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【难点突破】阅读理解推理判断题的破解锦囊

2016-05-15  包劲

特约作者:四川 杨树根


  高考英语阅读理解中的推理判断题所占的比重较大,同时难度也较大,很多考生对解答此类题感到很吃力,没有把握。笔者在此从设题方式、解题思路和解题方法这三个方面来讲述如何破解这类难题。  


推理判断的类型及设问方式
1.推断隐含意义

  What can be inferred from the text?

  Which of the following can be concluded from this passage?  

2.推断人物的观点或态度

  What's the author's attitude towards...

  How does sb. feel about this issue? 

3.推断文章的主旨要义

  Which of the following can be the best title for the text?

4.推断写作目的

  What is the purpose of writing this article?

  In writing the passage, the author intends to ________. 

5.推断文章出处

  Where would this passage most probably appear?

  Where does the text probably come from?

  The passage is most likely to be taken from ________. 

6.推断读者对象

  What kind of people is the text mainly meant for? 

7.推断篇章结构

  Which of the following shows the structure of the passage?

  The second paragraph is developed by ________.

解题思路


  做推理判断题时要从整体上把握语篇内容,在语篇的表面意义与隐含意义、已知信息与未知信息间架起桥梁,透过字里行间去体会作者的弦外之音。

  首先,考生在阅读时,要抓住文章的主题和细节,分析文章结构,根据上下文的内在联系挖掘文章的深层含义。在进行推理时,考生一定要仔细阅读短文,千万不可脱离原文主观臆断。

  其次,对于暗含在文章中的人物的行为动机和事件之间的因果关系及作者未言明的倾向、意图、态度、观点等要进行合乎逻辑的分析、推理和判断,进一步提高理解能力,抓住材料实质性的东西。

  最后,解答推理性问题时,要清楚所解答的问题是针对某个细节进行推断,还是针对主题或作者的意图进行推断,不能以偏概全。针对细节的推断可运用扫读的方法,迅速确定推理依据的位置或范围,然后再进行推理判断。对主旨要义作推断时,要依据文章的主题思想,然后再分析句子之间的逻辑关系,区分观点与例证、原因与结果、主观点与次观点。  


解题方法

1.抓住特定信息进行正向推理或逆向推理

  做此类试题时一定要善于抓住某一段话中的关键信息,即某些关键词、短语或句子,利用正向或逆向思维去分析,从而推断出深层含义。

  【2016大连高级中学月考】 Learning English has always involved both pain and pleasure, private effort and social activity. Traditional learning provided take-it or leave-it mixes of these as well as of content but in the future learners will be able to choose a plan which suits their cultural and psychological dispositions(性情), or their particular needs at that moment. They, rather than their teachers, will decide how, what and when they will learn.

  【试题】 What can be inferred from the passage?

  A. Learning English means no pain in the future.

  B. English training schools will not be popular with young people in the future.

  C. English learners will become less independent in the future.

  D. More attention will be paid to personal needs in English learning in the future.

  【解析】 D。由该段中的关键信息”but in the future learners will be able to choose a plan which suits their cultural and psychological dispositions(性情), or their  particular needs at that moment”可知,将来的英语学习会更注重个人的需要,故选D。 

2.整合全文(段)信息进行推断

   做推理题时,需要在弄懂全文意思的基础上,整合与题目相关的有用信息,综合起来去推理判断,从而确定最佳结论。

  【2016绵阳一诊】 When we moved in a month ago, Mary wanted to get a dog to keep out burglars. However, we finally decided that it would be cheaper to put an iron grille in front of the door and get a burglar alarm.

  ...

  That night I soon fell asleep because I was confident that no one could get into our house undetected. At about 1:50 a.m. I woke up suddenly and heard the siren... Oh, my gosh. The back door was unlocked. I rushed to lock it and it was just at that exact moment that the ‘burglar’ disappeared behind a curtain. Guess what? It was an ordinary house lizard(蜥蜴). Apparently the alarm system had been made for American or European homes in which lizards are never seen. I switched the alarm off and sat down to watch. A few moments later, a lizard ran across a wall, right in front of one of the alarm units.

  I won't bother to finish this story but if you'd like a burglar alarm system free of charge, just let us know.

  【试题】 What will the author do after the incident?

  A. He will sell the alarm to someone else.

  B. He will buy a dog to keep out burglars.

  C. He will fix the alarm system immediately.

  D. He will file a complaint to the company.

  【解析】 B。由最后一段中的”but if you'd like a burglar alarm system free of charge, just let us know”可知,作者不想用这套报警系统了,再结合第一段中的”Mary wanted to get a dog to keep out burglars”可知,作者最终很可能会买一条狗来防贼,故选B。 

3.利用语境的褒贬性进行信息推断

  很多文章的语境都有一定的褒贬性,这种褒贬性反映了人物的特定心理和情绪状态以及作者的写作意图,利用好文章语境的褒贬性就能在把握文章主旨大意的基础上进行准确的逻辑判断。

  【2016大庆铁人中学阶段考试】 Well, he finally went his way, down the hill. Shoot him? Not me. You wouldn't, either. Not long after that I just watched him go, a strong deer carrying a proud head.

  I picked up my gun, and started walking back. Suddenly, I heard two shots, one after another. If you have hunted much, you will know what two shots mean. They mean a kill. I had forgotten that there were other hunters around.

  You will now understand why I gave up hunting from that day on.

  【试题】 We can know that the passage is written in a(n)________ tone from the passage.

  A. worried    B. excited

  C. sad     D. happy

  【解析】 C。根据最后两段的内容可知,作者是以一种很忧伤的笔调来写这篇文章的,故选C。  

4.根据上下文的逻辑得出结论

  逻辑结论是指严格根据文章中所陈述的事实、论点、例证等进行推理,从而得出合乎逻辑的结论,而不是根据自己的经验、态度、观点或爱好去理解文章的内涵。做这类推理判断题时,应把握作者的写作思路,预测下文可能发展的内容。文章可能按事件发展的经过描写,也可能按因果关系和对比关系来描写。

  【2016新疆华山中学月考】 Using hot water to wash hands is therefore unnecessary, as well as wasteful, Carrico said, particularly when it comes to the environment. According to her research, people use warm or hot water 64 percent of the time when they wash their hands. Using that number, Carrico's team calculated a significant impact on the planet.

  ”Although the choice of water temperature during a single hand wash may appear unimportant, when multiplied by the nearly 800 billion hand washes performed by Americans each year, this practice results in more than 6 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions annually,” she said.

  【试题】 The figures in the passage are used to show that ________.

  A. using hot water to wash hands has a bad influence on our planet

  B. air pollution has become more and more serious

  C. using hot water to wash hands is a waste of energy

  D. people should pay more attention to the environment around us

  【解析】 A。 ”Using that number, Carrico's team calculated a significant impact on the planet”为过渡句,该句有承上启下的作用,下一段引用的数据事实上就是为了证明用热水洗手给地球带来的消极影响,故选A。 

5.推断作者以及文章中人物的观点、态度

  作者的态度是指作者对陈述的观点是赞同、反对还是中立,对描写的人、物或事件等是赞颂、同情、冷漠还是厌恶、憎恨。作者的这种思想倾向和感情色彩往往隐含在文章的字里行间或流露于修饰性的词语之中。

  【2016大连八中月考】 There was no refrigerator, nothing electric. But nobody was ever better at making do(凑合). In addition to all the housework, she went to the fields every day to help produce a crop to pay the rent to provide for the family. She and my dad worked hard to save every penny possible.

  They saved every penny to buy a farm late in life. They also saved enough money to live out their respective lives with home care without taking up residency in a nursing home. They were very independent. If you had suggested they accept a government transfer payment, they would have spit in your eye.

  【试题】 How does the author find his parents?

  A. Brave and hard-working.

  B. Modest and warm-hearted.

  C. Economical and independent.

  D. Respective and satisfied.

  【解析】 C。根据作者描述父母的信息”They saved every penny to buy a farm late in life”以及”lives with home care without taking up residency in a nursing home. They were very independent”可知,在作者眼中父母是节俭和独立的,故选C。

6.根据文章的首尾段推测文章的要义

  【2016扬州中学月考】 (首段)Wikipedia is a free-access, free-content Internet encyclopedia(百科全书), supported and hosted by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Wikipedia is ranked among the ten most popular websites and is considered the Internet's largest and most popular general reference book. Now, Wikimedia is becoming Wookieepedia as scientists hope the informative website will help us reach out to intelligent life forms. So aliens can learn about the human race.

  …

  (尾段)Signals from Earth's radio and TV broadcasts have been heading out in space for some 60 years reaching around 5,000 stars.

  【试题】 Which of the following can be the best title for the text?

  A. Wikipedia, the most popular website

  B. Wikipedia to be beamed into space

  C. Wikipedia, aliens' best friend

  D. Wikipedia to result in a disaster

  【解析】 B。根据首尾段可知,科学家向外星文明发送维基百科,希望这个网站能帮助外星人了解地球,也帮助我们联系外星人。所以Wikipedia to be beamed into space为最佳标题。 

7.根据文章的标题、主题段、话题段以及文章的结构推测写作目的

  【2016宁夏育才中学考试】 There are a lot of talks these days about how kids should be interested in science. Here's an area of science for everyone, and these cool new books might inspire you to discover your inner scientist.

  Scaly Spotted Feathered Frilled by Catherine Thimmesh, 58 pages, ages 9-12.

  【试题】 The main purpose of the passage is to ________.

  A. compare features of different books

  B. inspire people to become scientists

  C. teach children some knowledge of science

  D. recommend new science books to children

  【解析】 D。根据文中的”these cool new books ... scientist”和”58 pages, ages 9-12”可知,本文是一则广告,介绍了适合儿童阅读的科学方面的新书,故选D。 

8.根据主题段、话题段推断文章的出处

  【2016大连八中月考】 Plan on traveling around the USA this summer. If you need help in arranging the trip, or want ideas about where to go and what to do, there are a number of outstanding websites that can make your American dream come true.

  www. byways. org

  The National Scenic Byways Program covers 150 memorable roads...

  【试题】 Where does the text probably come from?

  A. A news report.

  B. A tourist brochure.

  C. A culture journal.

  D. A health column.

  【解析】 B。根据”there are a number of outstanding websites that can make your American dream come true”可知,文章介绍的是几个与旅游有关的网站,故选B。

  【点拨】 解答这类题主要从文章的体裁和题材内容来判断其出处。报刊:前面会出现日期、地点或通讯社名称;广告:用词和格式特殊,容易辨认;产品说明:器皿、设备的使用说明会有产品名称或操作方式,而药品的服用说明会告知服用时间、次数、药量等。

9.根据主题段、话题段推断文章的写作对象

  【2016福建闽清高中考试】 The principles about applying for jobs have altered greatly lately. In the past, people preferred a hand-written application letter.However, nowadays it is becoming more and more common to apply for a job through the Internet.You can find information on the Internet about how to apply for jobs.Information can be found about how to fulfill your application letter, the clothes that you should wear and how to carry out the interview itself.

  【试题】 What kind of people is the text mainly meant for?

  A. Interviewers.

  B. Job-hunting people.

  C. Employers.

  D. Lay-off workers.

  【解析】 B。根据该段中的信息”The principles about applying for jobs have altered greatly lately”和”You can find information on the Internet about how to apply for jobs”可知,本文主要讲求职的一些途径和注意事项,所以本文的写作对象是求职者,选B。

金考卷ID:TX-JKJ


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