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牛津高中英语模块一定语从句详解 附习题。

 看那栀子花开 2016-01-10

定语从句。


定义。

an exciting match:形容词可以放在名词之前作定语,来修饰名词

the book in my hand:介词短语可以放在名词之后作定语,来修饰名词。

但如果修饰名词的定语不是某一个词或短语,而是一个句子时,我们就要使用定语从句。

定语从句通常跟在所要修饰的中心名词(先行词)之后,由关系代词或关系副词引导。  定语从句相当于形容词或者介词短语的作用。


注意。

1.从句相当于整个句子的一个成分,因此,从句不能单独使用。

She saw that he was sleeping.(宾语从句)

I am reading the article which is about your experience in the UK.(定语从句)

2.先行词

定语从句所修饰的词叫“先行词”,因为它总是处在定语从句的前头,比定语从句先行一步。

先行词通常为人、物或者是事情。

e.g. I am reading the article that is about  your experience in the UK.

3.关系词

从意义上说:先行词定语从句的组成部分从结构上说:先行词不在从句中出现  引导定语从句,并取代先行词在从句中的成分

e.g. I am reading the article that is about your experience in the UK. 关系词的功能:

1. 关系词作主语(动作发出者)

The trees are on the school campus. They have lost their leaves.

The trees which are on the school campus have lost their leaves.

2. 关系词作宾语(动作接受者)

We saw the student just now.  He is the best runner in our school.

The student whom we saw just now is the best runner in our school.

3. 关系词作表语

Jack used to be a lazy boy. He is no longer a lazy boy

Jack is no longer the lazy boy that he used to be.

4. 关系词作定语(通常为所有格)

She has a brother. I can’t remember his name.

She has a brother whose name I can’t remember.

5. 关系词作状语(时间状语、地点状语、原因状语)

The school is in Shenzhen. He studies in the school

The school where he studies is in Shenzhen.


4.定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。


关系词。

关系代词(relative pronouns)

who, whom, which, that, as, whose等跟在先行词的后面,指代先行词,引出定语从句。 在从句中充当主语、宾语、表语、定语的作用。


who的用法

先行词必须是人,作主语和宾语

e.g. The man who spoke at the meeting this morning is a famous lawyer. The girl who you saw just now is Jane.

作宾语时,可用whom, that替换, 可以省略。


whom的用法

先行词必须是人,作宾语。

通常可以省略

e.g. The girl whom / who / that you saw just now is Jane.


which的用法

先行词必须是事物,作主语和宾语

e.g. This is the book which / that was written in easy English by our English teacher.

作主语时,关系词不可省略。

The pictures (which / that) he drew in the 1980s are on show.

作宾语时,关系词可以省略。


注意(whom & which):

whom & which做介词宾语时,介词常可提前,即介词+whom/which+从句,此时whom & which不能由who或that代替,不能省略。

e.g. This is the man from whom your son always begs money.

The chair on which she is sitting is made of wood.

但当介词置于从句末尾时,whom可以由who或that代替,which可由that代替,都能省略。

e.g. This is the man (whom / that / who) your son always begs money from. 有一些动词短语中的介词是固定搭配,不可拆开,一般还是放在动词之后,不提前。  He is the student who the teachers are looking for.

The number of the children who she takes care of is 30.

动词短语是否可以拆分,关键看拆分后与拆分前的意思是否相同。如果意思不变,可以拆分,否则不行。


that的用法

1)that可作定语从句中的主语(取代who或which),宾语(取代who或whom或which)

2)关系代词作表语,必须使用that,指代人或物,可以省略。

e.g. My father is no longer the man (that) he was.

My hometown is not the small town that it used to be twenty years ago.

3)that的特殊用法


必须使用that的情况。

①当先行词是人+事物时。

e.g.They talked about the teachers and schools that they had visited.

The police had great trouble in diverting the men and the cars that had blocked the way.

②当先行词跟在系动词be后作表语,或关系词本身作定语从句的表语时,关系代词必须用that,但也可以省略

e.g.My father is no longer the man (that) he was.

He thought his daughter would be the dancer (that) she always wanted to be.  It’s a book (that) will help you a great deal.

③当先行词被形容词最高级、序数词如the first, the last 等词修饰时。

e.g. This is the best film that I have ever seen.

This is the first choice that I have made.

She is the most careful girl that I have ever known.

This is the last letter that I received from him.

④当先行词前面有the only, the very, one of, any, no, every, few, little等词修饰时。 e.g. The only person that seems to know the truth is Doctor Brown.

Any person that wants to succeed must work hard.

There is no difficulty that we can not overcome.

I have read all the books that can be borrowed here.

⑤当先行词本身为不定代词如anything, something, nothing, everything, all, much, few, little, none, the one时。

e.g.All that I want is peace and stability.

There is little that I can do.

There is nothing that I can tell you.

I have tried everything that I can think of.

I do not mean this one. I mean the one that was bought yesterday.

注意:anybody, nobody, everybody等不在此列。


不能使用that的情况。

①当定语从句前有介词时,关系代词不能用that。

②that不能用于非限制性定于从句。

③当先行词为one, ones, anyone, those, 指人时,用who。

e.g.Those who learn not only from books but also through practice will succeed.

④当先行词是he时,用who。(多谚语)

e.g.He who plays with fire gets burnt.

He who laughs at last laughs best.

⑤当先行词本身是that时,用which或who避免重复不能用于非限制性定于从句。 e.g.What’s that which flashed in the sky just now?


whose的用法

whose作定语从句中的定语,表示所修饰的“某(些)人的”或“某物的” 。  e.g.The boy whose name is Tom is the top student in my class.

Look at the house whose roof is red.

注意:

当whose指代物时,whose+从句结构 =…of which+从句 =of which the…+从句  e.g. Look at the house whose roof is red.

Look at the house, the roof of which is red.

Look at the house, of which the roof is red.


as的用法

1)as用于限制性定语从句

so …as;such…as;the same…as;

2)as用于非限制性定语从句。代表所修饰的句子,作用相当于which,但比which多一层“正如”的意思。

e.g.She is very careful, as (= which) her work shows.

It is like a snake, as (= which) anybody can see.

但要注意,当as从句置于句首时,as不能由which取代。

e.g. As he had hoped, he saw the play.

3)as的习惯用语

as we all know 众所周知

as is well-known 众所周知

as has been said before  如上所述

as we had expected 正如人们所预料的那样

as anybody can see 正如人人都看到的那样

as often happens 正如经常发生的那样


关系副词(relative adverbs)

when, where, why 等跟在先行词的后面,指代先行词,引出定语从句分别表示时间、地点和原因。在从句中充当状语的作用。

1)when 在定语从句中作时间状语

when代替at / in / on / during/since which等,在定语从句中作时间状语。

2)where 在定语从句中作地点状语

where代替at / in / to which等,在定语从句中作地点状语。


3)why 在定语从句中作原因状语

why引导从句作reason的定语,可以用for which取代,充当原因状语。

注意:当先行词为某个时间/地点/reason时,关系词的选择要依据关系词在从句中的

其他考点 关系词的省略

只有关系代词在从句中作宾语时可省略

The young man (who) you saw was our manager. There is something (that) we must keep in mind.

在表示方式的“the way”之后的定语从句有三种引导方式 I don’t like the way you answered my question. I don’t like the way that you answered my question. I don’t like the way in which you answered my question.

定语从句中主谓一致的问题

Mr. Smith, who ______ now downstairs, ______ asking to see you. Mr. Smiths, who ______ now downstairs, ______ asking to see you. Jeff is one of the students who ______ punished.

Jeff is the only one of the students who ______ punished. I, who ______ a senior high student, should learn hard

Keys:is,is;are,are;are;is;am.


that使用时候出现的矛盾

1. The very chair on ________ she is sitting is made of plastics. 2. My sister is a nurse, ______I am not.

Keys:which;who.

请找出下列各句中的错误并加以改正。

1. This is the factory where we visited last week.   2. This is the watch for which Tom is looking.

3. The person to who you spoke is a student of Grade Two.   4. The house in that we live is very small.

5. The sun gives off light and warmth, that makes it possible for plants to grow.

6. I’ve read all the books which I borrowed from the library.   7. This is the best film which I have ever seen.

8. My father and Mr. Smith talked about things and persons who they remembered in the country.

9. Everything which we saw was of great interest.   10. His dog, that was now very old, became ill and died.   11. The reason which he didn’t go to school is that he was ill.   12. Those who wants to go with me put up your hands.   13. The boy, his mother died last year, studies very hard.   14. I have two sisters, both of them are doctors.

15. We’re going to visit the school where your brother works there.   16. He is the only one of the students who have been invited to the English Evening.

17. That is the way which they work.

18. Those have questions can ask the teachers for advice.   19. Who is the man who has white hairs?

20. I will never forget the days which we had a good time together at the sea.

答案与部分解析:

1. where→that/which或去掉where。

2. 把for放在looking之后。英语中,有些短语动词,介词或副词不可与动词相分离。又如:look after, run into等。

3. who→whom。尽管在口语中who, whom都能作宾语,但在介词后只能用whom。   4. that→which。

5. that→which。that不可以引导非限制性定语从句。

6. which→that或去掉which。当先行词被all, every, no,some, any, little等修饰时,常用that引导定语从句。

7. which→that或去掉which。当先行词被序数词、形容词的最高级或the only,the very等所修饰时,常用that引导定语从句。

8. who→that。如果先行词既指人又指物时,常用that引导定语从句。

9. which→that或去掉which。当先行词为something, anything,everything, nothing, all等时,常由that引导定语从句。   10. that→which。

11. which→why/which前加for或去掉which。

12. wants→want。定语从句中谓语动词的数应与先行词一致。   13. his→whose。

14. them→whom或both前加and。   15. 去掉there。

16. have→has。当one of+名词复数作先行词时,从句的谓语用复数;但是当one前有the (only)时,从句谓语要用单数。

17. which→that/which前加in或去掉which。   18. Those后加who。

19. 第二个who→that。当主句是以who 或which开头的疑问句时, 定语从句常用that 引导, 以避免重复。

20. which→when或which前加in。  选择题

1.This is the best factory ____we visited last year .  A. where B. which C. in which D. that 2.Is this the factory ____computers are built ?  A. that B. which C. in which D. in that

3.please pass me the dictionary ____cover is red . A. whose B.its C. which D. which of 4.The man ____has arrived .

A. whom I told you B. that I told you

C. whom I told you about him D. I told you about 5. Do you know the comrade ____we are talking ?  A. to whom B. to who C. whom D. to that

6. They visited the house ___the great writer was born .  A. from where B. in which C. which D. in where

7. The comrade ___is speaking at the meeting is my teacher .  A. whom B. which C. who D. whose

8. He asked us to watch carefully everything ___he did in class .  A. who B. that C. what D. where

9. I’ll visit the professor tomorrow ,___he will be back from Shanghai .  A. who B. that C. when D. which 10.The school ___I study is a new one .

A. on which B. at where C. on that D. at which 11. China has many islands,____the largest is Taiwan .  A. in which B. at which C. which D. of which

12. The city ____my mother grew up is not far from here .  A. what b. where C. that D. which

13. Our teacher lives in the house ____door facts to the north .  A. which B. his C. that D. whose

14. Do you know the man ___your father nodded ?  A. whom B. to whom C. to who D. about whom 15.Wresting is a sport in ___people easily get hurt .  A. that B. when C. which D. what 16. I told you ____I know .

A. all that B. all which C. all what D. all whom

17.China has a lot of famous writers ,one ___is Lu Xun .  A. of which B. of whom C. of who D. of them 18. Is this factory ____we visited last year ?  A. in which B. around that C. whom D. the one 19. Who is the man ____was there ?  A. who B. which C. that D. whom

20. Is there anything ____I can do for you, sir ?  A. that B. which C. whose D. who

21. I still remember the day ____she first wore that green dress .   A. which B. in which C. on that D. on which

22. The knife ____we used to cut the bread is very sharp .  A. with which B. with it C. with that D. which

23. The games ____the young men competed in were difficult .  A. in which B. which C. it D. who   Key:

1-5DCCDA 6-10 BCBCD 11-15 DBDBC 16-20 ABDCA 21- 23 DAB

定语从句练习

1、The knife   which

2、The brave man,    which

3、The clever boy made a hole in the wall,  what it was going on inside the house.  which

4、The beautiful dress   which

5、During the days  Browns’.        them

9、You can take any seat

A.in which   D.which


to you?


B.which belongs D.that is belonged C.as

A.that belong C.that belongs A.where D.which


is free.


C.where

B.that

A.that followed C.following


.

B.you want them D.you want


it used to be. C.as

B.to follow

D.followed


, he worked as a servant at the

A.in which


Miss Jones went to the ball was

C.through which D.on

borrowed from a friend of hers.

B.worn by

A.on which

B.at which

C.through which D.in


he could see

A.of whom

the tiger was shot, is a good hunter. B.by that


C.by whom

D.by

A.which


we used to cut the bread is very sharp. B.with


C.with it


D.with

6、You may take anything useful

A.which you want  C.what you want  A.like  D.which


7、My hometown is no longer the same

B.that

8、The old woman has two sons, one

A.of who


B.of whom

is a teacher.

D.of

C.of which

10、Is there anything

11、We hope to get such a tool

B.that

he is using.

one

35、Crusoe’s dog became ill and died,

A.this D.as


in big cities.


B.that


made him very lonely.

C.which

C.this the school  A.whose


D.this school  family is in the city.


D.who

24、Is there any one in your class

B.which


25、Can you lend me the book

A.which you talked C.about that you talked  A.which has been shown  C.that have shown  A.that I spoke


C.who’s

the other day ?

B.that you talked

D.you talked about  this year.

B.that have been shown D.have been shown

B.I spoke to


are girls.

26、This is one of the best films

27、Do you know the man

C.to who I spoke  A.two-thirds in which C.two-thirds of them A.neither of them  C.neither of which  A.by it D.in which


D.whom I spoke B.two-thirds in them

writes well.

28、There are two thousand students in our school,

D.of whom two thirds

B.none of them D.none of which

C.with that

29、I have bought two ball-pens,

30、He built a telescope    he could study the skies.

B.through which


31、Do you know the reason  32、


he was late?


D.that

D.Which

A.for which B.for what  A.As  A.who D.as


B.That

C.which

has been said above, grammar is a set of dead rules.

C.What

had been expected. C.that

33、John got beaten in the game,

B.what

34、They’re invented me to their party,

A.this D.as


B.that

is kind of them.

C.which

36、There isn’t so much noise in the country


A.as  A.who D.which


B.where

C.which

D.that

37、I often thought of my childhood,

B.when

I lived on a farm. C.where

38、Next month,

A.where A.which D./


39、The next thing

you’ll be in your hometown, is coming.


C.that


D.which

B.when B.that

must be done is to make a plan.

C.when

interested him


40、He talked happily about the men and books

greatly in the school.

Ⅱ、Fill in the blanks: 1、This is the professor   2、The hospital  modernized. 3、This is the boy   4、The film   interesting.

5、Do you know the student  6、1949 is the year  founded.

7、They work in a factory   8、They work in a factory   our friends.

10、Here are players from Japan, some of  friends.

11、She lives in a small village,

she has some friends.


A.that D.which


B.when


C.who

taught me chemistry in 1980 .

was built five years ago has been  father died three years ago.

we saw the day before yesterday is very

was praised at the meeting?

the People’s Republic of China was

makes radio parts.  radio parts are made.


we can see and talk to

are our

old

9、This is the vision phone through

is only three miles from here.


12、She is going to spend the summer holidays in Shanghai,  13、We’ll put off the meeting till next week,   so busy.

14、The sun gives the earth light and heat,  important to the living things.


is


we won’t be

very

15、Those   names here.

want to go to the computer room write your


made his teacher very angry.


he had visited.

16、He was often late,  17、Who is the person

is standing at the gate?

18、He talked about the teachers and schools

Ⅲ、Correct the mistakes in the following sentences if there are any: 1、He told us about the countries where he had visited. 2、Egypt is a country where is famous for its pyramids. 3、China is the country where he spent the best part of his life. 4、The days when we spent together cannot be easily forgotten. 5、The house stands at the place that the two roads meet. 6、We shall visit the college where his father teaches there. 7、I know the reason that she looks so worried. 8、He left me the book, that is very useful for me. 9、This is the room which food is kept.

10、April 15, 1976 is the day when we’ll never forget. 11、The man came yesterday is our English teacher.

12、The students are playing football on the playground are of Class Two . 13、This is all which I can do for you.

14、Can you think of anyone who’s house was here? 15、The watch that Mother bought it for me works very well. 16、This is the only book that were borrowed from the library. 17、The day which she had to leave arrived at last. 18、The doctor whom they want to see have come.

19、Do you know the young man whom has been chosen chairman? 20、The park stands at the place that the two rivers meet. 21、A plane is a machine can fly.

22、It is one of the best pictures which have been sold. 23、Those that want to go put up your hands.

24、This is the knife with that the doctor did the operation. 25、Who is the man whom you said hello just now?

【答案】:

Ⅰ、1、D

Ⅱ、1、who / that

Ⅲ、1、where—that

去掉there

7、that—why 9、which—where 10、when—which / that 13、which—that


11、man后面加who    14、who’s—whose

12、students

15、


8、that—which


2、where—which  5、that—where


3、√

6、

4、when—that / which 4、which / that 5、who / that

8、where


10、whom  14、which     18、that


11、which 15、who

12、where 16、which

9、which 13、when 17、that


6、when


7、which / that

2、which / that


3、whose


5、A


7、C  12、B  17、D  22、A  27、B  32、A  37、B


8、B  13、B  18、C  23、C  28、D  33、D  38、B


9、D 14、D 19、C 24、A 29、C 34、C 39、B

10、C 15、C 20、D 25、D 30、B 35、C 40、A


2、C


3、C


4、A

6、D  11、C  16、D  21、A  26、B  31、A  36、A

后面加who

去掉it   16、were—was 19、whom—who


17、which—when

18、

have—has

20、that—where

21、machine后面加which / that  which—that

23、that—who


25、whom—that


22、24、that—which

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