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2017中考英语考前突破(5)定语从句用法

 郑公书馆298 2016-12-25

2017中考英语考前突破(5)定语从句用法-可打印

前言

申申老师中考英语语法突破系列共8课时更新-都是我平时的授课资料

每个语法讲解都是直接引入考点和相关真题并辅以超详细的讲解。不可错过的学习资料。

希望同学们能好好利用这些学习资料

第五章申申老师中考英语语法考前突破系列定语从句考点

先简单复习下从属连词

从属连词主要用来引导状语从句。常见的状语从属连词有:

(1)引导时间状语从句的after, before, when, while, as, until, till, since, as soon as等。

(2)引导条件状语从句的if, unless等。

(3)引导原因状语从句的because, as, since等。

(4)引导目的状语从句的so that, in order that等。

(5)引导让步状语从句的though, although, even if等。

(6)引导结果状语从句的so that, so…that, such…that等。

(7)引导比较状语从句的than, as…as等。

另外,还有常见的引导名词从句的what,which,who,whom,that, if , whether,when ,where,why ,how等。

好了,上面先复习这么多,那么下面开始进入本次课主题了。

【申申老师定语从句命题趋势与预测】

根据对定语从句部分全国各省市中考试题的分析可知,今后该部分仍将是重点考查点之一。其考查重点为:

1.定语从句的功用和结构

2.关系代词和关系副词的功用

3.各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法

【考点诠释】

一、考查以thatwhich引导的定语从句

1.通常只能用that的情况

1)当先行词是不定代词all,few,little,much,something,anything,nothing,everything等时。

2)先行词被序数词、形容词的最高级以及被all,any,every,each,few,little,no,some,

the only.the very.the last等修饰时。

3)如果先行词既指人又指物,应用关系代词that。

1.Without friendship, one can't be happy although he is rich enough. As for me, I will never forget the days __ I spent with my dearest friend. [哈尔滨市]

A. that B. when C. who

[答案]A。[解析]在定语从句中,引导词who(指人)which(指物)that(指人或物)。由先行词the days作spent的宾语可判定用that引导。

申申老师好题分析只能用that的情况:

2. I can tell you ______ he told me last week.

A. all which B. all what C. that all D. all that

选D,因为先行词是all,只用that.

3. This is the biggest lab ______ we have ever built in our university.

A. which B. what C. that D. where

选C,因为先行词lab被最高级修饰。

4. Is oxygen the only gas ______ helps fire burn?

A. that B. / C. which D. what

选A,因为先行词gas被the only 修饰。

5. It is the third time ______ late this month.

A. that you arrived B. when you arrived C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived

选C,因为先行词time被序数词修饰,同时本题符合固定句型it is +序数词+that从句用现在完成时用法。

6. Matter is anything ______

A. that take up space and have weight B. which take up space and have weight

C. that takes up space and has weight D. those take up space and have weight

选C,本题先行词是anything 只用that,同时考查从句谓语动词由先行词决定这一考点。

申申老师点评,本题有难度,必须掌握。

2.通常只用which的情况

(1)引导非限定性定语从句,用关系代词which指代前面整个句子的内容。

(2)引导非限定性定语从句,而且先行词指物时只能用which,不用that。

(3)如果句中有两个定语从句,如果两个从句都可以用that引导,那么其中一个应改用which引导。

【考例】Many young people love the songs _________have great lyrics. [成都市]

A. who B. those C. which

[答案]C。[解析]考查定语从句。定语从句的引导词有which,who,where,that,故排除B,who指人,又排除了A,先行词是物,故选C。

申申老师提示下面习题对于初中生来讲略难,请注意:

  1. Air, ______ we breathe every day, is around us all the time.

    A. that B. / C. which D. it

    选C,因为是非限制定从,不用that 和it.

2. He has left Beijing, ______ a meeting is to be held.

A. when B. where C. as D. which

选B,因为从句不缺少成分,先行词是地点。

3. He must be from Africa, ______ can be seen from his skin.

A. that B. as C. it D. what

选B,as在非限制定从中翻译成,正如。

4. His father died last year, ______ made it impossible for him to go abroad.

A. when B. which C. as D. that

选B,which代替上文整个句子含义。

二、考查以whowhomwhose引导的定语从句

(1)如果先行词是指人的不定代词anyone,anybody,everyone,everybody,someone,somebody,nobody,one,ones,those,all(指人)等作先行词,作主语用who,作宾语用whom。who而不用which。

(2)在非限制性定语从句中,指人作主语用who,作宾语用whom,who。

(3)在定语从句中,作定语的关系代词只能用whose,它相当于the+名词+of +which/whom;非限制性定语从句中还有 “代词/数词+of +which/whom"结构。

【考例The man _________ gave us a talk on science yesterday is a famous scientist. [广东省]

A. who B. whose C. which D. whom

[答案]A。[解析]本题考查定语从句的关系代词。先行词为the man,指人,排除which;连接代词在从句中作主语,排除 whose和whom。故本题选who。

--Do you know the man __is running along the street?--Yes. He is our English teacher. [长沙市]

A. who B. which C. whom

[答案]A。[解析]考查定语从句。限制性定语从句,如果修饰人,一般用关系who,有时用 that(作主语时用who较多)。

三、考查关系副词wherewhenwhy引导的定语从句

它们相当于“介词+which",其中where=in/at +which;when=at/in/during +which;why=for +which。

(1)关系副词where引导定语从句时,只能在定语从句中作地点状语,其修饰的名词必须是表示地点的名词。

(2)关系副词when引导定语从句时,只能在定语从句中作时间状语,其修饰的名词必须是表示时间的名词。

(3)关系副词why引导定语从句时,只能在定语从句中作原因状语,其修饰的名词必

须是表示原因的名词。

【考例】 (绵阳中考)Disney is an amusement park_____ you can find a11 the normal attractions and Disney movies and characters.

A.which B.where C.that D .when

答案:B点拨:此题考查定语从句。先行词为an amusement park指地点,故关系词用where。

五、对“介词+关系代词”的考查

当关系代词作介词宾语,且该介词不是和从句的谓语动词构成固定短语时,介词可以提前,这样就出现“介词+关系代词”。先行词指物,用“介词+which”,指人则用“介词+whom",且两个关系代词均不能省略。介词的选择要遵循两个原则:根据定语从句中谓语动词与先行词的搭配内容而定;根据先行词的特殊用法而定。

【考例】Do you know the young lady ____your mother is talking? (湖北黄石)

A. who B. whom C. with whom D. which

[答案]:C

[命题立意]:本题考查“介词+关系代词”引导定语从句的用法。

[试题解析]:先行词为the young lady,被关系代词whom代替在从句中作talk with 的宾语,介词with 可以放在关系代词之前,故应选C。

【如果上面讲完了,还是有些困惑,那么下面定语从句语法回顾啦】

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。定语从句所修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句放在先行词的后面。引导定语从句的词叫做关系代词(that, which, who, whom, whose)或关系副词(when, where),关系代词和关系副词放在先行词与定语从句之间,起联系的作用,同时又作定语从句的一个成分。

关系代词、副词作用先行词例句
that, who,whom(只做宾语)主语、宾语、表语Do you know the girl who/that is standing under a tree?你知道站在树下的女孩是谁吗?
that,which主语、宾语、表语物、时间、地点、原因She got a computer which/that her parents bought for her.她有一台她的父母买给她的电脑。
whose定语人物The boy whose father is a doctor studies very hard.他的爸爸是医生的男孩学习非常刻苦。The classroom whose window is open is mine.窗户开着的那个教室是我的教室。
when状语时间I still remember the day when you leave for Beijing.我仍然记得你去北京的那一天。
where状语地点This is the school where my mother works.这就是我妈妈工作的学校。
why状语原因Could you explain the reason why you were late?你能解释一下你迟到的原因吗?

二、关系代词在定语从句中的用法(关系代词作宾语时可省略):

1that指人或物,在定语从句中可作主语或宾语。

This is the pen that you are looking for. 这是你要找的那支钢笔。(宾语)

The girl that has long hair is my sister.留着长发的那个女孩是我妹妹。(主语)

2which指物,在定语从句中可作主语或宾语。

The bike which is made in Tianjin sells well.天津产的自行车销售很好。(主语)

The fish which we bought were not fresh.我们买的鱼不新鲜。(宾语)

3who, whom指人,在定语从句中可作主语或宾语。

The boy who broke the window is called Tom.打碎窗户的男孩叫Tom. (主语)

The person to whom he is talking is my father.正在和他谈话的那个人是我父亲。(宾语)

4whose指人或物,在定语从句中作定语。

The girl whose bag is new is called Ann.新书包的那个女孩叫Ann。(指人)

He lives in a house whose widows open to the south.他住在窗户朝南的那所房子。(指物)

三、只用which不用that的情况:

1.在介词后只用which,不能用that

This is the bank in which the robbery happened.这是那所发生抢劫案的银行。

2.先行词本身是that时,只能用which,不能用that

The clock is that which tells the time.钟表是用来报时的。

四、只用that不用which的情况:

1.先行词被形容词最高级修饰时只能用that

This is the most beautiful mountain that I have seen. 这是我所见过的最美丽的山。

2.先行词被序数词修饰时只能用that

The first English novel that I read was Thirty-nine Steps.我读的第一本英文小说是《39级台阶》。

3.先行词前有all, any, no, little, much, many, the only, the very, the last等修饰词时只能用that

Here are all the books that I have. 这就是我所有的书。

This is the only book that I like.这是我唯一喜欢的一本书。

4.先行词是everything, something, anything, all, none, much, little, many, few等不定代词时,只能用that

Finally, the thief handed in everything that he had stolen.最后小偷交出了他所偷的东西。

5.先行词同时含有“人”和“物”的名词时,只能用that

I can remember the people and some pictures that I saw in the room.我能记得我在房间里看到的人和一些图画。

6.先行词是the one时,只能用that

This is the one that you want. 这就是你想要的。

7.在以who引导的疑问句后,为了避免重复,只能用that

Who is the girl that is standing there? 站在那边的那个女孩是谁?

五、在介词后只能用whom,不能用who。

The girl to whom I talked just now is fromAmerica. 我刚刚与之谈话的那个女孩是来自美国的。

六、定语从句中主谓一致的问题:

当关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句中的谓语动词要与先行词的人称和数保持一致(我们要知道,关系代词所代指的就是先行词,这里有一个等量关系)。

Tom is one of the boys who are from theUSA. Tom是众多来自美国的男孩中的一个。

Tom is the only boy that is from theUSA. Tom是惟一从美国来的男孩。

七、定语从句中的介词与副词的问题:

当关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时,如果定语从句中的谓语动词是不及物动词时,要加介词或副词。(定语从句中的不及物动词加介词或副词构成固定的及物动词短语后,不能把介词或副词提前到关系代词前。)

He is the old man who/whom we looked after last year.他是我们去年照顾的那个老人。

That is the book which I am looking for.那就是我要找的书。

八、关系副词when与where的使用:

1.when指时间:

I will never forget the time when we worked on the farm.我将永远不会忘记我们在农场劳动的那段时光。

2.where指地点(where=in等介词+which):

This is the house where(=in which) he lived last year.这是他去年住的房子。

九、定语从句与作定语的①动词不定式、②介词短语、③现在分词短语、④过去分词短语的转换:

She has much work that she must do.=She has much work to do.她有许多要做的工作。

The man in the car is Mr. Green.=The man who is in the car is Mr. Green.在车上的人是格林先生。

The girl watering flowers there is my sister.=The girl who is watering flowers there is my sister.在浇花的女孩是我妹妹。

The boy saved in the river has come back to life.= The boy who was saved in the river has come back to life.从河里救起的男孩苏醒过来了。

【语法过关】

1. --Do you like the pop singer?--No, I prefer the singer __________can sing folk music.

A. which B. who C. where D. how

2. The man _________is wearing a blue jacket is Jim's uncle.

A. who B. whom C. which D. /

3.Do you know the young lady ____your mother is talking?

A. who B. whom C. with whom D. which

4. ---Does the teacher know everybody _______ planted the trees?---Yes, he does.

A. which B. whose C. where D. who

5.The letter _______ I received from him yesterday is very important.

A. who B. where C. what D. that

6.---Where is the scientist ________ gave us the talk yesterday?---He has gone back to Qinghua University.

A. whom B. who C. whose D. which

7.I hate people _______ talk much but do little.

A. whose B. whom C. which D. who

8.I'm looking at the photograph ___ you sent me with your letter.

A. who B. whom C. which D. it

9.I hate people don’t help others when they are in trouble.

A.who B.which C.they

10. --Barbara, where do you work?--I work for a company _________sells cars.

A. which B. where C. what D. who

11.Do you know the young lady ____your mother is talking?

A. who B. whom C. with whom D. which

12.The letter _______ I received from him yesterday is very important.

A. who B. where C. what D. that

【参考答案】

1.B[解析]考查学生对定语从句中引导词的掌握。定语从句中先行词是人时用who引导。

2.A.[解析]考查学生对定语从句。 先行词是人且引导词在从句中作主语,故用who引导。

3.C.[解析]本题考查“介词+关系代词”引导定语从句的用法。先行词为the young lady,被关系代词whom代替在从句中作talk with 的宾语,介词with 可以放在关系代词之前,故应选C。

4.D.[解析]本题考查引导定语从句的关系代词的选择。 因为先行词是人,而关系代词又在定语从句中作主语,所以只有who合适。

5.D.[解析]本题考查定语从句的关系代词的选择。因为先行词是物,而关系代词在定语从句中作宾语,所以只有that合适。

6. B.[解析]本题考查引导定语从句的关系代词的选择。因为先行词是人,而关系代词又在定语从句中作主语,所以只有who合适。

7.D.[解析]本题考查引导定语从句的关系代词的选择。因为先行词是人,而关系代词又在定语从句中作主语,所以只有who合适。

8. C.[解析]本题考查定语从句的用法。句中的先行词是the photograph,同时在定语从句中作宾语,故关系代词应用which。其答案为:C。

9. A.[解析]本题考查定语从句的用法。句中的先行词是people,同时在定语从句中作主语,故关系代词应用who。其答案为:A。

10.A.[解析]作定语从句的引导词,which可修饰物,who指代人,that指人或物。定语从句修饰company,选用which。

11。答案C 解析:先行词为the young lady,被关系代词whom代替在从句中作talk with 的宾语,介词with 可以放在关系代词之前,故应选C。

12.答案D 解析: 因为先行词是物,而关系代词在定语从句中作宾语,所以只有that合适。

2017中考英语考前突破(5)定语从句用法-可打印

本系列一共8大章节,今天是第五更。

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