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英语语法句子结构知识

2015-10-30  花之叶55

语法是一个民族运用一种语言时句子层面所遵循的规则,也就是说,是大家造句或理解句子所遵循的规则。语法不是语言学家规定的,我们也不是为学语法而学语法。语法是对现成语言中规则的归纳和总结,以便学习者更快模仿掌握一门外语。所以语法知识很重要,你不能用汉语的语法规则来造英语的句子,那样懂英语的人读不懂,同样不懂英语的语法规则也绝对读不懂英语短文。所幸的是,英语的规则既严格又简单明确,随意性不大。因此被列为世界上最好学的语言之一,它实际上已经取代了世界语的地位。


第一讲   简单句的构成

简单句的构成是英语句子结构知识的基础,不论多么长多么复杂的句子都是简单句演变来的,所以简单句的相关知识是非常重要和基本的。

一.词性 (词类) part of speech

学习英语,有两个概念一定要搞清楚,一是词性,一是句子成分。

为什么要学习词性呢?词性是一个单词在句子中使用的标签。一个词性对应一个或几个句子成分;一个句子成分对应一个或几个词性。张道真在《实用英语语法》中讲到词性时说:要学好英语,第一件事就是分清词类。 每学一个词都要知道它属于哪个词类。可见它的重要性。

大家知道英语有十种词性: 名词,代词,数词,形容词,动词,副词,冠词,介词,连词,感叹词,我们需着重学习其中五类的用法:


二. 句子成分,五种句型

一个句子有哪些成分,这与句子结构有关,或者说与它是哪种句型有关。

1.  五种基本句型, 主要句子成分

句型一:  主语+系动词+表语 (表语可以是名词,形容词或介词短语)

That girl was my fiancée.              那个女孩是我未婚妻。

The story is about my son.             这个故事是关于我儿子的。

The flower is red.

除了be动词,还有一些表示状态,变化的词,如feel, look, smell, taste, sound, seem, appear, become, get, grow, turn, go, come, ran, fall, prove, remain, stay, keep等,也可作系动词用,如:

She felt a bit dizzy.                   她感到有点头晕。

You are not looking very well.   (well 除了作“身体健康”解时作形容词,其他情况作副词, 如:He performs well

in school.)

The dish smells good.                这盘菜闻起来不错。

The medicine tastes awful.            这药吃起来糟透了。

The report sounds true.               这报道听起来是真实的。

He seemed quite normal.             他看起来很正常。

She appeared calm.                  她显得很镇静。

His advice proved sound.             他的建议证明是合理的。

She remained calm.                  她保持平静。

They stayed awake to see the eclipse.              他们熬夜看月蚀。

He looked in splendid health.               他看起来健康状况极好。

句型二:  主语+不及物动词

The sun is rising.                  太阳正在升起。

Tim is sleeping.                     蒂姆正在睡觉。

The accident occurred suddenly.        事故突然发生了。

It is snowing.                       天在下雪。

The train is arriving.                 火车要到站了。

We waited and waited.               我们等了又等。

He danced for joy.                      她高兴地跳起舞来。

She often dreams.                       她常常做梦。

She trembled all over.                    她浑身发抖。

句型三:  主语+及物动词+宾语

He loved poetry.                            他热爱诗歌。

Have you ordered your meal?                  你点了菜了吗?

Silence means consent.                       沉默意味着默许。

He left school in 1998.                       他1998年离校。

What did he say?                            他说的什么?

句型四:  主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语

He showed me the way.                    他给我指了路。

She gave me her telephone number.             他给了我电话号码。

He handed me the letter.                    他把信递给了我。

Please throw me the key.                   请把钥匙扔给我。

They awarded her a special scholarship.        他们颁发她一项特别奖学金。

They never denied us assistance.              他们从不拒绝给我们帮助。

He assigned the students a few books to read.    他指定了几本书给学生读。

Can you lend us your car?                   你能把车借给我吗?

I owned him $50.                          我欠他五十美元。

They appointed him commander.              他们任命他总指挥。

She sang us a folk song.                      她给我们唱了首民歌。

She found you a position.                     她给你找了个职位。

He bought himself a new suit.                 他给自己买了套新衣服。

She cooked us a delicious meal.                她给我们做了一顿美味的饭菜。

Could you fetch me the evening paper?          你能否给我把晚报拿来?

That’ll save us a lot of trouble.                 那会省去我们不少麻烦。

They fined her $200.                       他们罚了她二百美元的款。

Careless driving cost him his life.            开车马虎使他陪了命。

They forgave him his crimes.               他们宽恕了他的罪行。

句型五:  主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语 (形容词,名词,介短可充当宾补)

He found his new job rather boring.       他发现他的新工作相当乏味。

Sit down and make yourself comfortable.   坐下来,坐舒服。

He got his clothes wet.                  他把衣服弄湿了。

Good food keeps you healthy.            良好的饮食使人健康。

I’ll have my hair cut this evening.         今晚我要把头发剪了。

The noise was driving him mad.          噪音快让我疯了。

I like my tea very strong.                我喜欢喝浓点的茶。

Facts have proved these worries groundless.      事实证实这些忧虑毫无根据。

Finally they set him free.                     最后他们把他放了。

~They call their daughter Mary.      他们叫女儿玛丽。

They name the city Leningrad.      他们把这座城市命名为列宁格勒。

We elected Smith our chairman.     我们选史密斯为主席。

All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.   只工作不玩耍,聪明小孩也变傻。

The appointed him chairman of the committee. 他们任命他为主任委员

We all consider the book a master piece.      我们都认为这本书是杰作。

The doctor thought that a good sign.          医生认为这是一个好迹象。

They kept their marriage a secret.            他们对结婚保密。

Shelley counted this experience a part of his education.    雪莱把这段经历看作是他经受的一段教育。

~I found her in better spirits when we met again. 再次见面时我发现她精神好些了。

This placed her in a very difficult position.     这使她处境很困难。

They soon got the fire under control.               他们不久就控制了火势。

This will bring us all into harmony.                 这回会使我们和睦起来。

下面这些意义的正确表达就关系到动词的正确用法。

*计算机给我们带来了方便.                        bring us convenient

*我们的世界变得越来越现代化.                    change modern

*这些现代设施使我们生活不那么悲惨.              make our life was not miserable

*以前我们用蜡烛照明.                            we light use candle

*象这样的例子有很多.                            As this example is a lot.


注意:a.“及物动词+双宾”与“及物动词+复合宾语”的区别:“及物动词+双宾”句型中两个宾语都是名词,都是这个及物动词的宾语;而在“及物动词+复合宾语”句型中,宾补可以不是名词,宾语和宾补之间有逻辑上的主谓关系。如:He teaches me English. 就是“及物动词+双宾”结构;He called me Jean. 就是“及物动词+复合宾语”结构。

b. 除以上五种句型外,还有一种特殊的表示客观存在的there be 句型。

c.   每一个陈述句都有否定和疑问形式,注意各种时态的形式变化。

d.  当表示命令或乞求时,不用陈述句形式,而用祁使句形式,即无主语,用动词原形开头。

2. 次要成分

大家看到各种句型的句子分别有哪些句子成分了。 以上这些成分都是必要成分,也就是说,某种句型的句子必须要具备其完整的句子成分。具体用哪个句型与你表达的意义有关,与你选用的动词也有关。比如说,你要表达“他找到了一个新工作”就可用句型3:主语+及物动词+宾语,He found a new job;而要表达“他发现他的新工作相当乏味。”则用句型5:主语+及物动词+宾语+宾补, He found his new job rather boring。有的动词可以

有多种用法,用于多个句型。有的动词用在不同句型中时意义不同,如He found a new job和 He found his new job rather boring中的find, 因为动词的用法和它的意义是相应的。但是我们看到的英语句子为什么经常不象我们上面说的那样简单呢?原因之一就是除了以上必要成分,还有两种次要成分:定语和状语。之所以叫次要成分是因为一个句子没有定语状语也是成立的。 如:The hospital is big. Everyone works. He loved poetry. They awarded her a scholarship。但事实上很少有有这样简单的句子。它们的信息量太少了,句意不明确。所以虽然叫次要成分其实是非常重要,非常常见的的成分。定语是修饰名词的,状语是修饰动词,形容词,副词或整个句子的。一个名词可以有多个定语从不同角度修饰它,一个动词也可以有多个状语。如:The hospital run by my father was big enough to hold 1000 patient during the anti-Japanese war period.

A beautiful flower comes out in the garden.         summer vacation

The flower in the vase is expensive.                Childhood friend

I have something important to do.                  Greenhouse effect

状语:句中修饰动词,形容词或整个句子的成分,可以由副词,或介词短语充当。

Listen attentively                     attentively 是状语,修饰动词listen;

He said in contempt.                  in contempt 是状语,修饰动词 said;

live a comparatively wealthy life       comparatively 是状语,修饰形容词 wealthy;

Summer reading was not the innocent entertainment I had assumed it to be, not a light-hearted, instantly forgettable escape in a hammock.

instantly 是状语,修饰形容词 forgettable

3. 句子的种类

在英语中,一个句号标志着一个句子的结束。英语的句号和汉语的句号作用不一样,汉语的句号表示一个意思表达完了,起意义辅助作用;英语表示一个句子结构完整了,起语法辅助作用。

英语的句子种类有三种:

简单句,只有一套主谓结构;只能是我们前面讲的五种句型或there be 句型中的一种。

并列句,由并列连词and, but, or, for 等将两个或多个结构完整的简单句连接在一起形成的更高级更复杂的句子。 复合句,当一个句子的某个成分由一个句子充当时,这个句子就是复合句。


第二讲    复杂句子的理解与造句

在实际生活中,由于表达的需要,我们不仅需要一个词的概念作一个句子成分,还可能需要一个动作的概念甚至一个句子的概念来作句子成分,比如:我们可能会说:药能帮助你退烧,Medicine can help you relieve the fever; 也可能会说:洗个凉水澡能帮助你退烧, having a cool shower can help you relieve the fever.

我们可能会说:新鲜的鸡蛋非常有营养,fresh eggs can be very nutritious; 也可能会说:煮的半生的鸡蛋非常有营养,half-done eggs can be very nutritious; 也可能说,曾被科考队带到南极去的鸡蛋非常有营养,the eggs that had been taken to the south pole by the scientific expedition are very nutritious; 还可以说:科学家们去年培育的新品种的鸡产的蛋非常有营养,the eggs produced by the new breed of hens the scientists produced last year are very nutritious。

可见除了词类可直接作句子成分,非谓语形式和从句也是构成句子成分的重要内容。但要正确理解全句的

关键是抓住句子的主干,即全句的主语和谓语。那么怎么抓全句的主谓成分呢?分清英语动词的谓语形式和非谓语形式就显得至关重要。

一. 动词的谓语形式和非谓语形式

谓语形式又叫限定形式。 什么意思呢?就是说,作谓语这个动词的形式受时态和主语人称限制,作相应的形式变化,不能是原形,或非谓语形式。所以任何一个句子的谓语都有时态变化和人称变化,如:

She bought chicken and turkey.

This is a strong wine.

I walk for two hours every day.

He walks for two hours every day.

但是,句子不可能都这样简短,这样信息量太少。一个句子中动词常常不止一个,那么除了谓语动词,其它动词只能用非谓语形式,作非谓语成分,如主语,宾语,宾补,定语,状语。

非谓语形式又叫非限定形式,即不受句子时态人称限制。如:I want to buy a book.。 I wanted to buy a book.。 非谓语动词有三种形式:不定式 to do,分词形式doing, done,动名词形式doing。

非谓语动词在句中可以充当除了谓语之外的任何成分,具体如下:

不定式的用法

1. 作主语

To compromise appears advisable.

To ignore this might have serious consequences.

To stop the work now seems impossible.

但这种情况下往往用it作形式主语,而把不定式真正主语放到后面去,避免主语太长出现头重脚轻的现象。 To say which is better is difficult. → It is difficult to say which is better.

To know all these facts is essential. → It is essential to know all these facts.

It’s an honour to meet you.

It’s a pity to waste so much money.

2. 作表语

His ambition was to be a film star.

His goal is to be a scientist.

This wall is to keep people out of the garden.

3. 作宾语

有些动词的承受者不一定是have a good idea, steal money 这样的名词概念,也可能是个动作,如“同意做某事,拒绝投降,停止抱怨,他承认犯了个错误”等。那么用英语怎么表达呢?在英语中这个动词后的动词就不可能是谓语形式,而只能是非谓语形式了。至于用哪种非谓形式,就看前面那个主要动词的要求了。如:同意agree to do sth; 拒绝refuse to surrender;停止stop complaining;承认he admitted making a mistake。哪些动词后面要求不定式,哪些要求动名词,大家要记一记。但也不完全是死记,一般说来,不定式表示即将发出的动作,动名词表示整个动作。

要求不定式作宾语的动词有:

afford v.(供的起,出得起,买的起)        I can’t afford to buy you a car, darling!

其它用法:I can’t afford your tuition.

agree v. (同意,答应,一致)              He agreed to pay $4,ooo for the car.

aim v.(目标是,旨在)                  Harry aims to become a doctor.

attempt v. (试图,企图)          They were caught when they were attempting to flee.

begin  (开始)                 He began to prepare for the dinner.

bother(麻烦,take trouble)    Don’t bother to answer the letter personally.

我们把某些形容词后带的不定式也叫定语,如:

She was eager to see her friends.

I am afraid to tell her.

I was sorry to hear that you were ill.

Helen was pleased to see him.

I’m proud to be a Chinese.

She was surprised to see George walk in.

4. 作宾补

advise (建议)         the doctor advised me to rest for a week.

allow (允许)              please allow me to introduce myself.

ask (请求…做…;叫…做…)   I asked Gorge to convey my best wishes to his mother.

beg (乞求)                   He begged her to forgive him.

cause (致使,导致)           what has caused the plants to die?

challenge (挑战)               he challenged me to fight.

command  (命令)                the officer commanded his man to fire.

但在某些感观动词(see, watch, hear, feel)使  动词(have, make let) 及notice后的不定式须省略to.如:

Did you see anyone enter the house?

I heard her lock the door.

She won’t let me do it.

Did you notice a man came in?

I won’t have him cheat me like that.

5. 作定语

We have a lot of things to do today.

This is not the right attitude to take.

He was the second man to hear the news.

He was the only one to survive the crash.

6. 作状语

不定式主要作目的状语,如:

We slept together to keep warm.

To do good work, one must have the proper tools.

作结果状语主要用于only to 结构中表一种出乎意料的情况,如:

He hurried to the place only to find the house empty.

If you arrive so late at the airport to find the guest has gone already, what’s the use of your going there?

不定式的逻辑主语

It won’t be easy to find a new job. → It won’t be easy for you to find a new job.

It isn’t right to marry for money. → It isn’t right for people to marry for money.

To run fast is dangerous. → for an old man to run fast is dangerous.

There’s no reason to doubt his words. →   There’s no reason for us to doubt his words.

动名词

我们在前面说了,由于表达的需要,主语,宾语,表语不一定是个名词概念,可能是个动词或动词短语,如:现在找工作不容易;散步是我唯一的运动。这里的“找工作”和“散步”既是动词(动词短语),又要作主语,就只能用动名词(finding a job, walking)了。

动名词实际上就是动词或动词短语加上ing 后,句法作用变成了名词。所以名词在句中有什么功能,动名词在句中就有什么功能,也就是说,名词在句中可作主语,宾语(介词宾语),表语,宾补,动名词也可作这些成分。

Her hobby is collecting stamps. (表语)   ①

Growing rose is her hobby. (主语)  ②

Gambling is forbidden in our country. (主语)  ③

There pastime is going to movies. (表语)  ④

Please stop talking. (宾语)

He was arrested for smuggling.(介词宾语)

不定式在句中大致也能作这些成分,那么他们的区别是什么呢?要抓住不定式和动名词的基本意义:不定式表示一个动作即将发出,而动名词表示这个动作的概念。

以上①②③④四个例句中的动名词换成不定式显然就不合适了。

再如To compromise appears advisable.

To stop the work now seems impossible.

不定式和动名词作宾语的区别也基于两者基本意义的差异,为了保险起见,大家最好记住接不定式作宾语和动名词作宾语的动词,以便自动使用。

I suggested bring the meeting to an end.

He admitted taking the money.

Do you enjoy teaching?

Avoid over-eating.

I couldn’t help laughing.

He considered going to see Paul in person.

He loves playing the piano.

I hate lying and cheating.

He kept complaining.

I couldn’t risk missing the train.

They’re practicing singing the new song.

He denied making any statement to that effect.

So you prefer living abroad?

Would you mind moving your car?

He didn’t recall saying it.

Your coat wants brushing.

动名词的逻辑主语

Their coming up to help was a great encouragement to us.

Mary’s grumbling annoyed him.

动名词还有一个重要的功能,就是作定语:

swimming pool     swimming suit     speaking contest    sleeping pill     drawing pin

writing paper    diving board       filling station       watering can       drinking water

waiting room     walking stick      parking lot       sewing machine       hearing aid

operating table    fishing line        sleeping bag         writing desk

分词

分词在句中的主要作用是作定语和状语,它的基本意义大家可以通过下面几个例句来理解:

现在分词

The manager approached us smiling

He rode away whistling.

Who is the woman talking to Jim?

There were 220 children studying in the art school.

The girl sitting next to me was my cousin.

通过分析以上例句,可见现在分词的逻辑主语是句子的主语,为了避免再用一套主谓结构,英语采用了分词形式。 过去分词

What is the language spoken in that country?

In the end the program offered by Wilson was adopted.

The experience gained will be of great value to us.

Seen from the hill, the city looks magnificent.

Judged by ordinary standards, he was reliable.

They came in, followed by their wives.

可见,现在分词和过去分词的作用是一样的,只是现在分词和句子主语之间是一种主谓关系,而过去分词和句子主语之间是一种动宾关系。

从句

从句共分三类:名词性从句,形容词性从句,状语性从句

1. 名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同位语从句)

名词性从句有三种类型:

1. That 引导的

That prices will go up is certain. → it is certain that prices will go up.

It’s a shame that you’re sick.

It’s said that there has been an earthquake in India.

I’ll call Betty and remind her that we are meeting at 8.

She informed me that she was to send for it the next day.

He assured the passengers that there was no danger.

2. 由连接代(副)词引导的

When he’ll be back depends much on the weather.

Whether the game will be held is uncertain. → it’s uncertain whether we’ll be able to come.

It was not clear to me why he behaved like that.

How the burglars got in was a mystery. → It was a mystery how the burglars got in.

It’s a puzzle how life began.

3. 由关系代词what 或whatever 引导的

What follows is the narrative of his experiences.

What he saw made him tremble.

They are not affected by what he said.

Give it to whoever you like.

2. 定语从句

The man (who robbed him) has been arrested.

The friend (with whom I was traveling) spoke French.

The film is about a spy (whose wife betrays him).

The car (which I hired) broke down.

At the time (when I saw him), he was quite strong.

This is the village (where I was born).

3. 状语从句

有些副词, 如directly和immediately亦可引导时间状语从句,其意义相当于as soon as, 如:

(1) I will come directly I have finished.

(2) Immediately he arrived, he started telling me what to do.

下句中hardly (scarcely)…when…与 no sooner… than…的意义也相当于as soon as

(3) Hardly (scarcely) had he gone when she appeared. 他一走, 她就出现了。

(4) No sooner had I gone outside than the phone rang. 我刚出屋电话铃就响了。

有些表时间的短语亦可引导时间状语从句,如the instance, the minute, the moment, the day, every time, each time, by the time, next time, the first (second, third) time, etc.

(5) Next time you come, please bring you composition.

(6) the minute he saw her he fell in love.

有些短语亦可引导原因状语从句, 如by reason that, for fear that, now that, on the ground that , seeing that, in case, etc.

(7) He took an umbrella with him, for fear it might rain.

(8) I do remember, now (that) you mentioned it.

(9) he resigned on the ground hta his health was failing.

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(21)

(1)

(2)

(3) (10) I’ll take my raincoat in case it rains. 原因状语从句也可由because of, by virtue of, in the light of, in view of, on account of, owing to, due to, etc. +the fact that 构成。 从属连词(that)有时亦有的含义, 尤其在与此同时连用的情况下: (11) If you don’t pay us, we could take you to court--- not that we would do such a thing. (12) Not that I dislike the work, but that I have no time. 目的状语从句中常用may (might); shall (should): will (would); can (could) 等情态动词: (13)Speak clearly so that they may understand you. Lest, in case 也可以引导目的状语从句,地但是是否定的意思, 意为, “以免”“以防”。 lest引导的常用should, would, could等虚拟式, 常用于书面形式,in case 引导的则不用: (14) take your umbrella in case it rains. (15) Take your umbrella with you lest it should rain. 结果状语从句由 that, so that, such that, with the result that 等引导: (16)Are you starving that you must steal? Have you another sweetheart hidden somewhere that you leave me in the cold? I was in the bath, with the result that I didn’t hear the telephone. It’s such a good chance that we mustn’t miss it. (也可看成程度状语从句) 程度状语从句由so that, such that, to the degree that, as far as, as long as 等引导: He was so angry that he could not speak. His anger was such that he could not speak. ( 较上句正式) 条件状语从句的关联词有, if, unless. Suppose, supposing, assuming, providing, provided, in the event, given, in case, on condition, as (so) long as: you’ll be late unless you hurry. (16) Suppose we are late, what will he say? (17) Supposing it rains, shall we go? (18) Providing you promise not to tell anyone else, I’ll explain the secret. (19)  Assuming that you are right, we’ll make a great deal of money out of the project. (20) He’ll do anything as long as it is interesting. 让步状语从句的关联词有though, although, even though, if, even if, for all that, in spite of the fact: they are good people, for all that their ways are not the same as ours. 由疑问词+ever 构成的复合词也可引导让步状语从句,不论或不管的意思:       (24)you can’t come in, whoever you are.        (25) whichever method you use, the result is much the same. 上述结构的复合词在口语中可由no matter+疑问词构成: 从属连词whether… or…, no matter whether … or 也可引导让步状语从句: (26) I’m going whether it is raining or not. (27) I’ll go whether you come with me or stay at home. 方式状语从句由 as, as if, as though, the way, how 等引导: He looks as if he is tired. Do it the way you were taught.  Do it how you can.

在非正式英语中,亦可用作关连词引导方式状语从句:

(30)Birds don’t have feelings like we do.

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