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用其姓名命名了科学定律的科学家

2016-02-09  闲之寻味
 
 

用其姓名命名了科学定律的科学家

武夷山

 

   维基百科有一个词条是“以人名命名的科学定律一览”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_scientific_laws_named_after_people),即下表。我在表中补充了科学家的国籍,试翻译了有关定律的名称。我觉得,谁的名字被用来命名科学定律,也许比获得诺贝尔科学奖还了不起。该表中只有一位中国人,即数学家柯召。当然,这个表肯定是不全的。

 

Law,定律

Field,领域

Person(s) Named After,被冠名定律的科学家

Abel's theorem,阿贝尔定理

Calculus

Niels Henrik Abel,挪威

Amdahl's law,阿姆达尔定律

Computer science

Gene Amdahl,美国

Ampère's  circuital law,安培定律

Physics

André-Marie Ampère,法国

Archie's law

Geology

Gus  Archie,情况不详,谁能补充?

Archimedes'  principle
Axiom of  Archimedes,阿基米德原理

Physics
Analysis

Archimedes,古希腊

Arrhenius equation,阿伦尼乌斯方程

Chemical kinetics

Svante Arrhenius,瑞典

Avogadro's law,阿佛加德罗定律

Thermodynamics

Amedeo Avogadro,意大利

Bell's theorem,贝尔定理

Quantum mechanics

John Stewart Bell,北爱尔兰

Benford's law,本福特定律

Mathematics

Frank Benford。美国

Beer–Lambert law朗伯比尔定律

Optics

August Beer, 德国;Johann Heinrich Lambert,瑞士

Bernoulli's  principle
Bernoulli's  equation,贝努利方程

Physical sciences

Daniel Bernoulli,荷兰

Biot–Savart law

Electromagnetics, fluid dynamics

Jean Baptiste Biot ,法国,and Félix Savart,法国

Birch's law,伯奇定律

Geophysics

Francis Birch,美国

Bogoliubov–Born–Green–Kirkwood–Yvon  hierarchy

Physics

Nikolay Bogoliubov, 俄罗斯,Max Born, 德国,Herbert Green,英国,John Kirkwood, 美国,and J. Yvon,不详

Bogoliubov  transformation波戈留玻夫变换

Quantum mechanics

Nikolay Bogoliubov,俄罗斯

Boltzmann equation,波尔茨曼方程

Thermodynamics

Ludwig Boltzmann,奥地利

Born's law

Quantum mechanics

Max Born,德国

Boyle's law波义耳定律

Thermodynamics

Robert Boyle,英国

Bragg's Law,布拉格定律

Physics

William  Lawrence Bragg, William Henry  Bragg,布拉格父子,英国

Bradford's law,布拉德福定律

Computer science

博主补充:图书情报学

Samuel C. Bradford,英国

Buys Ballot's law白贝罗定律

Meteorology

C.H.D. Buys Ballot,荷兰

Byerlee's law拜耳萊定律

Geophysics

James  Byerlee,不详

Carnot's  theorem卡诺定理

Thermodynamics

Nicolas  Léonard Sadi Carnot,法国

Cauchy's  integral formula
Cauchy–Riemann  equations柯西-黎曼方程
  
See also: List of things named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy

Complex analysis

Augustin Louis  Cauchy,法国
Augustin Louis  Cauchy and Bernhard Riemann,德国

Cayley–Hamilton  theorem凯莱-哈密尔顿定理

Linear algebra

Arthur Cayley,英国, and William  Hamilton,爱尔兰

Charles's law查理定律

Thermodynamics

Jacques Charles,法国

Church–Turing  thesis邱奇-图灵论题

Computer science

Alonzo Church,美国, and Alan Turing,英国


 

Coulomb's law,库仑定律

Physics

Charles Augustin  de Coulomb法国

Law of Charles and Gay-Lussac(frequently called Charles's law)查理- ·吕萨克定律

Thermodynamics

Jacques Charles,法国, and Joseph Louis  Gay-Lussac,法国

Clifford's  theorem
Clifford's  circle theorems

Algebraic geometry, Geometry

William  Kingdon Clifford,英国

Curie's law,居里定律

Physics

Pierre Curie,法国

Curie–Weiss law,居里-外斯定律

Physics

Pierre Curie,法国, and Pierre-Ernest  Weiss,法国

D'Alembert's  paradox
D'Alembert's  principle,达朗伯原理

Fluid dynamics, Physics

Jean le Rond  d'Alembert,法国

Dalton's law of partial pressure道尔敦分压定律

Thermodynamics

John Dalton,英国

Darcy's law,达西定律

Fluid mechanics

Henry Darcy,法国

De  Bruijn–Erd?s theorem

Mathematics

Nicolaas  Govert de Bruijn ,荷兰,and Paul Erd?s,匈牙利

De Morgan's law,摩根定律

Logic

Augustus De Morgan,英国

Dermott's law底摩特定律

Celestial mechanics

Stanley  Dermott,不详

Descartes' theorem,笛卡尔定理

Geometry

René Descartes,法国

Dirac equation,狄拉克方程
Dirac delta  function
Dirac comb
Dirac spinor
Dirac operator
  
See also: List of things  named after Paul Dirac

Mathematics, Physics

Paul Adrien  Maurice Dirac,英国

Drake equation,德雷克方程

Cosmology

Frank Drake,美国

Doppler effect,多普勒效应

Physics

Christian Doppler,奥地利

Ehrenfest's  theorem埃伦费斯特定理

Quantum mechanics

Paul Ehrenfest,荷兰

Einstein's general theory of  relativity
Einstein's special theory of  relativity爱因斯坦相对论
  
See also: List of things  named after Albert Einstein

Physics

Albert Einstein,德国

Erd?s–Anning  theorem
  
See also: List of things  named after Paul Erd?s

Mathematics

Paul Erd?s,匈牙利, and Norman H. Anning,加拿大

Erd?s–Beck theorem

Mathematics

Paul Erd?s and József Beck,生于匈牙利

Erd?s–Gallai  theorem

Mathematics

Paul Erd?s and Tibor Gallai,匈牙利

Erd?s–Kac theorem

Mathematics

Paul Erd?s and Mark Kac,波兰-美国

Erd?s–Ko–Rado  theorem

Mathematics

Paul Erd?s, Ke Zhao, 柯召(中国)andRichard Rado,德国-英国

Erd?s–Nagy theorem

Mathematics

Paul Erd?s and Béla  Sz?kefalvi-Nagy,匈牙利

Erd?s–Rado theorem

Mathematics

Paul Erd?s and Richard Rado,德国-英国

Erd?s–Stone  theorem

Mathematics

Paul Erd?s and Arthur Harold  Stone,英国

Erd?s–Szekeres  theorem

Mathematics

Paul Erd?s and George Szekeres,匈牙利-澳大利亚

Erd?s–Szemerédi  theorem

Mathematics

Paul Erd?s and Endre Szemerédi,匈牙利-美国

Euclid's theorem,欧几里德定理

Number theory

Euclid,古希腊

Euler's theorem,欧拉定理
  
See also: List of things  named after Leonhard Euler

Number theory

Leonhard Euler,瑞士

Faraday's law  of induction法拉第感应定律
Faraday's law  of electrolysis

Electromagnetism
 Chemistry

Michael Faraday,英国

Faxén's law

Fluid dynamics

Hilding Faxén,瑞典

Fermat's principle,费马大定理
Fermat's last  theorem
Fermat's  little theorem

Optics
 Number theory
 Number theory

Pierre de Fermat,法国

Fermi paradox,费米能级
Fermi's golden  rule
Fermi acceleration
Fermi hole
Fermionic field
Fermi level
  
See also: List of things  named after Enrico Fermi

Cosmology, Physics

Enrico Fermi,意大利

Fick's law of  diffusion菲克扩散定律

Thermodynamics

Adolf Fick,德国

Fitts's law菲茨定律

Ergonomics

Paul Fitts,美国

Fourier's law,傅里叶定律

Thermodynamics

Jean Baptiste  Joseph Fourier,法国

Gauss's law,高斯定律
Gauss's law  for magnetism
Gauss's  principle of least constraint
Gauss's  digamma theorem
Gauss's  hypergeometric theorem
Gaussian function
  
See also: List of things named after Carl Friedrich Gauss

Mathematics, Physics

Johann Carl  Friedrich Gauss,德国

Gibbs–Helmholtz  equation,吉布斯-亥姆霍兹公式

Thermodynamics

Josiah Willard  Gibbs, 美国,Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von  Helmholtz德国

G?del's  incompleteness theorems,哥德尔不完备性定理

Mathematics

Kurt G?del,奥地利-美国

Graham's law格雷姆定律

Thermodynamics

Thomas Graham,英国

Grimm's law,格林法则

Linguistics

Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm,格林兄弟,德国

Gustafson's law古斯塔夫森定律

Computer science

John L.  Gustafson,美国

Heisenberg's  uncertainty principle海森伯不确定性原理

Theoretical physics

Werner Heisenberg,德国

Hellmann–Feynman  theorem赫尔曼-费恩曼定理

Physics

Hans Hellmann德国, Richard Feynman,美国

Henry's law,亨利定律

Thermodynamics

William Henry,英国

Hertz  observations,赫兹观察

Electromagnetism

Heinrich Hertz,德国

Hess's law赫士定律

Thermodynamics

Germain Henri Hess,瑞士-俄罗斯

Hilbert's  basis theorem
Hilbert's axioms,希尔伯特公理
Hilbert  function
Hilbert's  irreducibility theorem
Hilbert's  syzygy theorem
Hilbert's  Theorem 90
Hilbert's  theorem

Mathematics

David Hilbert,德国

Hohenberg–Kohn  theorem

Quantum mechanics

Pierre Hohenberg,法国-美国, and Walter Kohn,奥地利-美国

Helmholtz's  theorems,亥姆霍兹定理
Helmholtz  theorem
Helmholtz free  energy
Helmholtz  decomposition
Helmholtz equation
Helmholtz  resonance

Thermodynamics
 Physics

Hermann von  Helmholtz,德国

Hooke's law,胡克定律

Physics

Robert Hooke,英国

Hopkinson's law霍普金森定律

Electromagnetism

John Hopkinson,英国

Hubble's law,哈勃定律

Cosmology

Edwin Hubble,美国

Hund's rules洪特规则

Atomic physics

Friedrich Hund,德国

Huygens–Fresnel  principle惠更斯-弗雷斯涅尔原理

Optics

Christiaan Huygens ,荷兰,and Augustin-Jean  Fresnel,法国

Joule's laws焦耳定律

Physics

James Joule,英国

Jurin's law朱林定律

Physics

James Jurin。英国

Kasha's rule卡莎规则

Photochemistry

Michael Kasha,美国

Kepler's  laws of planetary motion开普勒行星运动定律

Astrophysics

Johannes Kepler,德国

Kirchhoff's  laws,基尔霍夫定律

Electronics, thermodynamics

Gustav Kirchhoff,德国

Kopp's law柯普定律

Thermodynamics

Hermann Franz  Moritz Kopp,德国

Lagrangian point
Lagrange  reversion theorem
Lagrange  polynomial
Lagrange's  four-square theorem
Lagrange's  theorem,拉格朗日定理
Lagrange's  theorem (group theory)
Lagrange invariant
Lagrange  multiplier
  
See also: List of things named after Joseph-Louis Lagrange

Mathematics, Astrophysics

Joseph-Louis  Lagrange,法国

Lamm equation,兰姆方程

Chemistry, Biophysics

Ole Lamm,瑞典

Langmuir equation,朗缪尔方程

Surface Chemistry

Irving Langmuir,美国

Laplace transform,拉普拉斯变换
Laplace's equation
Laplace operator
Laplace  distribution
Laplace invariant
Laplace expansion
Laplace  principle
Laplace limit
  
See also: List of things named after Pierre-Simon Laplace

Mathematics
 Physics
 Probability Theory
 Statistical mechanics

Pierre-Simon  Laplace,法国

Le Chatelier's  principle勒夏特列原理

Chemistry

Henri Louis le  Chatelier,法国

Leibniz's law,莱布尼茨定律

Ontology

Gottfried  Wilhelm Leibniz,德国

Lenz's law,楞次定律

Physics

Heinrich Lenz,俄罗斯

Leonard–Merritt  mass estimator

Astrophysics

Peter Leonard, 不详,David Merritt,美国

l'H?pital's rule罗必达法则

Mathematics

Guillaume de  l'H?pital,法国

Mach principle,马赫原理
Mach reflection

Physics

Ernst Mach,奥地利

Marconi's law,马可尼定律

Radio technology

Guglielmo Marconi,意大利

Markovnikov's rule马尔科夫尼科夫规则

Organic chemistry

Vladimir  Markovnikov,俄罗斯

Maupertuis'  principle莫佩尔蒂原理

Mathematics

Pierre Louis  Maupertuis,法国

Maxwell's  equations,麦克斯韦方程
Maxwell relations

Electrodynamics
 Thermodynamics

James Clerk  Maxwell,英国

Mendelian  inheritance/Mendel's laws,孟德尔遗传规律

Genetics

Gregor Mendel,奥地利

Metcalfe's law梅特卡夫定律

Network theory

Robert Metcalfe,美国

Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein  effect米赫耶夫斯米尔诺夫沃尔芬斯坦效应

Particle physics

Stanislav Mikheyev,苏联, Alexei Smirnov苏联, andLincoln  Wolfenstein,美国

Milner–Rado  paradox

Mathematical logic

Eric Charles  Milner ,英国,and Richard Rado,德国-英国

Minkowski's  theorem,闵可夫斯基定理

Number theory

Hermann Minkowski,德国

Mitscherlich's law米切利希定律

Crystallography
 Condensed matter physics

Eilhard Mitscherlich,德国

Moore's law,摩尔定律

Computing

Gordon Moore,美国

Nash embedding  theorem
Nash equilibrium,纳什平衡

Topology
 Game Theory

John Forbes Nash,美国

Nernst equation,能斯特方程

Electrochemistry

Walther Nernst,德国

Newton's law of cooling
Newton's  law of universal gravitation
Newton's laws  of motion牛顿运动定律
  
See also: List of things  named after Isaac Newton

Thermodynamics
 Astrophysics
 Mechanics

Isaac Newton英国

Noether's theorem,诺特定理

Theoretical physics

Emmy Noether,女,德国

Nurgaliev's law

Demography

Nurgaliev  I.S.,不详

Nyquist–Shannon  sampling theorem奈奎斯特-香农采样定理

Information theory

Harry Nyquist, 瑞典-美国,Claude Elwood Shannon,美国

Occam's razor,奥肯剃刀

Philosophy of science

William of Ockham,英国

Ohm's law,欧姆定律

Electronics

Georg Ohm,德国

Osipkov–Merritt  model

Astrophysics

Leonid Osipkov,不详,, David Merritt,美国

Ostwald  dilution law奥斯瓦稀释定律

Physical chemistry

Wilhelm Ostwald,俄罗斯-德国

Paley–Wiener  theorem

Mathematics

Raymond Paley,英国, and Norbert Wiener,美国

Pareto  distribution,帕累托分布
Pareto efficiency
Pareto index
Pareto principle

Economics

Vilfredo Pareto,意大利

Pascal's law,帕斯卡定律
Pascal's theorem

Physics
 Geometry

Blaise Pascal,法国

Pauli  exclusion principle,泡利不相容原理

Quantum mechanics

Wolfgang Pauli,瑞士-美国

Peano axioms皮亚诺公设

Foundational mathematics

Giuseppe Peano,意大利

Planck's law,普朗克定律

Electromagnetism

Max Planck,德国

Poincaré–Bendixson  theorem

Mathematics

Henri Poincaré,法国, and Ivar Otto  Bendixson,瑞典

Poincaré–Birkhoff–Witt  theorem

Mathematics

Henri Poincaré,法国, George David  Birkhoff, 美国,andErnst Witt,德国

Poincaré–Hopf  theorem

Mathematics

Henri Poincaré,法国, and Heinz Hopf,德国

Poincaré  recurrence theorem
Poincaré  conjecture,彭加勒猜想
Poincaré lemma
  
See also: List of things  named after Henri Poincaré

Mathematics

Henri Poincaré,法国

Poiseuille's  law泊肃叶定律

Fluidics

Jean Léonard  Marie Poiseuille,法国

Poisson  distribution,泊松分布
Poisson's equation
  
See also: List of things named after Siméon Denis Poisson

Statistics
 Calculus

Siméon Denis  Poisson,法国

Price's theorem

Natural selection

George R. Price,美国

Ptolemy's theorem,托勒密定理

Geometry

Ptolemy,埃及

Pythagorean  theorem,毕达哥拉斯定理

Geometry

Pythagoras。古希腊

Raman scattering,拉曼散射

Physics

Sir  Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman,印度

Rado's theorem

Discrete mathematics

Richard Rado,德国-英国

Ramanujan–Nagell  equation
  
See also: List of things named after Srinivasa Ramanujan

Mathematics

Srinivasa  Ramanujan,印度, and Trygve Nagell,挪威

Raoult's law拉乌尔定律

Physical chemistry

Fran?ois-Marie  Raoult,法国

Riemann zeta function
Riemann hypothesis
Riemann integral
Riemann lemma
Riemannian  manifold黎曼流形Riemann sphere
Riemann theta  function
  
See also: List of things named after Bernhard Riemann

Number theory, analysis, geometry

Bernhard Riemann,德国

Rolle's theorem,罗尔定理

Differential calculus

Michel Rolle,法国

Saha  ionization equation萨哈电离方程

Plasma physics

Meghnad Saha,印度

Schr?dinger  equation薛定谔方程

Physics

Erwin Schr?dinger,奥地利

Sérsic's law

Astrophysics

J.  L. Sérsic,不详

Snell's law,斯涅尔定律

Optics

Willebrord van  Roijen Snell,荷兰

Sokolov–Ternov  effect索克洛夫-特诺夫效应

Particle Physics

Arsenij Sokolov俄罗斯, and Igor Ternov,俄罗斯

Sommerfeld–Kossel  displacement law

Spectroscopy

Arnold Sommerfeld ,德国,and Walther Kossel,德国

Stefan–Boltzmann  law

Thermodynamics

Jo?ef Stefan ,奥地利,and Ludwig Boltzmann,奥地利

Stokes' law,斯托克斯定理

Fluid mechanics

George Gabriel  Stokes,爱尔兰

Stoletov's law斯托列托夫定律

Photoelectric effect

Aleksandr Stoletov,俄罗斯

Tarski's  undefinability theorem
Tarski's axioms,塔斯基定理
  
See also: List of things  named after Alfred Tarski

Mathematical logic, Geometry

Alfred Tarski,波兰-美国

Thales' theorem泰勒斯定理

Geometry

Thales,古希腊

Titius–Bode law提丢斯-波得定则

Astrophysics

Johann Daniel  Titius,德国, and Johann Elert Bode,德国

Torricelli's law,托里拆利定律

Physics

Evangelista  Torricelli,意大利

Umov effect

Physics

Nikolay Umov,俄罗斯

Van der Waals  equation,范德瓦尔斯方程

Chemistry

Johannes  Diderik van der Waals荷兰

Vlasov equation

Plasma physics

Anatoly Vlasov,俄国

Von Neumann  bicommutant theorem
Von Neumann  entropy
von Neumann  paradox.诺依曼悖论
Von Neumann  ergodic theorem
Von Neumann  universe
Von Neumann  neighborhood
Von Neumann's  trace inequality
  
See also: List of things named after John von Neumann

Mathematics, Quantum mechanics

John von Neumann,匈牙利-美国

Weinberg–Witten  theorem,温伯格-威滕定理

Quantum Gravity

Steven Weinberg,美国 and Edward Witten,美国

Weyl character  formula
  
See also: List of things  named after Hermann Weyl

Mathematics

Hermann Weyl,德国

Wien's law,维恩定律

Physics

Wilhelm Wien,德国

Wiener–Khinchin  theorem

Mathematics

Norbert Wiener,美国 and Aleksandr Khinchin,苏联

Young–Laplace  equation,杨-拉普拉斯方程

Fluid dynamics

Thomas Young,英国, and Pierre-Simon  Laplace,法国

Zipf's law,齐夫定律

Linguistics

George  Kingsley Zipf,美国

 




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