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高级中学课本 英语 第三册 8课

2016-11-29  OK外语角

高级中学课本 英语 第三册 8课

 (2011-07-22 17:34:32)

LESSON EIGHT

CHARLES DARWIN

Two men were deep in argument. They were men of wealth and good education. The discussion was taking place in the library of a large country house which one of them owned. Gradually the argument became more heated. It was about a book which lay on the table in front of them. They disagreed about some of the views in the book. Both of them had read it carefully. Then they had read some of the chapters again and again. One of the men held the view that what the book said was right. The other was sure that it was wrong.

The year was 1859. The book had not long been published and had shocked many learned people in Britain. Its title was the Origin of Species, written by Charles Darwin. He had set out to question views about how life had developed on the Earth. In doing so, he had thrown doubt on some people’s religious beliefs. And religion was such an important part of life at that time that some people were quite angry with Darwin. How dare he attack beliefs and ideas which had been held for centuries?

Darwin’s views were the result of years of careful observation, thought and study. One of his most important ideas was that different types of living creatures on the Earth had not been created suddenly. Instead, they had been developing over thousands of millions of years. In the struggle for life, some species had not been successful. They had died out. Others, however, remained because they were able to fit in with their surroundings. This was what was known as “the survival of the fittest.”

The book was not meant to be an attack on Christian belief. Darwin simply set out the facts that he believed to be true. And he based his ideas on scientific experiment. He did not want to make a statement without trying to prove it. But naturally, the Origin of Species was seen as a book written against religion. Its ideas did not agree with what was written in the Bible. For example, Darwin’s points about slow evolution did not agree with the story of how Man was created in the Bible. Therefore the book caused great interest and argument, and its author was soon the centre of attention.

Darwin was born in 1809 at Shrewsbury, where he went to school. Later, he studied medicine at Cambridge. However, he was very interested in plants, animals and geology. Therefore when the opportunity arose to go on a most important and interesting voyage for scientific study, he took it.

The journey lasted for five years, from 1831-36. It took him to many different parts of the world. Wherever he went, Darwin made a most careful study of the animal and plant life found there. He was not prepared to accept the usual teachings about how things developed. In true scientific manner, he like to put ideas to the test. If possible, he wanted proof before he would believe something.

After Darwin returned to Britain he married and settled down to live in Kent. He lived and worked there for the rest of his life. For much of the time he suffered from bad health. However, his work continued. Over the years he read widely. Gradually he gathered together the proof for his beliefs. One of Darwin’s friends, Alfred Wallace, was also a naturalist. Wallace and Darwin agreed on the way in which different forms of life had begun. Some of their work was published in 1858. Immediately, it aroused interest. Darwin’s main work, the Origin of Species, was published a year later, in November 1859. The book was received so eagerly that it was sold out on the first day!

Then came the arguments. Most scientists of the time were prepared to accept what Darwin said. The man was something of a genius. He had made his points carefully. Proof was given to support his views. But many people simply could not believe that what he had written was true. It was so different from what the Church taught, and Church leaders declared that Darwin’s book was an attack on Christian belief. So, many of them wrote and spoke out strongly against it. One of these was the Bishop of Oxford, who took part in a debate against T.H.Huxley, a well known scientist. The views which they spoke in public showed the great differences between many scientists and many church people. The Bishop said that Darwin’s ideas were wrong. Huxley asked him to offer proof, as Darwin had done. The Bishop mainly read statements from the Bible.

The argument went on for many years. The whole question was of interest to a large number of people. Whether or not they agreed with Darwin’s views, many of them thought deeply.

Darwin lived on until 1882. Later in his life, he wrote several other books. But none of them caused the kind of interest and argument that had come in 1859. His Origin of Species was one of the most important books published during the nineteenth century.

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

Charles Darwin 查理士.达尔文(1809-1882,英国博物学家,进化论的创立者)

Argue vi. & vt.辩论;争论;讨论 argument n.辩论;争论;论据,论点

Wealth n.财富,财产

Discussion n.讨论;议论

Gradually adv.逐渐地

Heated adj.激烈的;兴奋的;加热的

Disagree vi.意见不同;不一致

View n.看法,见解;景色

Hold vt. 怀有,持有(见解等)

Title n.标题;书名;头衔;称号

Origin n.起源;开端

Species n.(单复数相同)种类;(生物分类)种

Set out陈述;说明;打算,试图

Doubt n.vt. & vi. 怀疑;不相信 throw doubt on使人对……产生怀疑

Religion n.宗教;宗教信仰 religious adj.宗教的;虔诚的

Attack n. & vt. 进攻;攻击

Observation n.观察;观测

Create vt. 创造;创作;引起;造成

Die out 消灭,死绝

Fit in with适应,适合

Surrounding n.(pl.)周围的事物;环境 adj.周围的

Survival n.幸存(者);生存

Christian n.基督教徒 adj.基督教的

Base vt. 基于,以……作根据

Scientific adj.科学的;合乎科学的

Statement n.陈述,声明

Naturally adv. 自然地;天然地;当然,不用说

Bible n. 基督教的《圣经》;犹太人的《圣经》

Evolution n.发展;演变;(生物的)进化

Therefore adv. 因此;所以

Centre n.中心

Medicine n. 医学;内科学

Shrewsbury n. 舒兹伯利(英格兰西部一城市)

Cambridge 剑桥(英格兰东部一城市,因剑桥大学而著名)

Geology n. 地质学

Opportunity n.机会;良机

Arise (arose, arisen) vi.起来;升起;出现

Teaching n.教学;(常用复数)教导;学说

Put to the test试验,检验

Proof n.证据;证明;论证

Settle down定居;成家

Kent n.肯特(英格兰东南部一郡)

Alfred Wallace 阿尔弗雷德.华莱士(1823-1913,英国博物学家)

Agree on 对……意见一致

Naturalist n. 博物学家

Arouse vt. 唤醒;引起;激起

Genius n.天才;天才人物

Point n.观点;论点;要点 make one’s point立论,证明论点

Church n.教会

Bishop n.(基督教的)主教

Oxford n.牛津(英国一城市)

Debate n., vt. & vi. 争论;辩论;讨论

Huxley赫胥黎(Thomas Henry, 1825-1895,英国生物学家)

Live on继续活着,继续存在

NOTES TO THE TEXT

1.       They disagreed about some of the views in the book.他们对书中的某些观点意见不一致。
disagree
意思是have different opinions(持有不同的意见)
disagree about something
对某事意见不一致。例如:
They disagree about the plan.
他们对这个计划意见不一致。
disagree with somebody about something
对某事跟某人意见不同。例如:
I disagree with you about this.
这件事我跟你的意见不同。

2.       One of the men held the view that what the book said was right.两个人中有一个认为书上说的是正确的。
held the view = had the opinion
句中that引导的从句是the view的同位语。What the book said是这个同位语从句的主语。

3.       The book had not long been published and had shocked many learned people in Britain. 这本书出版还不久,它已经使英国的许多学者感到震惊。

4.       He had set out to question views about how life had developed on the Earth. 他的意图是对地球上的生命是如何产生的那些观点提出质疑。
set out to do something
意为to intend to do something(打算或试图做某事)。
about how life had developed on the Earth
是定语,修饰views

5.       In doing so, he had thrown doubt on some people’s religious beliefs. 他这样做,使人们对某些人的宗教信仰产生了怀疑。
in doing so
when he questioned views about how life had developed on the Earth
throw doubt upon
使人对……产生怀疑。

6.       Instead, they had been developing over thousands of millions of years.(而)它们是经历了亿万年的演化过程的。
had been developing
是过去完成进行时。这种时态表示在过去某时以前一直在进行的动作。又如:
At last we got the letter we had long been expecting.
 终于我们收到了盼望己久的信。
介词over在这里的意思是in the course of(在……期间)。

7.       Fit in with适应;适合。
She doesn’t fit in with the life there.
她不适应那里的生活。

8.       This was what was known as “the survival of the fittest.”这就是人们所说的“适者生存”。

9.       Darwin simply set out the facts that he believed to be true.达尔文只是阐述了自己相信是真实可靠的事实。
set out
在这里是“阐述”、“表达”(make known or clear)的意思。又如:
He sets out his ideas in simple English.
他用简单的英语表达他的思想。
that he believed to be true
是定语从句,修饰the facts

10.   And he based his ideas on scientific experiment. 而他的看法是建立在科学实验的基础上的。
base … on
基于;以……作依据。又如:
He based his arguments on facts.
 他以事实作辩论的依据。

11.   He did not want to make a statement without trying to prove it.他不愿意不加证明地提出一种看法。
make a statement
陈述(事实,看法等)。
介词短语without trying to prove it用作状语,修饰动词不定式短语to make a statement

12.   Its ideas did not agree with what was written in the Bible.书中的看法与圣经中所写的不相符合。

13.   Therefore when the opportunity arose to go on a most important and interesting voyage for scientific study, he took it.因此,当为了科学考察而去进行一次极其重要而有趣的远航机会到来时,他就抓住了这个机会。
不定式短语to go on a most important and interesting voyage for scientific study用作定语,修饰the opportunity。这个定语太长,而谓语又太短,为了使句子保持平衡,便把它移到了谓语动词arose的后面。在英语中,这种使定语跟它所修饰的词分隔开来的现象颇为常见。又如:A new master will come tomorrow who will teach you German.教你们德语的新老师明天就到。
It was dark when the knock came at the door.
天黑的时候听到了敲门声。

14.   Wherever he went, … 无论他到哪里,……
Wherever
在这里是连接副词,引导状语从句,意思是at or to any place(无论在哪里或无论到哪里)。又如:Wherever you go, I go too.无论你到哪里,我也到哪里。
We will go wherever the Party directs us.
 党叫我们到哪里,我们就到哪里。

15.   He was not prepared to accept the usual teachings about how things developed.他不愿意接受(或:不同意)关于事物如何发展的一般说法。
be prepared to
在这里的意思是be willing to。又如:
I am not prepared to accept such weak arguments.
我不愿意接受这种没有说服力的论点。

16.   In true scientific manner, he liked to put ideas to the test.本着真正的科学的态度,他喜欢对一些想法加以检验。
put something to the test
使受试验(检验或考验)。

17.   Wallace and Darwin agreed on the way in which different forms of life had begun. 华莱士和达尔文对不同类型的生物是如何起源的持相同的观点。
agree on (about)
意思是have the same opinion about something(对……意见一致)。又如:
Musicians rarely agree on the way a piece of music should be played.
 对于一首乐曲该如何演奏,音乐家们难得意见一致。
修饰way的定语从句中,可用in which, 也可用that代替in which, 也可省略。如:
The way (in which, that) these comrades look at problems is wrong.
 这些同志看问题的方法不对。

18.   Some of their work was published in 1858. 他们的部分研究成果在1858年发表了。
publish
在这里的意思是“公开发表”,常指在报刊或书中发表。

19.   The man was something of a genius.这个人算是个天才。(或:这个人是个有相当天赋的人。)
the man
Charles Darwin
Something of
的意思是in some sense or degree(在某种意义或程度上)。又如:
She is something of a singer.
 她是个相当不错的歌唱家。

20.   Whether or not they agreed with Darwin’s views, many of them thought deeply. 不管他们是否同意达尔文的观点,他们中间的许多人都在常常地思考着。
whether … or …
 不管……还是……又如:
Whether you go or not, I will.
 不管你去不去,我是要去的。

EXERCISES

. Answer the following questions:

1.       Say something about the two men who were deep in argument in the library of a country house.
1) What kind of men were they?
2) What were they arguing about?
3) What view did each man hold?

2.       Say something about the book that had shocked many learned people in Britain.
1) What was the title of the book?
2) In which year was the book published?
3) Who wrote it?
4) What did Darwin set out to question in the book?
5) What was the result?
6) What were Darwin’s views?
7) Can you give an example to show the different views in the Bible and in Darwin’s book?

3.       Say something about Darwin’s life and work.
1) When and where was he born?
2) Where did he go to school?
3) What did he study at Cambridge?
4) What was he really interested in?
5) What opportunity did he take?
6) How long did the journey last?
7) What did he do during his journey?
8) How did he do his research work there?
9) Where did he live and work after he returned to Britain from the voyage?
10) Did he go on with his research work in spite of his bad health?
11) How did he do his research work?
12) What was his main work?
13) When did Darwin die?

4.       Say something about the argument over the book, the Origin of Species.
1) What was the attitude
(看法)of most scientists of the time toward the book?
2) What did they say about Darwin and his book?
3) Who took the lead in supporting it?
4) What was the attitude of Church leaders toward the book?
5) What did they do to oppose it?
6) Who took the lead in opposing it?
7) The Bishop said Darwin’s ideas were wrong. Could he offer any proof? What did he do to support his argument.
8) After the argument what effect did Darwin’s views have on people?

. Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct words according to the text:

1.       There were two men deep in argument in the library of a country house. They were      .
1) two scientists
2) two naturalists
3) two men of wealth and good education
4) two bishops

2.       Darwin declared in his book that different types of living creatures       .
1) had been created suddenly
2) had been created slowly
3) had been developing over tens of thousands of years
4) had been developing over thousands of millions of years

3.       Darwin’s views were the result of     .
1) years of experiment in the lab
2) years of careful observation, thought and study
3) five years of study during a voyage for scientific study to many different parts of the world
4) years of study of plants, animals and geology at Cambridge

4.       The book, the Origin of Species, was seen as a book written against religion, because      .
1) it was meant to be an attack on some people’s religious beliefs
2) it was intended to be an attack on Christian belief
3) it attacked the Bishop of Oxford
4) the ideas in it did not agree with what was written in the Bible

. 1. Learn the following:

v.            n

arrive        arrival.

survive       survival

disapprove    disapproval

refuse        refusal

propose      proposal

approve      approval

   2.Add dis-, un-, in- or im- to the following words to form words of opposite meanings:

Agree  complete  healthy  important  able  cover  known  practical  cover  selfish  perfect

Visible  touched  dress  proper  successful  lucky  wrap  approval  interesting  usual  seen

Kind  reasonable  fair  comfort  fit  satisfaction

. Pick out single words from the text which mean the following:

1.       A quarrel or unfriendly discussion (paragraph 1)

2.       Way of looking at something (paragraph 1)

3.       Produce something in printed form in order to make it known to the public (paragraph 2)

4.       Name of a book or an article (paragraph 2)

5.       Act of observing (paragraph 3)

6.       Cause (something new) to exist (paragraph 3)

7.       The conditions in which a person or animal lives (paragraph 3)

8.       Of course (paragraph 4)

9.       For that reason (paragraph 4)

10.   Good chance (paragraph 5)

11.   Agree to (the truth of) (paragraph 6)

12.   Bit by bit (paragraph 7)

13.   Meeting in which people argue for and against some idea (paragraph 8)

. Fill in each blank with a suitable phrase in its proper form from the list below:

Fit in with   die out  set out (to do)  base on  set out  speak out  throw doubt on  agree on

live on  suffer from  settle down  be known as  put to the test

1.       Theories should be      of practice.

2.       He      a bad cough for weeks.

3.       We      the time for the next discussion.

4.       She      to make the dress by herself, but in the end she had to ask for help.

5.       He      his argument      facts, and nothing but facts.

6.       Jane is unhappy at school – she just doesn’t      the life there

7.       She is not afraid to       against wrong ideas.

8.       We must do everything we can to save those rare species of animals which are in danger of      .

9.       He always       his ideas very clearly.

10.   She has made up her mind to go and      in Xinjiang after finishing school.

11.   Liu Hulan is dead, but her memory will      in the hearts of the Chinese people.

. Translate the following into English:

1.       达尔文认为地球上不同种类的生物是经过亿万年进化而成的。(hold the view

2.       达尔文关于进化的观点使人们对某些人的宗教信仰产生了怀疑。(throw doubt on

3.       达尔文并不是存心攻击人们的宗教信仰。他只不过提出了一些他认为是正确的事实。(mean

4.       在生存竞争中,有些物种因为不能适应环境,灭绝了。(fit in with

5.       达尔文在《物种起源》一书中所写的和圣经上所写的不一样。(agree with

6.       大约在四百年以前,意大利科学家伽利略对亚里斯多德的物体落地理论提出了疑问。(set out to question

7.       伽利略的理论是建立在无数次科学实验的基础上的。(base on

. Fill in the following form in English, but give also the Chinese characters for all the names of people. All relatives, including blood, step, half and adoptive, should be listed, regardless of their present location. If no longer alive, give date and place of death.

1.       YOUR NAME       CHINESE CHARACTERS    DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH      
PRESENT ADDRESS                                                             

2.       FATHER: NAME     CHINESE CHARACTERS    DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH     
PRESENT ADDRESS                                                             
MOTHER:NAME    CHINESE CHARACTERS    DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH       
PRESENT ADDRESS                                                              

3.       SISTERS AND/OR BROTHERS:
                       CHINESE      DATE&PLACE    PRESENT
RELATION    NAME   CHARACTERS  OF BIRTH        ADDRESS
        
   A.                                                        
        
   B,                                                        
        
   C.                                                        

4.       GRANDFATHER:NAME      CHINESE CHARACTERS     DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH        
PRESENT ADDRESS                                                               

5.       GRANDMOTHER:NAME      CHINESE CHARACTERS     DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH        
PRESENT ADDRESS                                                                

. Read the following passage, then complete the sentences by choosing the correct words according to the story:

A Fishy Story

Nick was a student who came from, shall we say, Ruritania. He was eighteen years old when he first arrived in England to study in London. Like most students he was not very rich, but he managed to make ends meet. He worked in the evening as a receptionist in a hotel. Everybody liked Nick. He was a pleasant, well-mannered, good-natured, humorous fellow. Moreover, he was intelligent. He worked hard; he studied well. He did exceptionally well in the language laboratory and his teachers were very pleased with his progress. But all of them agreed that although his pronunciation and intonation were good, his spelling was poor. This was mainly because in his own language the words were written the same way as they were pronounced.

Nick took his first examination at the end of the year. In one of the tests he had to write the word ‘fish’. Curiously enough, he had never seen this word written and he began to wonder how he could spell it. “Well,” he said to himself, “[f]; that’s the sound of ‘gh’ in the word ‘cough’. So he wrote ‘gh’. “[i]; well, that’s the sound of ‘o’ in the word ‘women’. So he added ‘o’. “[]; well, that’s easy. That’s the sound of ‘s’ in the word ‘expression’ and ‘t’ in ‘examination’.” So he finally wrote ‘g-h-o-s-t’. But in spite of this curious idea Nick passed his examination.

1.       Like most students Nick was not very rich, but he managed     .
1) to save some money
2) to live in a single room
3) to eat well
4) to live within his income

2.       He worked in the evening as a receptionist in      .
1) a restaurant
2) a hotel
3) a public school
4) a hospital

3.       All of his teachers agreed that although good at     , he was poor at      .
1) spelling … pronunciation
2) writing … spelling
3) pronunciation and intonation … spelling
4) pronunciation … writing

4.       This was mainly because in his own language the words were      the same way as they were      .
1) written … printed
2) read … spelled
3) read … written
4) written … pronounced

5. Nick took his      examination      the year.
1) first … at the beginning of
2) first … in the middle of
3) final … at the end of
4) first … at the end of

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