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Android测试基础整理篇

2015-11-24  tracyf

Android test framework


转载请注明来自:http://blog.csdn.net/liaoqianchuan00/article/details/23032357


1.  基本


1.  常用Assertions


l   assertEquals


l   assertFalse?


l   assertNotNull


l   assertNotSame


l   assertNull


l   assertSame


l   assertTrue


l   fail


 


2.  自定义输出语句









public void testMax() {


final int a = 1;


final int b = 2;


final int expected = b;


final int actual = Math.max(a, b);


assertEquals("Expection " + expected + " but was " + actual, expected,   actual);


}



3.   控件Assertions


l   assertBaselineAligned: Asserts that two views arealigned on their baseline, that is their baselines are on the same y location.


l   assertBottomAligned: Asserts that two views arebottom aligned, that is their bottom edges are on the same y location.


l   assertGroupContains: Asserts that the specifiedgroup contains a specific child once and only once.


l   assertGroupIntegrity: Asserts the specified group'sintegrity. The children count should be >= 0 and each child should benon-null.


l   assertGroupNotContains: Asserts that the specifiedgroup does not contain a specific child.


l   assertHasScreenCoordinates: Asserts that a view hasa particular x and y position on the visible screen.


l   assertHorizontalCenterAligned: Asserts that the testview is horizontally center aligned with respect to the reference view.


l   assertLeftAligned: Asserts that two views are leftaligned, that is their left edges are on the same x location. An optionalmargin can also be provided.


l   assertOffScreenAbove: Asserts that the specifiedview is above the visible screen.


l   assertOffScreenBelow: Asserts that the specifiedview is below the visible screen.


l   assertOnScreen: Asserts that a view is on thescreen.


l   assertRightAligned: Asserts that two views areright-aligned, that is their right edges are on the same x location. Anoptional margin can also be specified.


l   assertTopAligned: Asserts that two views aretop-aligned, that is their top edges are on the same y location. An optionalmargin can also be specified.


l   assertVerticalCenterAligned: Asserts that the testview is vertically center aligned with respect to the reference view.


 


4.  TouchUtils


l   Clicking on a View and releasing it


l   Tapping on a View, that is touching it and quicklyreleasing


l   Long clicking on a View


l   Dragging the screen


 


 


 









public void testListScrolling() {


       mListView.scrollTo(0, 0);


       TouchUtils.dragQuarterScreenUp(this, mActivity);


       TouchUtils.dragQuarterScreenUp(this, mActivity);


       TouchUtils.dragQuarterScreenUp(this, mActivity);


       TouchUtils.dragQuarterScreenUp(this, mActivity);


       TouchUtils.tapView(this, mListView);


       final int expectedItemPosition = 6;


       final int actualItemPosition =


         mListView.getFirstVisiblePosition();


       assertEquals("Wrong position",


         expectedItemPosition, actualItemPosition);


       final String expected = "Anguilla";


       final String actual = mListView.getAdapter().


         getItem(expectedItemPosition).toString();


       assertEquals("Wrong content", actual, expected);


}



 


5.  Mock对象


l   MockApplication: A mock implementation of the Application class. All methods arenon-functional and throw UnsupportedOperationException.


l   MockContentProvider: A mock implementation of ContentProvider. All methods arenon-functional and throw UnsupportedOperationException.


l   MockContentResolver: A mock implementation of the ContentResolver class that isolatesthe test code from the real content system. All methods are non-functional andthrow UnsupportedOperationException.


l   MockContext: A mock Context class. This can be used to inject otherdependencies. All methods are non-functional and throwUnsupportedOperationException.


l   MockCursor: A mock Cursor class that isolates the test code from real Cursorimplementation. All methods are non-functional and throwUnsupportedOperationException.


l   MockDialogInterface: A mock implementation of DialogInterface class. All methods arenon-functional and throw UnsupportedOperationException.


l   MockPackageManager: A mock implementation of PackageManager class. All methods arenon-functional and throw UnsupportedOperationException.


l   MockResources: A mock Resources class. All methods are non-functional and throw UnsupportedOperationException.


2.  框架结构


1     AndroidTestCase



 


当你需要用到Activity Context的时候就使用这个类,比如Resources,database,file system,你可以是用mContext来是用context。你可以用ontext.startActivity()来启动多个Activity。


有很多个testcase继承自这个类:


l   ApplicationTestCase<T extends Application>


l   ProviderTestCase2<T extends ContentProvider>


l  ServiceTestCase<T extends Service>


 


2     Instrumentation


这个是用来监视Activity和Application的,你可以用它来控制Activity的生命周期和用户交互事件。


 


l   我们可以是用Instrumentation.ActivityMonitor来监测一个Activity。例如:









public void testFollowLink() {


final Instrumentation inst = getInstrumentation();


IntentFilter intentFilter = new IntentFilter(Intent.ACTION_VIEW);


intentFilter.addDataScheme("http");


intentFilter.addCategory(Intent.CATEGORY_BROWSABLE);


ActivityMonitor monitor = inst.addMonitor(


IntentFilter, null, false);


assertEquals(0, monitor.getHits());


TouchUtils.clickView(this, mLink);              monitor.waitForActivityWithTimeout(5000);


assertEquals(1, monitor.getHits()); inst.removeMonitor(monitor);


}



 


l   使用Instrumentation来测试activities,它的生命周期的函数不会自动调用,只有onCreate方法会自动调用,你可以调用其他的生命周期通过getInstrumentation().callActivityOnXXX。


3     InstrumentationTestCase






它的子类:


l   ActivityTestCase


l   ProviderTestCase2<T extends ContentProvider>


l   SingleLaunchActivityTestCase<T extends Activity>


l   SyncBaseInstrumentation


l   ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2<T extends Activity>


l   ActivityUnitTestCase<T extends Activity>


 



注意:android.test.ActivityInstrumentationTestCase从Android1.5开始已经不建议使用了,可以是用android.test.ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2替代。



 


3.  例子程序


1.  被测试程序









package com.vogella.android.test.simpleactivity;


 


import android.app.Activity;


import android.content.Intent;


import android.os.Bundle;


import android.view.View;


 


public class MainActivity extends Activity {


 


  @Override


  protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {


    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);


    setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);


  }


 


  public void onClick(View view) {


    Intent intent = new Intent(this, SecondActivity.class);


    intent.putExtra("URL", "http://www.vogella.com");


    startActivity(intent);


  }


}



 


 


2.  单元测试









package com.vogella.android.test.simpleactivity.test;


 


import android.content.Intent;


import android.test.TouchUtils;


import android.test.suitebuilder.annotation.SmallTest;


import android.widget.Button;


 


import com.vogella.android.test.simpleactivity.MainActivity;


 


public class MainActivityUnitTest extends


    android.test.ActivityUnitTestCase<MainActivity> {


 


  private int buttonId;


  private MainActivity activity;


 


  public MainActivityUnitTest() {


    super(MainActivity.class);


  }


  @Override


  protected void setUp() throws Exception {


    super.setUp();


    Intent intent = new Intent(getInstrumentation().getTargetContext(),


        MainActivity.class);


    startActivity(intent, null, null);


    activity = getActivity();


  }


 


  public void testLayout() {


    buttonId = com.vogella.android.test.simpleactivity.R.id.button1;


    assertNotNull(activity.findViewById(buttonId));


    Button view = (Button) activity.findViewById(buttonId);


    assertEquals("Incorrect label of the button", "Start", view.getText());


  }


 


  public void testIntentTriggerViaOnClick() {


    buttonId = com.vogella.android.test.simpleactivity.R.id.button1;


    Button view = (Button) activity.findViewById(buttonId);


    assertNotNull("Button not allowed to be null", view);


 


    view.performClick();


   


    // TouchUtils cannot be used, only allowed in


    // InstrumentationTestCase or ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2


 


    // Check the intent which was started


    Intent triggeredIntent = getStartedActivityIntent();


    assertNotNull("Intent was null", triggeredIntent);


    String data = triggeredIntent.getExtras().getString("URL");


 


    assertEquals("Incorrect data passed via the intent",


        "http://www.vogella.com", data);


  }


 


}



 


3.  功能测试









package com.vogella.android.test.simpleactivity.test;


 


import android.app.Activity;


import android.app.Instrumentation;


import android.app.Instrumentation.ActivityMonitor;


import android.test.ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2;


import android.test.TouchUtils;


import android.test.ViewAsserts;


import android.view.KeyEvent;


import android.view.View;


import android.widget.Button;


import android.widget.TextView;


 


import com.vogella.android.test.simpleactivity.R;


 


import com.vogella.android.test.simpleactivity.MainActivity;


import com.vogella.android.test.simpleactivity.SecondActivity;


 


public class MainActivityFunctionalTest extends


    ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2<MainActivity> {


 


  private MainActivity activity;


 


  public MainActivityFunctionalTest() {


    super(MainActivity.class);


  }


  @Override


  protected void setUp() throws Exception {


    super.setUp();


    setActivityInitialTouchMode(false);


    activity = getActivity();


  }


 


  public void testStartSecondActivity() throws Exception {


   


   


   


    // add monitor to check for the second activity


    ActivityMonitor monitor =


        getInstrumentation().


          addMonitor(SecondActivity.class.getName(), null, false);


 


    // find button and click it


    Button view = (Button) activity.findViewById(R.id.button1);


   


    // TouchUtils handles the sync with the main thread internally


    TouchUtils.clickView(this, view);


 


    // to click on a click, e.g., in a listview


    // listView.getChildAt(0);


 


    // wait 2 seconds for the start of the activity


    SecondActivity startedActivity = (SecondActivity) monitor


        .waitForActivityWithTimeout(2000);


    assertNotNull(startedActivity);


 


    // search for the textView


    TextView textView = (TextView) startedActivity.findViewById(R.id.resultText);


   


    // check that the TextView is on the screen


    ViewAsserts.assertOnScreen(startedActivity.getWindow().getDecorView(),


        textView);


    // validate the text on the TextView


    assertEquals("Text incorrect", "Started", textView.getText().toString());


   


    // press back and click again


    this.sendKeys(KeyEvent.KEYCODE_BACK);


   


    TouchUtils.clickView(this, view);


  }


}



 


 


Robotium


https://code.google.com/p/robotium/wiki/RobotiumTutorials下载例子程序


 









public void testDisplayWhiteBox() {


 


              //Defining our own values to multiply


              float vFirstNumber = 10;


              float vSecondNumber = 20;


              float vResutl = vFirstNumber * vSecondNumber ;


             


              //Access First value (edit-filed) and putting firstNumber value in it


              EditText vFirstEditText = (EditText) solo.getView(R.id.EditText01);


              solo.clearEditText(vFirstEditText);


              solo.enterText(vFirstEditText, String.valueOf(vFirstNumber));


             


              //Access Second value (edit-filed) and putting SecondNumber value in it


              EditText vSecondEditText = (EditText) solo.getView(R.id.EditText02);


              solo.clearEditText(vSecondEditText);


              solo.enterText(vSecondEditText, String.valueOf(vSecondNumber));


             


              //Click on Multiply button


              solo.clickOnButton("Multiply");


             


              assertTrue(solo.searchText(String.valueOf(vResutl)));                         


              TextView outputField = (TextView) solo.getView(R.id.TextView01);          


              //Assert to verify result with visible value


              assertEquals(String.valueOf(vResutl), outputField.getText().toString());


       }



 


参考地址:


https://code.google.com/p/robotium/


 


https://code.google.com/p/robotium/wiki/RobotiumTutorials


 


1     简介


Robotium是一款国外的Android自动化测试框架,主要针对Android平台的应用进行黑盒自动化测试,它提供了模拟各种手势操作(点击、长按、滑动等)、查找和断言机制的API,能够对各种控件进行操作。Robotium结合Android官方提供的测试框架达到对应用程序进行自动化的测试。另外,Robotium 4.0版本已经支持对WebView的操作。Robotium 对Activity,Dialog,Toast,Menu 都是支持的。


 


类似于selenium。


 


2     API


Solo类中提供了自动点击、取得、拖拽、搜索等各种方法。 声明Solo类型的成员变量privateSolo solo;  


 


Activity&Fragment


assertCurrentActivity(text,Activity.class)- Ensure that the current activity equals the second parameter.


getCurrentActivity() .getFragmentManager().findFragmentById()-S earches for a fragment.


waitForActivity(SecondActivity.class,2000)- Waits for the specified activity for 2 seconds


点击 


clickOnButton(int)—Clickson a Button with a given index.


clickOnButton(String)—Clickson a Button with a given text. clickOnCheckBox(int)—Clicks on a CheckBox with agiven index.  clickOnView(View)—Clicks ona given View.  


clickOnText(String)—Clickson a View displaying a given text. clickLongOnText(String)—Long clicks on agiven View. clickOnRadioButton(int)—Clicks on a RadioButton with a given index.clickOnScreen(float, float)—Clicks on a given coordinate on the
screen.


clickInList(x);-Click on item number x in a ListView


clickOnSearch-Allows to click on part of the screen.


pressSpinnerItem(0,2);-Presses an item in a Spinner


sendKey(Solo.MENU);-Sends the menu key event.


goBack()-Pressthe back button


取得 


getCurrentActivity()—Returnsthe current Activity.  


GetText(String)—Returnsa TextView which shows a given text. 


getView(int)—Returnsa View with a given id.  


getEditText(String)—Returnsan EditText which shows a given text.  getImage(int)—Returns an ImageView with a given index. 


 


拖拽


drag(float,float, float, float, int)—Simulate touching a given location and dragging it toa new location.


 


搜索


searchText(String)—Searchesfor a text string and returns true if at least one item is found with theexpected text.


searchEditText(String)—Searchesfor a text string in the EditText objects located in the current Activity.   S


earchButton(String,boolean)—Searches for a Button with the given text string and returns true ifat least one Button is found.


waitForText(text)


输入


enterText()-Entersa text.


 


界面判断


isCheckBoxChecked()-Checksif the checkbox is checked.


 


截屏


takeScreenshot()-Savesa screenshot on the device inthe /sdcard/Robotium-Screenshots/ folder. Requiresthe android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE permission in theAndroidManifest.xml ofthe application under test.


 


 


 


4.  QA


1.    在不知道ID的情况下怎么获取特定的view?


答:例如,ArrayList<TextView> aa = solo.getCurrentViews(TextView.class), 然后断点调试查看是哪个view,TextViewtextview = aa.get(5);


 


2.    如何滚动和拖动?


答:solo.scrollXXX();solo.drag(初始X坐标,目标X坐标,Y,toY,步数); X,Y坐标可以通过HierarchyViewer工具获得,也可以通过Year.getLocationOnScreen(zuobiao)。


 


3.    Robotium和robolectric区别?


答:Robotium是通过ui线程进行测试,一般用于对应传统的集成或系统测试;


Robolectric 是单元测试框架,好处是第一运行在JVM上,速度、性能高;


解决了Android自身因为环境问题的缺点以及减少了许多用Mock的地方。


 


4. 如何识别webview对象?


答:可以根据XPATH来进行点击和输入


solo.clickOnWebElement(By.xpath(text));


solo.enterTextInWebElement(By.xpath(text),s);


或者根据ID来获取


solo.clickOnWebElement(By.id(text));


solo.enterTextInWebElement(By.id(text), s);


 


 


Mockito


1.  简介


流行的mock框架


 


# jMock


http://jmock.org/


# EasyMock


http://easymock.org/


# Mockito


http://code.google.com/p/mockito/


 


使用Mockito不能用在下面的情况:


final classes


anonymous classes


primitive types


 


2.  使用方法


when(....).thenReturn(....)


或者


doReturn(object).when(kdskfsk).methodCall


 


 


使用verify来保证方法被调用到了


 


例如:


 









@Test


public void test1()  {


  MyClass test = Mockito.mock(MyClass.class);


  // define return value for method getUniqueId()


  test.when(test.getUniqueId()).thenReturn(43);


 


  // TODO use mock in test....


 


  // now check if method testing was called with the parameter 12


  Mockito.verify(test).testing(Matchers.eq(12));


 


  // was the method called twice?


  Mockito.verify(test, Mockito.times(2));


 


 


}



 


3.  Mock和Spy的区别


如果你mock了一个类,那么这个类的所有的函数都被Mockito改写了(如果是没有返回值的函数,则什么都不作,如果是有返回值,会返回默认值,比如布尔型的话返回false,List的话会返回一个空的列表,int的话会返回0等等),如果你Spy了一个类,那么所有的函数都没有被改变,除了那些被你打过桩的函数。看例子:


 









public class TestServiceImpl 



    public int getOrderCounts() 


    { 


        return 10; 


    } 



@Test 


    public void MockVsSpy() 


    { 


        TestServiceImpl service = mock(TestServiceImpl.class); 


        //输出0,因为该函数被Mockito改写了 


        System.out.println("Order counts of mock object" + service.getOrderCounts()); 


        when(service.getOrderCounts()).thenReturn(2); 


        //输出2, 因为我们给这个函数打了桩 


        System.out.println("Order counts of mock object AFTER stubs " + service.getOrderCounts()); 


         


        service = new TestServiceImpl(); 


        service = spy(service); 


        //输出10, 因为Mockito spy 不会改写已有的函数 


        System.out.println("Order counts of spy object" + service.getOrderCounts()); 


        when(service.getOrderCounts()).thenReturn(2); 


        //输出2, 因为我们给这个函数打了桩 


        System.out.println("Order counts of spy object AFTER stubs " + service.getOrderCounts()); 


    } 



 


4.    如何写自定义的参数匹配器


看例子









public class Account 



    private String    name; 


    private String    adddress; 


 


    public Account(String name, String address) 


    { 


        this.name = name; 


        this.adddress = address; 


    } 


    ...get/set 函数 



public interface AccountDao 



    public void addAccount(Account a); 



 


public class AccountServiceImpl 



    AccountDao dao; 


     


    public AccountServiceImpl(AccountDao dao) 


    { 


        this.dao = dao; 


    } 


     


    public void addAccount(String name, String address) 


    { 


        dao.addAccount(new Account(name, address)); 


    } 



 


 


public class AccountServiceImplTest 



    @Test 


    public void addAccount() 


    { 


        AccountDao dao = mock(AccountDao.class); 


        AccountServiceImpl service = new AccountServiceImpl(dao); 


         


        service.addAccount("obama", "white house"); 


         


        verify(dao).addAccount(new Account("obama", "white house")); 


    } 




上面的例子会失败,因为Mockito在做参数匹配时是根据equals函数的结果来判断两个参数是不是一样的。而我们的Account类并没有对equals作特殊的实现,所以会失败。修正的方法有三个,一个是改写Account类的equals函数。一个是用Mockito的反射相等匹配,就是把最后一句改成。


 









verify(dao).addAccount(refEq(new Account("obama", "white house")));


 



 


最后一种方法是写一个自定义的参数匹配器,如果Account的代码不是你控制的,那么你就只能选这种方法了。这时候最后一句要改成这样:









verify(dao).addAccount(argThat(new ArgumentMatcher<Account>() 


        { 


            @Override 


            public boolean matches(Object argument) 


            { 


                Account person = (Account)argument; 


                return person.getName().equals("obama") && person.getAddress().equals("white house") ? true : false; 


            } 


        })); 



 


在Android中使用Mockito:


需要下载下面3个库文件。


http://dexmaker.googlecode.com/files/dexmaker-1.0.jar


http://dexmaker.googlecode.com/files/dexmaker-mockito-1.0.jar


https://code.google.com/p/mockito/


 



 


  

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