”,表示所属关系,在定语从句中作定语,修饰从句的主语roof;从句中whose roof 指的是the house's roof。由于roof前缺少修饰限定词,故此处不能用of which代替。
  ·Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, _______ was very reasonable. (2000上海)
  A. which price B. the price of which
  C. its price D. the price of whose
  解析:B。先行词为“an ancient Chinese vase”,而定语从句讲述的是这个vase的price如何如何,同时,从句缺少主语,所以要用whose price或the price of which来引导从句。
  · If a shop has chairs ________ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop. (2005 上海)
  A. that B. which C. when D. where
  解析:D。先行词是chairs,在定语从句中作地点状语,要用where,相当于“in which”。
  ·We are living in an age ____ many things are done on computer. (2003 北京)
  A. which B. that C. whose D. when
  1) As用于限定性定语从句,并在从句中作主语、宾语、表语或状语,构成the same...as、such...as等结构。例如:
  · I like the same book as you do. (as作宾语)
  · I've never seen such a clever boy as he is. (as作表语)
  · I shall do it in the same way as you did. (as作状语)
  · These houses are sold at such a low price _____ people expected. (2000 上海春)
  A. like B. as C. that D. which
  2) As引导非限定性定语从句,作从句的主语、表语或宾语,用来指代整个主句的内容,常译为“正如……”。但不同于which,as引导的定语从句既可位于主句之前,也可位于主句之后,还可位于主句中间。例如:
  ·The Beatles, _____ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool. (2006 天津)
A. what B. that C. how D. as
  解析:D。As代表整个主句The Beatles came from Liverpool,作定语从句中remember的宾语。
  ·____ is reported in the newspapers, talks between the countries are making progress. (2004 北京)
  A. It B. As C. That D. What
  解析:B。As代表整个主句talks between the countries are making progress,作定语从句中的主语。句意为:正如报纸上所报道的那样,各国的会谈取得了进展。
  ● 关系词的省略 ●
  1) 关系代词的省略:当关系代词that、who(m)、which在作从句谓语动词的宾语时,可以省略;但是whom和which若在从句中作介词的宾语时,不可以省略。例如:
  ·— Do you have anything to say for yourselves? (2006 江西)
  — Yes, there's one point _______ we must insist on.
  A. why B. where C. how D. /
  解析:D。该题中的先行词是one point,定语从句we must insist on前省略了作宾语的关系代词which或that。
  ·— Why does she always ask you for help?
   — There is no one else ______, is there? (2005 北京)
  A. who to turn to B. she can turn to
  C. for whom to turn D. for her to turn
  解析:B。该题中的先行词是no one else,she can turn to前省略了作宾语的关系代词whom或who;值得注意的是, 本句还可以写成to whom she can turn。
  2) 关系副词的省略:
  ①The time、every time、each time、the moment等后的关系副词可省略。例如:By the time (when) he was fourteen years old, Einstein had learnt advanced mathematics all by himself.
  ②在某些表示地点的名词(如the place)后,关系副词有时也可以省略。例如:This is the place (where) we met years ago.
  ③先行词the reason后面的关系副词可省略。例如:The reason (why) he did that is quite clear.
  ④当先行词是way时,关系副词常常省略。例如:I appreciate the way (that) you teach us.
  ·What surprised me was not what he said but ____ he said it. (2004 湖北)
  A. the way B. in the way that
  C. in the way D. the way which
  解析:A。根据句意该用the way,所以在A和D中选择。然后考查the way后接定语从句的用法,具体用法有三种:(1)用in which引导;(2)用that引导;(3)省略关系副词。此题属于第三种用法,应选A。
  ·Anyway, that evening, ______ I'll tell you more about later, I ended up staying at Rachel's place. (2004 浙江)
  A. when B. where C. what D. which
  ·The famous basketball star, ____ tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention. (2002 北京春)
  A. where B. when C. which D. who
  解析:D。先行词为The famous basketball star,表示人,所以关系词要用who;同时,who在从句中作主语,不可以省略。
  ● 从句的位置 ●
  · He was educated at a local high school, ____ he went on to Beijing University. (2007 江苏)
  A. after which B. after that
  C. in which D. in that
  解析:A。根据从句的意思确定是介词after“在……之后”,which在此指代整个主句He was educated at a local high school,故答案选A。
  · Frank's dream was to have his own shop ____ to produce the workings of his own hands. (2005 湖南)
  A. that B. in which
  C. by which D. how
  解析:B。该题是考查“介词+ 关系代词+ 动词不定式”的特殊结构,它可以还原为:Frank's dream was to have his own shop in which he could produce the workings of his own hands.
  注意:有时候关系副词when和where也可以用在介词之后,如since when、by when和from where等。例如:
  · The book was written in 1946, ____ the education system has witnessed great changes. (2007 山东)
  A. when B. during which C. since then D. since when
  解析:D。根据从句的意思确定是选since when,when在此指代时间状语1946。
  · The village has developed a lot _____ we learned farming two years ago. (2007 福建)
  A. when B. which C. that D. where
  解析:选D。定语从句where we learned farming two years ago修饰它的先行词the village,中间被谓语has developed a lot隔开。
  · After graduation she reached a point in her career _____ she needed to decide what to do. (2007 江西)
  A. that B. what C. which D. where
  解析:选D。定语从句where she needed to decide what to do修饰它的先行词a point,中间被定语in her career隔开。
  ·— Where did you get to know her?
  — It was on the farm ____ we worked. (2007 山东)
  A. that B. there C. which D. where
  解析:D。该题很容易误选A。解题时,先还原句子:It was on the farm (where we worked) that I got to know her. 还原后,不难发现:原来这个句子主句实际上是强调结构“It was...that”省略了that I got to know her。空格处的词实际上要引导一个定语从句,修饰限定farm。

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