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2016新版八年级英语下册单元知识点总结Unit 3

2016-04-10  aazzmn
Unit3 Could you please clean your room?
Peter ,could you please take out the trash? 彼得,你能把垃圾倒了吗?
Could you please do sth ?请你(做)......好吗? 用于提出请求,希望得到对方的肯定回答,说话的语气比较客气委婉。
Could 不是can的过去式,是委婉、礼貌的说法。回答用can.
【常用答语】肯定回答:Sure./ Of course./ Certainly./No problem.   否定回答: Sorry , I can’t
2、take out 取出(v+ adv)
【注】: 跟代词做宾语,代词放中间;跟名词做宾语,可放在中间,也可放在后边
His teeth hurt badly. The dentist take them out .
【短语】take out the trash 倒垃圾  take a walk 散步  take away 拿走,取走
 take back 收回     take place 发生   take off   脱下; 起飞
3. Can you do the dishes.?那你可以洗盘子吗?
   do the dishes 洗碗
 【结构1】do the +名词:    do the dishes/ laundry 洗餐具/衣服
 【结构2】do the +动词-ing   do the cleaning 打扫卫生
 【结构3】do one’s + 名词   do one’s housework/ homework 做家务/家庭作业
 【结构4】do some +动词-ing  do some reading/ shopping  读写书/购物
Could I at least finish watching this show? 至少让我看完这个节目可以吗?
1】Could I do a sth? 我可以做......吗?
用于表达请求,语气比较委婉。 Could I go out with my classmate this weekend?
2】at least 至少,多指数量或程度上的最低限度。(反) at most 至少,不超过
Now all of us exercise at least an hour a day and outside school.
3】finish v 结束;完成     finish doing sth 做完某事
 — Can you finish __reading__ these books before 10 o'clock?      — Yes, I can.
5、I think two hours of TV is enough for you! 我觉得你看两个小时的电视已经足够了。
1】two hours of TV 表示时间、距离、金额、度量等词语作主语时,通常被视作整体,谓语动词用单数形式。
     How time is flies! Three years __is_____(be) really a short time.

【记】 Mr. Smith has enough money ,but he isn’t kind enough to help others.
【注意】enough 修饰名词时,置于名词前;修饰形容词时,置于形容词之后。                      
6、Could you take out the rubbish,fold the clothes and do the dishes?
   你能把垃圾倒了。把衣服叠好,再把碗洗了吗?
【解析】take out 拿出;取出
take 的用法:                                                 
                              
【拓展】take 构成的短语:
take a walk 去散步  take a rest 休息  take care of 照顾  take off 脱下;起飞   take up 占据   take down 拿下   take one’s time 不急;慢慢来   take one’s temperature 量体温
7. The minute I sat down in front of the TV, my mom came over .
 我刚坐在电视机前面,我妈妈就过来了。
【解析1】the minute = as soon as  “一...... 就......”   Please write to me the minute you get there.
【解析2】 in front of

【记】 The driver sat _____in the front of___________ the car. The policeman stood ___in front of________ the car.
【注意】有the无the区别大:

【解析3】come over 过来
 【拓展】 come 短语:
come across(偶然)发现   come back 回来        come up with想出 
come true实现         come down下来       come from=be from来自,出生于
come in/into进入,进来  come on赶快,加油      come along走吧,过来,快点
come and go来来去去  come up上来           come out出来,(花)开,(照片)冲洗出来
 7. You watch TV all the time and never help out around the house! 你总是看电视,从不帮忙做家务!
all the time  = always 一直;总是
 8. I’m just as tired as you are! 我和你一样累!   【解析】as...as ...   和......一样......
9. For one week , she did not do any housework and neither did I.   一周的时间,她不做任何家务,我也不做。
【解析】neither +助动词/系动词/情态动词 +主语   “某人(主语) 也不”
⑴ neither两者都不
neither …nor… 既不…也不…,连接两个词做主语,谓语动词由后一个主语确定Neither Tom nor Jim is a student
⑵ 表达“…也不……” 则用 “Neither /Nor + be / V助 / V情 + 主”
 —The first one wasn’t bad. — Neither was the second.  
10. The next day , my mom came home from work to find the house clean and tidy.
 第二天,妈妈下班回到家后发现房间很干净、整洁。
【解析】find +宾语+宾语补足语
【注】find → found →found v寻找
  (1) find sb. doing sth 发现某人做某事
  (2) find it + adj. + to do sth 发现做某事很……
◆find it difficult/ hard to do sth 发现做某事很困难 She found _it__ hard to finish the work by herself.
  11.  She asked in surprise.她吃惊地问道。
【解析】in surprise 惊奇地;吃惊地
surprise v 使吃惊→surprising adj. 令人吃惊的 →surprised adj. 吃惊的
 to one’s surprise 使某人吃惊的是     in surprise 吃惊地   be surprised at 对……感到吃惊
To my surprise_(使我吃惊的是),he got the first prize in the exam.
12. “ I’m do sorry, Mom. I finish understand that we need to share the housework to have a clean and comfortable home.” I replied.
 “对不起,妈妈。我终于理解为了拥有一个干净、舒适的家我们需要共同来分担家务。” 我回答说。
【解析1】need  v 需要
用于肯定句,是实义动词。
(1)人做主语,sb. need to do sth 某人需要做某事
(2)物做主语,sth need doing sth= sth need to be done
 ①Students need ___to have_______(have) a good rest in studying. ②The watch needs__mending___(mend).
用于否定句或疑问句,是情态动词
(1)needn’t = don’t have to 没有必要
(2)need ,must 引导的一般疑问句,肯定会的用must,否定回答用needn’t
  — Must I go there now?     — Yes,you must/No, you needn’t
【解析2】share 分享;共用    share sth 分享或共用某物      share sth with sb. 与某人分享某物
(All his friends __Shared___ his happiness when he won the match.
 13.Could I hang out with my friends after the movie? 看完电影后我能和朋友们一起闲逛吗?
【解析】hang out 闲逛   hang up 把......悬挂/挂起
14. Could you please pass me the salt?你能把盐递给我吗?
【解析】pass  ⑴v 给;递;走过;通过    pass sb.sth 把某物递给某   Pass on 传递 
Please pass the paper on to the other students.
 ⑵ v 通过;路过 I pass your home.
 ⑶ v 通过(考试) ;及格 Tom can pass his math exam.
15. Could I borrow that book?我能借下你那本书看吗、
    Could you lend me some money?你能借我一些钱吗?
【解析】borrow /lend/keep
(1)borrow 借入 ,与from 连用,尤指主语“【借进来”】
borrow sth from sb. 从某人那里借某物 You can borrow the book from the library.
(2)lend 借出 ,与to 搭配 【指借出去】
 lend sb sth=lend sth to sb 把某物借给某人He doesn’t want to lend his book to others.
 (3)keep 保留,保存(延续动词,可以与表示一段时间的状语连用)【指借一段时间】
【记】 I want to __borrow__ a bike from my friend but he didn’t _lend___ it to me,
       because Tom had _kept____ it for two days.
16. I cut my finger and I’m trying not to get it wet.
  我的手指割伤了,伤口不能弄湿。
【解析】try (not) to do sth努力(不)做某事。
 try   v 试图,设法,努力 
【拓展】 (1)try on 试穿
         (2) try to do sth 努力做某事 【侧重尽力做】 
         (3) try doing sth 试图做某事 【侧重尝试做】
(4)try one’s best to do sth= do one’s best to do sth 尽某人最大努力做某事
17. I hate to do chores. 我讨厌做家务。
hate to do sth 讨厌做某事, 表示某次具体行为或动作。   I hate to trouble him.
 hate doing sth不愿意做某事 表示经常或习惯性行为或动作。   She hates smoking in her room.
18.Could I ask you to help me with some chores then?
    那我能请求你帮我做些杂活吗?
【解析】ask sb. to do sth 要求某人做某事。
         ask for 请求,要某物 
ask sb. about sth 向某人询问关于某事
 (1)ask sb. for help 向某人请求帮助   
(2) ask sb. (not) to do sth请求某人做某事
ask构成的短语:
短语含义
ask sb. to do sth请某人做某事
ask sb. not to do sth不让某人做某事
ask sb for sth向某人要某物
ask for help寻求帮助
19.I’ll finish my homework while you help me with the dishes.   当你帮我洗盘子的时候,我将完成我的家庭作业。
【解析1】finish doing sth 完成某事
— Can you finish _reading__ these books before 10 o’clock?     — Yes, I can.
【解析2】while conj. “在……期间; 当……的时候”
While 引导的时间状语从句的谓语动词只能是延续动词。
_While __ the children have fun, parents can take dance lessons on the beach.
【解析3】help sb. with sth. 在某事上帮助某人。
【注】help v 帮助 → helpful adj. 有帮助的
(1)help sb. do sth. =help sb. with sth. 帮助某人做某事
(2)with the help of  sb.=with one’s help在某人的帮助之下
(3)without the help of 没有在…的帮助之下
①I think reading is very __helpful____(help).
② __Without____ your help, we couldn’t catch the thief.
20. Could I invite my friends to a party? 我能邀请我的朋友们来聚会吗?
【解析】invite sb. to Sp. 邀请某人去某地
【解析】invite  v → invitation  n邀请
(1) invite sb. to do sth 邀请某人做某事
(2)invite sb. to +地点 邀请某人去某地
21.I don’t understand why some parents make their kids help with housework and chores at home.
   我不理解为什么有些父母在家让孩子们帮忙做家务和杂务。
【解析】make sb. do sth 让某人做某事
make → made →made v. 做, 制作, 使得
(1) make sb/sth + 形容词   “让某人或某物…”  make you happy
 (2) make sb/sth do sth 使某人做某事          make me laugh.
Colors can change our moods and make us _feel__ happy or sad, energetic or sleep.     
22.They don’t have time to study and do housework,too.
   他们也没有时间来学习家务和做家务。
【解析】have time to do sth.有时间做某事
have time =be free 有空
23. Housework is a waste of their time. 做家务是在浪费他们的时间。
【解析】a waste of 浪费    a waste of time 浪费时间     a waste of money 浪费金钱
waste   v “浪费”
 waste time/money on sth         waste time / money (in) doing sth 在做某事上花费时间/金钱
Don’t ____waste______water. Can’t you see the sign “save water”?
24.They should spend their time on schoolwork in order to get good grades and
   get into a good university. 为了取得好成绩并考上一所好大学,他们应该把时间用在学习上。
【解析1】spend... on  sth 在某事上花费......    
spend/pay/cost/take 花费
(1)spend→spent→spent v 花费,主语是人
   ◆ sb.+ spend +时间/钱+on sth    ◆sb. +spend +时间/钱+(in) doing sth
◆spend on= pay for 支付
He spends too much time on the computer games.
 Remember to spend some time _with_ your loved ones, because they’re not going to be around forever.
 My father __spent___ one hundred thousand yuan on his new car. 
(2) pay →paid →paid v 支付,主语是人
   ◆sb.+ pay + 钱+for sth      I pay 10 yuan for the book.
     — How much did you __pay__ for this computer?     — Five hundred dollars.
(3) cost→ cost→ cost  v 花费,主语是某物或某事
  ◆sth cost sb. +钱  某物花费某人多少钱
 A new computer costs me a lot of money.
 I bought a new sweater last weekend. It ___cost_ me 120 yuan.
(4)take→took → taken v 花费
◆It takes /took sb. some time to do sth. 做某事花费某人多长时间
It takes him 3 hours to do his homework.
【解析2】in order to “目的是;为了”   后接动词原形。 in order to do sth 为了做某事
He ran quickly in order not __to be___ late for the meeting.
【解析3】get into =enter 进入
【拓展】与get相关的短语:
get up 起床  get back 返回   get over 克服
get dressed穿衣  get into进入     get/be lost丢失   get off/on下/上车
get on well with sb.与某人相处得好  get out of从…出来   get warm 变暧
get ready for +n.为…做准备        get ready to do sth.准备做某事
get well康复  get a chance 有机会、得到机会
get/go to sleep(fall asleep)入睡    相关:(be asleep睡着)
25.Also,when they get older, they will have to do housrwork so there’s no need for them to do it now.
 而且,当他们长大的时候,他们也将会做家务,因此,他们没必要现在在做。
【解析】get older 长大
 get/ become/ go辨析:
⑴get+adj较多地与形容词比较级连用。 The days are getting longer and longer.
⑵become 强调变化的结果  It's becoming colder and colder.
⑶go+adj.''表示令人不快的事情  go bad变坏,go blind变瞎,go hungry挨饿
26. It is the parents’ job to provide a clean and comfortable environment at home for their children. 在家为孩子们提供一个干净、舒适的环境是父母的义务。
【解析】provide sth. for sb. 为某人提供某物
provide v 提供
provide sb. with sth. (sb 前介词用for) =provide sth for sb.( sth 前需加介词with)供应某人某物
相当于:offer sb. sth. = offer sth to sb.
provide为应急等做好准备而“提供; 供给”provide sb. with sth. =provide sth for sb.提供某人某物
offer侧重表示“愿意给予”offer sb. sth. = offer sth to sb.对某人提供某物 offer to do sth 主动提出干某事
supply定期“供应” , 强调替代或补充所需物品Supply sb. with sth=supply sth. to sb. 为某人提供某物
     
①The Internet provides us _with__a lot of _information___we need.
② —Could you please provide us _with___ some information about the students’ health?  — Of course, it’s my pleasure.  
27. And anyway, I think doing chores is not so difficult.   无论如何,我认为做家务并不那么难。
【解析】anyway 无论如何,  (一般放在句首,用逗号和句子隔开)
28. I think it is important for children to learn how to do chores and help their parents with housework.
我认为对孩子们来说,学习如何做杂务并帮助他们的父母做家务是很重要的。
【解析】It is important for sb. to do sth. 对某人来说做某事是重要的
29. Children these days depend on their parents too much. 现在的孩子太依赖他们的父母。
【解析】depend on 依靠;信赖
—— Shall we go for a picnic tomorrow?   —— Well, it all ___depends on____ the weather.
30.  ... Everyone should do their part in keeping it clean and tidy.
   每个人都有责任保持家里的干净和整洁。
【解析1】 do one’s part 尽职责;尽本分    Do one’s part in doing sth 在做某事上尽职责
【解析2】keep +sth /sb. +adj.  “使......处于某种状态”
   Her mother asked her to keep the windows __open__ and the door __closed__.
keep  系动词 “保持” keep + adj . We must keep healthy.
实义动词 “保持;继续”
(1)  keep ( on ) doing sth 继续做某事  He was in great pain but he kept on working
  He kept on __ talking__ after the ball rang for class.    
 (2) keep sb. Doing sth 让某人一直做某事 I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for so long.
My teacher kept me __doing___ homework all the afternoon.  
31. Doing chores helps to develop children’s independence and teaches them how to look after themselves.  做杂务不仅可以培养孩子们的独立性还可以教  他们如何照顾自己。
【解析】develop independence 培养独立意识
       develop v→development n 发展→developing adj. 发展的→developed adj. 发达的
a developing country 一个发展中国家a developed country 一个发达国家   China is a __developing___country.
32.  Since they live in one house with their parents, they should know that everyone should do their part in keeping it clean and tidy.既然他们和父母同住在一个房子里,他们应该知道保持家里干净、整洁每个人都应该参与。
【解析】since  conj. 既然  (表示对方已知的事实或理由,常放在句首)
.—You have been in Neijiang very long?   —Yeah. __Since___my parents came here.
33. Our neighbor’s son got into a good college but during his first year, he had n idea how to take care of himself. 我们邻居的儿子上一所好大学,但是在第一年的时候,他还不知道如何照顾自己。
take care of 照顾Thanks for your invitation, but I’m so sorry I can’t go. I need to ___take care of___ my baby at home.【拓展】与take相关的短语:
take photos/pictures 照像  take away拿走 take out取出(work out算出)       take care当心   take a walk散步
take medicine服药    take place发生take one’s temperature量体温    take one’s time别着急            
34. As a result , he often fell ill and his grades dropped.  结果,他常常生病,功课也落下了。
【解析1】as a result 结果 (插入语,放在句首,用逗号隔开)
 Don’t ask him too late into the night, __As a result___ , he is only a small child.
【解析2】fall ill 生病  fall asleep 入睡
35 .The earlier kids learn to be independent , the better it is for their future.孩子们越早学会独立,对他们的未来越好。
【解析】the + 比较级, the + 比较级   “越...... 越...... ”
The more you smile, the ___ happier____ you will feel.

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